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A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems

A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems Author Dov M. Gabbay
ISBN-10 9780080460925
Release 2005-05-02
Pages 496
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The present work is a continuation of the authors' acclaimed multi-volume A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems. After having investigated the notion of relevance in their previous volume, Gabbay and Woods now turn to abduction. In this highly original approach, abduction is construed as ignorance-preserving inference, in which conjecture plays a pivotal role. Abduction is a response to a cognitive target that cannot be hit on the basis of what the agent currently knows. The abducer selects a hypothesis which were it true would enable the reasoner to attain his target. He concludes from this fact that the hypothesis may be conjectured. In allowing conjecture to stand in for the knowledge he fails to have, the abducer reveals himself to be a satisficer, since an abductive solution is not a solution from knowledge. Key to the authors' analysis is the requirement that a conjectured proposition is not just what a reasoner might allow himself to assume, but a proposition he must defeasibly release as a premiss for further inferences in the domain of enquiry in which the original abduction problem has arisen. The coverage of the book is extensive, from the philosophy of science to computer science and AI, from diagnostics to the law, from historical explanation to linguistic interpretation. One of the volume's strongest contributions is its exploration of the abductive character of criminal trials, with special attention given to the standard of proof beyond a reasonable doubt. Underlying their analysis of abductive reasoning is the authors' conception of practical agency. In this approach, practical agency is dominantly a matter of the comparative modesty of an agent's cognitive agendas, together with comparatively scant resources available for their advancement. Seen in these ways, abduction has a significantly practical character, precisely because it is a form of inference that satisfices rather than maximizes its response to the agent's cognitive target. The Reach of Abduction will be necessary reading for researchers, graduate students and senior undergraduates in logic, computer science, AI, belief dynamics, argumentation theory, cognitive psychology and neuroscience, linguistics, forensic science, legal reasoning and related areas. Key features: - Reach of Abduction is fully integrated with a background logic of cognitive systems. - The most extensive coverage compared to competitive works. - Demonstrates not only that abduction is a form of ignorance preserving inference but that it is a mode of inference that is wholly rational. - Demonstrates the satisficing rather than maximizing character of abduction. - The development of formal models of abduction is considerably more extensive than one finds in existing literature. It is an especially impressive amalgam of sophisticated conceptual analysis and extensive logical modelling. · Reach of Abduction is fully integrated with a background logic of cognitive systems. · The most extensive coverage compared to competitive works · Demonstrates not only that abduction is a form of ignorance preserving inference but that it is a mode of inference that is wholly rational. · Demonstrates the satisficing rather than maximizing character of abduction. · The development of formal models of abduction is considerably more extensive than one finds in existing literature. It is an especially impressive amalgam of sophisticated conceptual analysis and extensive logical modelling.



Philosophy and Cognitive Science II

Philosophy and Cognitive Science II Author Lorenzo Magnani
ISBN-10 9783319184791
Release 2015-05-27
Pages 221
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The book shows how eastern and western perspectives and conceptions can be used to addresses recent topics laying at the crossroad between philosophy and cognitive science. It reports on new points of view and conceptions discussed during the International Conference on Philosophy and Cognitive Science (PCS2013), held at the Sun Yat-sen University, in Guangzhou, China, and the 2013 Workshop on Abductive Visual Cognition, which took place at KAIST, in Deajeon, South Korea. The book emphasizes an ever-growing cultural exchange between academics and intellectuals coming from different fields. It juxtaposes research works investigating new facets on key issues between philosophy and cognitive science, such as the role of models and causal representations in science; the status of theoretical concepts and quantum principles; abductive cognition, vision, and visualization in science from an eco-cognitive perspective. Further topics are: ignorance immunization in reasoning; moral cognition, violence, and epistemology; and models and biomorphism. The book, which presents a unique and timely account of the current state-of-the art on various aspects in philosophy and cognitive science, is expected to inspire philosophers, cognitive scientists and social scientists, and to generate fruitful exchanges and collaboration among them.



