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Aerosols

Aerosols Author George Hidy
ISBN-10 9780323142519
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 794
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Aerosols: An Industrial and Environmental Science is a comprehensive account of the science and technology of aerosols as well as their aerodynamic and physico-chemical properties. Measurement techniques and results are presented in terms of a framework of classical mechanics and macroscopic chemistry. This book is comprised of 10 chapters and begins with a discussion on the foundations of modern aerosol science and technology, followed by a review of the dynamic theory of aerosols as rigid spheres. The production of particle suspensions, the methods of particle sampling and measurement, and physical or chemical characterization are then considered, along with particle diffusion by Brownian motion, particle formation and growth, and coagulation processes. The formation of particle clouds is described by means of molecular agglomeration (condensation) processes, breakup and disintegration, and chemical reactions. The remaining chapters focus on several major applications of aerosol science in areas such as combustion, agriculture, and medicine. This monograph is intended to serve scientists and engineers who are concerned with the underlying principles of aerodynamic and physical chemical behavior of aerosols, and could also be used as a text for graduate students in specialized courses on aerosol or colloid chemistry, atmospheric processes, and chemical, mechanical, or environmental engineering.



Aerosol Science for Industrial Hygienists

Aerosol Science for Industrial Hygienists Author J.H. Vincent
ISBN-10 9780080526850
Release 1995-10-10
Pages 411
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Aerosols in workplace atmospheres have been - and continue to be - a major focus of industrial hygiene. Although there are many existing texts on aerosol science and on occupational health respectively, this new book sets out to be complementary to these and to provide a link between the two fields. In particular, the central concept of worker exposure leads to a structured approach which draws together wide-ranging aspects of aerosol science within the occupational health framework. Introductory chapters are concerned with the nature and properties of aerosols, and how they are generated in the occupational environment. The book then goes on to provide a description of the fundamental mechanical properties of aerosols, in particular those mechanical properties associated with the motion of airborne particles (which govern particle transport, inhalation, deposition, sampling and control). There follows a description of the optical properties of workplace aerosols since these are important in the visual appearance of aerosols and in many aspects of measurement. The central core of the book deals with the processes which govern the nature of exposure to and the subsequent fate and effects of airborne particles, leading to a rational framework for standards, measurement and control. Finally, a chapter is added which relates what has been said about aerosols to gaseous and vapour contaminants. The book is aimed at graduate students and practitioners in industrial hygiene and other occupational (and environmental) health disciplines.



Atmospheric Aerosol Properties

Atmospheric Aerosol Properties Author Kirill Ya. Kondratyev
ISBN-10 9783540376989
Release 2006-08-29
Pages 572
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This book provides the first comprehensive analysis of how aerosols form in the atmosphere through in situ processes as well as via transport from the surface (dust storms, seas spray, biogenic emissions, forest fires etc.). Such an analysis has been followed by the consideration of both observation data (various field observational experiments) and numerical modeling results to assess climate impacts of aerosols bearing in mind that these impacts are the most significant uncertainty in studying natural and anthropogenic causes of climate change.



Atmospheric aerosols

Atmospheric aerosols Author Kalliat T. Valsaraj
ISBN-10 0841269734
Release 2009
Pages 199
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Atmospheric aerosols play a large role in air pollution in urban areas and in regulating climate. They also play a role in the ongoing debate on global warming potentials of various species. To understand the proper roles of aerosols in the atmosphere, we need data on their physical characterization, their chemistry and appropriate models to project into the future. Apart from general discussions in textbooks, there are not very many monographs devoted to the aspects outlined above. This symposium series book will describe the characteristics of atmospheric aerosols, the chemistry of aerosols, and finally the interplay between aerosol modeling and global climate changes using specific case studies. The book is organized into three sections: Characterization, Chemistry and Modeling of Atmospheric Aerosols. The characterization section of the book includes three chapters. The chapters include: The role of morphology on aerosol particle reactivity; The chemistry portion of the book covers several interesting topics including secondary aerosols and the chapters include: Surface activity of perfluorinated compounds at the air-water interface; Atmospheric chemistry of urban surface films; Photochemistry of secondary organic aerosol formed from oxidation of monoterpenes; Finally the modeling section of the book includes two very interesting chapters; Understanding climatic effects of aerosols: modeling radiative effects of aerosols; Environmental effects to residential New Orleans following hurricane katrina: indoor sediment, vapor-phase and aerosolized contaminants.



