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Two national identities had established themselves by the end of the 11th century in, respectively, the north and south of Britain. The larger southern nation made several attempts on the independence of the smaller and more dynastically-troubled northern state but, after the time of Edward I of England, Scotland held its own. Then in 1603, with the accession of James VI of Scotland to the English throne, an incorporating union seemed to be in prospect, but more than a century passed before a lasting parliamentary union was achieved amid a flurry of intrigue, corruption and power-broking.