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Access to Justice for the Urban Poor

Access to Justice for the Urban Poor Author Asian Development Bank
ISBN-10 9789290920441
Release 2010-11-01
Pages 86
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This publication suggests solutions that can be built into the design of urban development projects undertaken by the Asian Development Bank (ADB) to address the common problems and grievances of the urban poor, and to improve urban governance overall. It also identifies successful or promising community-based approaches to dispute resolution that can be useful in urban project design. It uses ADB's Governance policy as a framework for analyzing key findings of Access to Justice for the Urban Poor, a regional technical assistance grant to four developing member countries in Asia and the Pacific---Bangladesh, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. The findings consist of case studies illustrating typical problems encountered by the poor in connection with access to urban assets and services, and identifies the types of grievances or disputes that may arise because of these issues. The publication reproduces key case studies to illustrate significant concepts.

Asian Cities in an Era of Decentralisation

Asian Cities in an Era of Decentralisation Author Michelle Ann Miller
ISBN-10 9781134908691
Release 2016-03-16
Pages 168
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This book critically engages with the idea of decentralization as empowering cities and their residents to act innovatively and creatively. The contributions thus highlight how the term ‘empowerment’ in the context of decentralization regimes masks a competing array of intentions and agendas. Who and what are ‘empowered’, given a ‘voice’ and allowed to ‘participate’ via the processes and structures of decentralization (and to what ends) are too frequently assumed in normative conversations about ‘bringing government closer to the people’ and ‘community driven development’. Creating an illusion of a shared language and common set of priorities therefore obscures more complex realities, particularly when there is a disconnect between the official goals of decentralization and civil society aspirations that reinforces politics of exclusion at the grassroots. Equally, official processes of decentralization can, and often are, accompanied by less visible processes of ‘recentralization’ through the reassertion of central state control over putatively autonomous jurisdictions. Through studies in six Asian countries (India, the Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Thailand and Japan) the essays in this book examine cases whereby a range of urban actors and institutions have been ‘empowered’ via decentralization, and how this realignment of local power relations impacts upon the dynamics of urban governance, albeit not always in socially progressive ways. This book was published as a special issue of Space and Polity.

Urban Poverty in Asia

Urban Poverty in Asia Author Asian Development Bank
ISBN-10 9789292546649
Release 2014-09-01
Pages 98
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This report provides an overview of important urban poverty questions. What defines urban poverty and how is urban poverty being measured? What other factors beyond consumption poverty need to be tackled? Who are the urban poor? What relations exist between urban poverty and city size? What linkages exist between urbanization, income, and urban poverty? What policy responses to urban poverty are implemented in selected Asian countries? The report served as a background study for the International Policy Workshop on Urban Poverty and Inclusive Cities in Asia, organized by the Asian Development Bank and the International Poverty Reduction Center held from 24-25 June 2013 in Suqian, Jiangsu Province, the People's Republic of China.

Asian Development Review

Asian Development Review Author Sir James Mirrlees
ISBN-10 9789290925149
Release 2011-12-01
Pages 188
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The Asian Development Review is a professional journal for disseminating the results of economic and development research carried out by staff and resource persons of the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The Review seeks high-quality papers with relevance to policy issues and operational matters done in an empirically-rigorous way. Articles are intended for readership among economists and social scientists in government, private sector, academia, and international organizations. In this issue---ADB Distinguished Speakers Program: Poverty and Redistribution in Emerging Economies; South-South FDI and Development in East Asia; Forecasting Volatility in Asian Stock Markets: Contributions of Local, Regional, and Global Factors; Remittances and Household Expenditure Patterns in Tajikistan: A Propensity Score Matching Analysis; Industrial Deepening in Malaysia: Policy Lessons for Developing Countries; The Global Financial Crisis and Resilience of the Thai Banking Sector; Does East Asian Integration Keep Up with the European Pattern? Empirical Evidence from Intra-Industry Trade in Europe and East Asia.