Agenda Relevance A Study in Formal Pragmatics

Agenda Relevance  A Study in Formal Pragmatics Author
ISBN-10 008052687X
Release 2003-05-29
Pages 524
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Agenda Relevance is the first volume in the authors' omnibus investigation of the logic of practical reasoning, under the collective title, A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems. In this highly original approach, practical reasoning is identified as reasoning performed with comparatively few cognitive assets, including resources such as information, time and computational capacity. Unlike what is proposed in optimization models of human cognition, a practical reasoner lacks perfect information, boundless time and unconstrained access to computational complexity. The practical reasoner is therefore obliged to be a cognitive economizer and to achieve his cognitive ends with considerable efficiency. Accordingly, the practical reasoner avails himself of various scarce-resource compensation strategies. He also possesses neurocognitive traits that abet him in his reasoning tasks. Prominent among these is the practical agent's striking (though not perfect) adeptness at evading irrelevant information and staying on task. On the approach taken here, irrelevancies are impediments to the attainment of cognitive ends. Thus, in its most basic sense, relevant information is cognitively helpful information. Information can then be said to be relevant for a practical reasoner to the extent that it advances or closes some cognitive agenda of his. The book explores this idea with a conceptual detail and nuance not seen the standard semantic, probabilistic and pragmatic approaches to relevance; but wherever possible, the authors seek to integrate alternative conceptions rather than reject them outright. A further attraction of the agenda-relevance approach is the extent to which its principal conceptual findings lend themselves to technically sophisticated re-expression in formal models that marshal the resources of time and action logics and label led deductive systems. Agenda Relevance is necessary reading for researchers in logic, belief dynamics, computer science, AI, psychology and neuroscience, linguistics, argumentation theory, and legal reasoning and forensic science, and will repay study by graduate students and senior undergraduates in these same fields. Key features: • relevance • action and agendas • practical reasoning • belief dynamics • non-classical logics • labelled deductive systems



A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems

A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems Author Dov M. Gabbay
ISBN-10 044451385X
Release 2003
Pages 508
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Agenda Relevance is the first volume in the authors' omnibus investigation of the logic of practical reasoning, under the collective title, A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems. In this highly original approach, practical reasoning is identified as reasoning performed with comparatively few cognitive assets, including resources such as information, time and computational capacity. Unlike what is proposed in optimization models of human cognition, a practical reasoner lacks perfect information, boundless time and unconstrained access to computational complexity. The practical reasoner is therefore obliged to be a cognitive economizer and to achieve his cognitive ends with considerable efficiency. Accordingly, the practical reasoner avails himself of various scarce-resource compensation strategies. He also possesses neurocognitive traits that abet him in his reasoning tasks. Prominent among these is the practical agent's striking (though not perfect) adeptness at evading irrelevant information and staying on task. On the approach taken here, irrelevancies are impediments to the attainment of cognitive ends. Thus, in its most basic sense, relevant information is cognitively helpful information. Information can then be said to be relevant for a practical reasoner to the extent that it advances or closes some cognitive agenda of his. The book explores this idea with a conceptual detail and nuance not seen the standard semantic, probabilistic and pragmatic approaches to relevance; but wherever possible, the authors seek to integrate alternative conceptions rather than reject them outright. A further attraction of the agenda-relevance approach is the extent to which its principal conceptual findings lend themselves to technically sophisticated re-expression in formal models that marshal the resources of time and action logics and label led deductive systems. Agenda Relevance is necessary reading for researchers in logic, belief dynamics, computer science, AI, psychology and neuroscience, linguistics, argumentation theory, and legal reasoning and forensic science, and will repay study by graduate students and senior undergraduates in these same fields. Key features: . relevance . action and agendas . practical reasoning . belief dynamics . non-classical logics . labelled deductive systems



The Reach of Abduction

The Reach of Abduction Author Dov M. Gabbay
ISBN-10 044451791X
Release 2005
Pages 476
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Explores the abductive character of criminal trials, with attention given to the standard of proof beyond a reasonable doubt. Underlying their analysis of abductive reasoning is the authors' conception of practical agency.



Complex Sports Biodynamics

Complex Sports Biodynamics Author Tijana T. Ivancevic
ISBN-10 9783540899716
Release 2008-12-28
Pages 328
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What are motor abilities of Olympic champions? What are essential psyc- logical characteristics of Mark Spitz, Carl Lewis and Roger Federer? How to discover and maximally develop motor intelligence? How to develop - domitable will power of Olympic champions? What are the secrets of sel- tion for the future Olympic champions? Does for every sport exist a unique model of an Olympic champion? This book gives a modern scienti?c answers to the above questions. Its purpose is to give you the answer to everything you ever wanted to ask about sport champions, but didn’t know who or how to ask. In particular, the purpose of this book is to give you the answer to eve- thing you ever wanted to ask about advanced tennis, but didn’t know who or how to ask. Its aim is to dispel classical myths of a “biomechanically sound” serve, forehand, and backhand, as well as provide methods for developing superior tennis weapons,a lightning–fast game,and unrivaled mental speed and strength – essential qualities of a future tennis champion.



Handbook of Philosophical Logic

Handbook of Philosophical Logic Author D.M. Gabbay
ISBN-10 9781402035210
Release 2006-01-17
Pages 370
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Handbook of Philosophical Logic has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Handbook of Philosophical Logic also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Handbook of Philosophical Logic book for free.