Resilience Environmental Justice and the City

Resilience  Environmental Justice and the City Author Beth Schaefer Caniglia
ISBN-10 9781317311881
Release 2016-12-08
Pages 262
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Urban centres are bastions of inequalities, where poverty, marginalization, segregation and health insecurity are magnified. Minorities and the poor – often residing in neighbourhoods characterized by degraded infrastructures, food and job insecurity, limited access to transport and health care, and other inadequate public services – are inherently vulnerable, especially at risk in times of shock or change as they lack the option to avoid, mitigate and adapt to threats. Offering both theoretical and practical approaches, this book proposes critical perspectives and an interdisciplinary lens on urban inequalities in light of individual, group, community and system vulnerabilities and resilience. Touching upon current research trends in food justice, environmental injustice through socio-spatial tactics and solution-based approaches towards urban community resilience, Resilience, Environmental Justice and the City promotes perspectives which transition away from the traditional discussions surrounding environmental justice and pinpoints the need to address urban social inequalities beyond the build environment, championing approaches that help embed social vulnerabilities and resilience in urban planning. With its methodological and dynamic approach to the intertwined nature of resilience and environmental justice in urban cities, this book will be of great interest to students, scholars and practitioners within urban studies, environmental management, environmental sociology and public administration.

Building Inclusive Cities

Building Inclusive Cities Author Carolyn Whitzman
ISBN-10 9780415628150
Release 2013
Pages 216
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Building on a growing movement within developing countries in Latin America, Africa, and Asia-Pacific, as well as Europe and North America, this book documents cutting edge practice and builds theory around a rights based approach to women's safety in the context of poverty reduction and social inclusion. Drawing upon two decades of research and grassroots action on safer cities for women and everyone, this book is about the right to an inclusive city. The first part of the book describes the challenges that women face regarding access to essential services, housing security, liveability and mobility. The second part of the book critically examines programs, projects and ideas that are working to make cities safer. Building Inclusive Cities takes a cross-cultural learning perspective from action research occurring throughout the world and translates this research into theoretical conceptualizations to inform the literature on planning and urban management in both developing and developed countries. This book is intended to inspire both thought and action.

The World Bank Legal Review Volume 5

The World Bank Legal Review  Volume 5 Author Hassane Cisse
ISBN-10 9781464800382
Release 2013-11-26
Pages 688
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This volume explores the potentially transformative role of effective laws and legal institutions in providing people with more opportunity that is both inclusive and equitable.

Social Theories of Urban Violence in the Global South

Social Theories of Urban Violence in the Global South Author Jennifer Erin Salahub
ISBN-10 9781351254700
Release 2018-04-19
Pages 220
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While cities often act as the engines of economic growth for developing countries, they are also frequently the site of growing violence, poverty, and inequality. Yet, social theory, largely developed and tested in the Global North, is often inadequate in tackling the realities of life in the dangerous parts of cities in the Global South. Drawing on the findings of an ambitious five-year, 15-project research programme, Social Theories of Urban Violence in the Global South offers a uniquely Southern perspective on the violence–poverty–inequalities dynamics in cities of the Global South. Through their research, urban violence experts based in low- and middle-income countries demonstrate how "urban violence" means different things to different people in different places. While some researchers adopt or adapt existing theoretical and conceptual frameworks, others develop and test new theories, each interpreting and operationalizing the concept of urban violence in the particular context in which they work. In particular, the book highlights the links between urban violence, poverty, and inequalities based on income, class, gender, and other social cleavages. Providing important new perspectives from the Global South, this book will be of interest to policymakers, academics, and students with an interest in violence and exclusion in the cities of developing countries.

Toward Equity and Inclusion in Canadian Cities

Toward Equity and Inclusion in Canadian Cities Author Fran Klodawsky
ISBN-10 9780773552616
Release 2018-03-15
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Housing insecurity, intensified employment anxiety, access to adequate services, and fear of personal and structural violence are some of the issues troubling today’s cities and municipalities. Often, these conditions most affect residents whose place in the social hierarchy makes them particularly susceptible to exclusion. Seeking to redress these trends and guide research to facilitate meaningful local action, Toward Equity and Inclusion in Canadian Cities promotes more inclusive urban environments by highlighting and comparing theoretical and practice-based insights. Building on feminist, anti-racist, and anti-colonialist arguments to offer action-oriented solutions to inequalities and exclusions, the contributors to this volume tackle themes such as LGBTQ inclusion, health disparities, diversity initiatives, and urban planning dilemmas. Through a lens of critical praxis the book explores the challenges of collaborations, the negotiations required to reconceptualize research relations, and the ways in which values and practices inform one another. In light of the growing complexity, interrelations, and interactions of our world, Toward Equity and Inclusion in Canadian Cities is a timely work that speaks to a diverse audience of activists, policy makers, community organizations, and researchers of various disciplines.