Cognitive Science

Cognitive Science Author Jay Friedenberg
ISBN-10 1412925681
Release 2006
Pages 531
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Throughout history, different fields of inquiry have attempted to understand the great mystery of mind and answer questions like: What is mind? How does it operate? What is consciousness? Only recently have these efforts in traditional and cutting edge disciplines become more united in their focus. Cognitive Science is the comprehensive result of the authors' drawing together of this work. Key features: -Includes numerous ancillaries to promote the book's effective use, a companion student website at www.sagepub.com/CSstudy featuring online student-friendly exercises, E-flash cards, and interactive quizzes; and an Instructors CD-ROM with a test bank, chapter outlines, PowerPoint slides, a sample syllabus, and ideas for student projects - After introducing a major perspective, an `Evaluating' section discusses the strengths and weaknesses of that perspective `Thought Balloons' in margins further encourage students to think critically about key concepts; - `In-Depth' boxes elaborate on specific models, illustrating them in concrete terms, and `Minds On' exercises help students to familiarize themselves with key concepts in a hands-on fashion; - Student study is assisted via key terms (which are boldfaced and defined in context when first introduced), suggestions for further reading, and end-of-chapter `Food for Thought' discussion questions; - Covers all the traditional concerns of cognitive science together with analysis of newer areas such as robotics and the evolutionary approach. Cognitive Science is the perfect introductory textbook for cross-disciplinary courses on the mind in psychology, linguistics, philosophy, and computer science.



Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science

Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science Author Henri Cohen
ISBN-10 9780128097663
Release 2017-06-03
Pages 1276
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Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science, Second Edition presents the study of categories and the process of categorization as viewed through the lens of the founding disciplines of the cognitive sciences, and how the study of categorization has long been at the core of each of these disciplines. The literature on categorization reveals there is a plethora of definitions, theories, models and methods to apprehend this central object of study. The contributions in this handbook reflect this diversity. For example, the notion of category is not uniform across these contributions, and there are multiple definitions of the notion of concept. Furthermore, the study of category and categorization is approached differently within each discipline. For some authors, the categories themselves constitute the object of study, whereas for others, it is the process of categorization, and for others still, it is the technical manipulation of large chunks of information. Finally, yet another contrast has to do with the biological versus artificial nature of agents or categorizers. Defines notions of category and categorization Discusses the nature of categories: discrete, vague, or other Explores the modality effects on categories Bridges the category divide - calling attention to the bridges that have already been built, and avenues for further cross-fertilization between disciplines



Cognitive Science

Cognitive Science Author George F. Luger
ISBN-10 UOM:39015032714555
Release 1994-01-01
Pages 666
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The interdisciplinary field of cognitive science brings together elements of cognitive psychology, mathematics, perception, linguistics, and artificial intelligence. Given this breadth, textbooks have had difficulty providing balanced coverage-most resort to disjointed edited treatises that prove difficult to use. Cognitive Science provides a unified and comprehensive look at the field, from foundations to applications. Luger explores the logical and philosophical bases of cognitive science with multiple models of intelligence, including neural networks and connectionism. Practical programming examples are included along with an introduction to PROLOG.



Bayesian Rationality

Bayesian Rationality Author Mike Oaksford
ISBN-10 0198524498
Release 2007-02-22
Pages 330
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For almost 2,500 years, the Western concept of what is to be human has been dominated by the idea that the mind is the seat of reason - humans are, almost by definition, the rational animal. In this text a more radical suggestion for explaining these puzzling aspects of human reasoning is put forward.



Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science

Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science Author Keith Stenning
ISBN-10 9780262293532
Release 2012-01-13
Pages 422
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In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen--a cognitive scientist and a logician--argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the past century; the psychology of deduction went from being central to the cognitive revolution to being the subject of widespread skepticism about whether human reasoning really happens outside the academy. Stenning and van Lambalgen argue that logic and reasoning have been separated because of a series of unwarranted assumptions about logic. Stenning and van Lambalgen contend that psychology cannot ignore processes of interpretation in which people, wittingly or unwittingly, frame problems for subsequent reasoning. The authors employ a neurally implementable defeasible logic for modeling part of this framing process, and show how it can be used to guide the design of experiments and interpret results.