Climate Change and Cities

Climate Change and Cities Author Cynthia Rosenzweig
ISBN-10 9781139497404
Release 2011-04-28
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Urban areas are home to over half the world's people and are at the forefront of the climate change issue. The need for a global research effort to establish the current understanding of climate change adaptation and mitigation at the city level is urgent. To meet this goal a coalition of international researchers - the Urban Climate Change Research Network (UCCRN) - was formed at the time of the C40 Large Cities Climate Summit in New York in 2007. This book is the First UCCRN Assessment Report on Climate Change and Cities. The authors are all international experts from a diverse range of cities with varying socio-economic conditions, from both the developing and developed world. It is invaluable for mayors, city officials and policymakers; urban sustainability officers and urban planners; and researchers, professors and advanced students.

Planning Sustainable Cities and Regions

Planning Sustainable Cities and Regions Author Karen Chapple
ISBN-10 9781317655084
Release 2014-09-15
Pages 308
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As global warming advances, regions around the world are engaging in revolutionary sustainability planning - but with social equity as an afterthought. California is at the cutting edge of this movement, not only because its regulations actively reduce greenhouse gas emissions, but also because its pioneering environmental regulation, market innovation, and Left Coast politics show how to blend the "three Es" of sustainability--environment, economy, and equity. Planning Sustainable Cities and Regions is the first book to explain what this grand experiment tells us about the most just path moving forward for cities and regions across the globe. The book offers chapters about neighbourhoods, the economy, and poverty, using stories from practice to help solve puzzles posed by academic research. Based on the most recent demographic and economic trends, it overturns conventional ideas about how to build more livable places and vibrant economies that offer opportunity to all. This thought-provoking book provides a framework to deal with the new inequities created by the movement for more livable - and expensive - cities, so that our best plans for sustainability are promoting more equitable development as well. This book will appeal to students of urban studies, urban planning and sustainability as well as policymakers, planning practitioners, and sustainability advocates around the world.

Access to Justice and Human Security

Access to Justice and Human Security Author Sindiso Mnisi Weeks
ISBN-10 9781351669566
Release 2017-11-22
Pages 274
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For most people in rural South Africa, traditional justice mechanisms provide the only feasible means of accessing any form of justice. These mechanisms are popularly associated with restorative justice, reconciliation and harmony in rural communities. Yet, this ethnographic study grounded in the political economy of rural South Africa reveals how historical conditions and contemporary pressures have strained these mechanisms’ ability to deliver the high normative ideals with which they are notionally linked. In places such as Msinga access to justice is made especially precarious by the reality that human insecurity – a composite of physical, social and material insecurity – is high for both ordinary people and the authorities who staff local justice forums; cooperation is low between traditional justice mechanisms and the criminal and social justice mechanisms the state is meant to provide; and competition from purportedly more effective ‘twilight institutions’, like vigilante associations, is rife. Further contradictions are presented by profoundly gendered social relations premised on delicate social trust that is closely monitored by one’s community and enforced through self-help measures like witchcraft accusations in a context in which violence is, culturally and practically, a highly plausible strategy for dispute management.? These contextual considerations compel us to ask what justice we can reasonably speak of access to in such an insecure context and what solutions are viable under such volatile human conditions? The book concludes with a vision for access to justice in rural South Africa that takes seriously ordinary people’s circumstances and traditional authorities’ lived experiences as documented in this detailed study. The author proposes a cooperative governance model that would maximise the resources and capacity of both traditional and state justice apparatus for delivering the legal and social justice – namely, peace and protection from violence as well as mitigation of poverty and destitution – that rural people genuinely need.

Leading the inclusive city

Leading the inclusive city Author Robin Hambleton
ISBN-10 9781447311850
Release 2014-11-24
Pages 416
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Cities are often seen as helpless victims in a global flow of events and many view growing inequality in cities as inevitable. This engaging book rejects this gloomy prognosis and argues that imaginative place-based leadership can enable citizens to shape the urban future in accordance with progressive values – advancing social justice, promoting care for the environment and bolstering community empowerment. This international and comparative book, written by an experienced author, shows how inspirational civic leaders are making a major difference in cities across the world. The analysis provides practical lessons for local leaders and a significant contribution to thinking on public service innovation for anyone who wants to change urban society for the better.

The Urban Struggle for Economic Environmental and Social Justice

The Urban Struggle for Economic  Environmental and Social Justice Author Malo André Hutson
ISBN-10 9781317595564
Release 2015-11-19
Pages 178
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This book discusses the current demographic shifts of blacks, Latinos, and other people of colour out of certain strong-market cities and the growing fear of displacement among low-income urban residents. It documents these populations’ efforts to remain in their communities and highlights how this leads to community organizing around economic, environmental, and social justice. The book shows how residents of once-neglected urban communities are standing up to city economic development agencies, influential real estate developers, universities, and others to remain in their neighbourhoods, protect their interests, and transform their communities into sustainable, healthy communities. These communities are deploying new strategies that build off of past struggles over urban renewal. Based on seven years of research, this book draws on a wealth of material to conduct a case study analysis of eight low-income/mixed-income communities in Boston, New York, San Francisco, and Washington, DC. This timely book is aimed at researchers and postgraduate students interested in urban policy and politics, community development, urban studies, environmental justice, urban public health, sociology, community-based research methods, and urban planning theory and practice. It will also be of interest to policy makers, community activists, and the private sector.

Enabling Inclusive Cities

Enabling Inclusive Cities Author Asian Development Bank
ISBN-10 9789292577209
Release 2017-03-01
Pages 118
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This tool kit presents an integrated approach to inclusive urban development and was prepared for ADB staff and their partners to engage in inclusive urban development programming and implementation as an integral component of ADB’s lending programs. It presents methods to gather required information on a particular context and location for inclusive urban development; to decide priorities; and to plan, design, and implement inclusive urban projects. The operational focus is provided by practical guidelines and criteria for inclusive urban development projects and is designed to stimulate innovation in the solution and approaches that define inclusive urban development projects.

Researching the contemporary city

Researching the contemporary city Author Peter Kellett
ISBN-10 9789587167580
Release 2013-11-12
Pages 256
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The city is perhaps the most complex of all human constructs. In the 21st century when cities are bigger than ever, and the majority of the world’s population now live in urban areas, the need for research into this complexity to address the large scale challenges of urban life has never been greater. This collection of research studies from different parts of the world, brings together case studies, underpinned by theory, to contribute to the urgent search to make our cities more just, more livable, more accessible, more participatory and more democratic: in short, more humane places to live and work. These crosscutting themes of social inclusion, spatial integration and poverty alleviation are the ever present motifs and motivations throughout this volume. The eleven chapters are grouped into four interrelated sections: the creation and representation of the urban; the production and transformation of the informal; the construction and appropriation of public spaces; and finally, the transformation, use and meaning of home. Collectively the essays engage with the city at a range of scales, but underpinning all of them is a concern for the everyday realities of ordinary people’s lives. These detailed and finegrain analyses of complex processes are a modest contribution towards the creation of cities which are not simply more economically viable and environmentally sustainable, but also embody the ideals of social justice.

Financial Inclusion for Poverty Alleviation

Financial Inclusion for Poverty Alleviation Author Essam Yassin Mohammed
ISBN-10 9781351595117
Release 2017-12-12
Pages 260
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More than one billion people still live below the poverty line – most of them in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Financial inclusion is a major issue, as more than three-quarters of the numbers of poor and disadvantaged women and men do not have access to financial products and services, such as bank accounts, affordable and suitable loans, and insurance. The key objective of this book is to provide practical case studies of financial inclusion, rather than focus on academic debates such as the ideological basis of promoting microfinance. Using the recently adopted Sustainable Development Goals as an overall framing of the issues, it shows how poor and disadvantaged women and men can be bankable if the right facilitation for maximizing opportunities and addressing constraints are in place. Case studies confirm that achieving inclusive and sustainable access to financial products and services goes beyond simply enabling poor and disadvantaged women and men to have access to credit, or the ability to open a bank account. Examples from Africa, Asia and Latin America demonstrate encouraging progress in making microcredit accessible to millions of poor people. The foremost challenge, however, has been to ensure that they have access to, and usage intensity of, suitable and affordable financial products and services that meet the needs of their livelihoods as well as risks and mitigation strategies. This requires understanding that poor and disadvantaged women and men do not exist in isolation from complex and interdependent functions in the financial system, which includes a number of actors, diversified services, constraints (not just symptoms) and capacities and incentives. Overall, the book provides a rich source of examples of how building inclusive financial systems can empower the world's poor – by increasing income and employment opportunities, securing livelihoods and reducing poverty.