Agenda Relevance

Agenda Relevance Author Dov M. Gabbay
ISBN-10 044451385X
Release 2003
Pages 508
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Agenda Relevance is the first volume in the authors' omnibus investigation of the logic of practical reasoning, under the collective title, A Practical Logic of Cognitive Systems. In this highly original approach, practical reasoning is identified as reasoning performed with comparatively few cognitive assets, including resources such as information, time and computational capacity. Unlike what is proposed in optimization models of human cognition, a practical reasoner lacks perfect information, boundless time and unconstrained access to computational complexity. The practical reasoner is therefore obliged to be a cognitive economizer and to achieve his cognitive ends with considerable efficiency. Accordingly, the practical reasoner avails himself of various scarce-resource compensation strategies. He also possesses neurocognitive traits that abet him in his reasoning tasks. Prominent among these is the practical agent's striking (though not perfect) adeptness at evading irrelevant information and staying on task. On the approach taken here, irrelevancies are impediments to the attainment of cognitive ends. Thus, in its most basic sense, relevant information is cognitively helpful information. Information can then be said to be relevant for a practical reasoner to the extent that it advances or closes some cognitive agenda of his. The book explores this idea with a conceptual detail and nuance not seen the standard semantic, probabilistic and pragmatic approaches to relevance; but wherever possible, the authors seek to integrate alternative conceptions rather than reject them outright. A further attraction of the agenda-relevance approach is the extent to which its principal conceptual findings lend themselves to technically sophisticated re-expression in formal models that marshal the resources of time and action logics and label led deductive systems. Agenda Relevance is necessary reading for researchers in logic, belief dynamics, computer science, AI, psychology and neuroscience, linguistics, argumentation theory, and legal reasoning and forensic science, and will repay study by graduate students and senior undergraduates in these same fields. Key features: • relevance • action and agendas • practical reasoning • belief dynamics • non-classical logics • labelled deductive systems



Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology

Model Based Reasoning in Science and Technology Author Lorenzo Magnani
ISBN-10 9783319389837
Release 2016-07-01
Pages 678
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This book discusses how scientific and other types of cognition make use of models, abduction, and explanatory reasoning in order to produce important or creative changes in theories and concepts. It includes revised contributions presented during the international conference on Model-Based Reasoning (MBR’015), held on June 25-27 in Sestri Levante, Italy. The book is divided into three main parts, the first of which focuses on models, reasoning and representation. It highlights key theoretical concepts from an applied perspective, addressing issues concerning information visualization, experimental methods and design. The second part goes a step further, examining abduction, problem solving and reasoning. The respective contributions analyze different types of reasoning, discussing various concepts of inference and creativity and their relationship with experimental data. In turn, the third part reports on a number of historical, epistemological and technological issues. By analyzing possible contradictions in modern research and describing representative case studies in experimental research, this part aims at fostering new discussions and stimulating new ideas. All in all, the book provides researchers and graduate students in the field of applied philosophy, epistemology, cognitive science and artificial intelligence alike with an authoritative snapshot of current theories and applications of model-based reasoning.



Superminds

Superminds Author Selmer Bringsjord
ISBN-10 1402010958
Release 2003-03-31
Pages 339
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This is the first book-length presentation and defense of a new theory of human and machine cognition, according to which human persons are superminds. Superminds are capable of processing information not only at and below the level of Turing machines (standard computers), but above that level (the "Turing Limit"), as information processing devices that have not yet been (and perhaps can never be) built, but have been mathematically specified; these devices are known as super-Turing machines or hypercomputers. Superminds, as explained herein, also have properties no machine, whether above or below the Turing Limit, can have. The present book is the third and pivotal volume in Bringsjord's supermind quartet; the first two books were What Robots Can and Can't Be (Kluwer) and AI and Literary Creativity (Lawrence Erlbaum). The final chapter of this book offers eight prescriptions for the concrete practice of AI and cognitive science in light of the fact that we are superminds.



Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence

Cognitive Science and Artificial Intelligence Author Sasikumar Gurumoorthy
ISBN-10 9789811066986
Release 2017-12-22
Pages 112
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This book presents interdisciplinary research on cognition, mind and behavior from an information processing perspective. It includes chapters on Artificial Intelligence, Decision Support Systems, Machine Learning, Data Mining and Support Vector Machines, chiefly with regard to the data obtained and analyzed in Medical Informatics, Bioinformatics and related disciplines. The book reflects the state-of-the-art in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science, and covers theory, algorithms, numerical simulation, error and uncertainty analysis, as well novel applications of new processing techniques in Biomedical Informatics, Computer Science and its applied areas. As such, it offers a valuable resource for students and researchers from the fields of Computer Science and Engineering in Medicine and Biology.



Computationalism

Computationalism Author Matthias Scheutz
ISBN-10 0262194783
Release 2002
Pages 209
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A new computationalist view of the mind that takes into account real-world issues of embodiment, interaction, physical implementation, and semantics.