Environmental Chemistry of Aerosols

Environmental Chemistry of Aerosols Author Ian Colbeck
ISBN-10 1405139196
Release 2008-03-24
Pages 268
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Aerosol particles are ubiquitous in the Earth's atmosphere and are central to many environmental issues such as climate change, stratospheric ozone depletion and air quality. In urban environments, aerosol particles can affect human health through their inhalation. Atmospheric aerosols originate from naturally occurring processes, such as volcanic emissions, sea spray and mineral dust emissions, or from anthropogenic activity such as industry and combustion processes. Aerosols present pathways for reactions, transport, and deposition that would not occur in the gas phase alone. Understanding the ways in which aerosols behave, evolve, and exert these effects requires knowledge of their formation and removal mechanism, transport processes, as well as their physical and chemical characteristics. Motivated by climate change and adverse health effects of traffic-related air pollution, aerosol research has intensified over the past couple of decades, and recent scientific advances offer an improved understanding of the mechanisms and factors controlling the chemistry of atmospheric aerosols. Environmental Chemistry of Aerosols brings together the current state of knowledge of aerosol chemistry, with chapters written by international leaders in the field. It will serve as an authoritative and practical reference for scientists studying the Earth's atmosphere and as an educational and training resource for both postgraduate students and professional atmospheric scientists.



Aerosol Chemical Processes in the Environment

Aerosol Chemical Processes in the Environment Author Kvetoslav R. Spurny
ISBN-10 1420036254
Release 2000-03-23
Pages 640
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A compilation of the most important aerosol chemical processes involved in known scientific and technological disciplines, Aerosol Chemical Processes in the Environment serves as a handbook for aerosol chemistry. Aerosol science is interdisciplinary, interfacing with many environmental, biological and technological research fields. Aerosols and aerosol research play an important role in both basic and applied scientific and technological fields. Interdisciplinary cooperation is useful and necessary. Aerosol Chemical Processes in the Environment uses several examples to show the impact of aerosol chemistry in several different fields, mainly in basic and atmospheric research. The book describes the most important chemical processes involved in the various scientific and technological disciplines.



Granular Filtration of Aerosols and Hydrosols

Granular Filtration of Aerosols and Hydrosols Author Chi Tien
ISBN-10 9781483162423
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 380
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Granular Filtration of Aerosols and Hydrosols is concerned with the fundamental aspects of granular filtration of both liquid and gas suspensions. This book takes a unifying approach to the treatment of granular aerosol and hydrosol filtration. The text begins with the introduction of the process of granular filtration and its various applications. Subsequent chapters discuss the aspects of filtration, such as, the macroscopic description of fixed-bed granular filtration; the methods for making representations based on various porous media models for both clean and clogged filter media; the mechanisms of particle deposition; and the trajectory analysis of particle deposition. The final chapter presents and discusses case studies which deal with predicting and calculating the dynamic behavior of granular filtration of hydrosols and aerosols. Researchers in granular filtration and graduate students dealing with separation technology will find the book highly useful.



Aerosol Sampling

Aerosol Sampling Author James H. Vincent
ISBN-10 9780470060223
Release 2007-04-04
Pages 636
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This book provides a comprehensive account of the important field of aerosol sampling as it is applied to the measurement of aerosols that are ubiquitous in occupational and living environments, both indoor and outdoor. It is written in four parts: Part A contains 9 chapters that describe the current knowledge of the physical science that underpins the process of aerosol sampling. Part B contains 4 chapters, which present the basis of standards for aerosols, including the link with human exposure by inhalation. Part C contains 7 chapters that cover the development of practical aerosol sampling instrumentation, and how technical designs and methods have evolved over the years in order that aerosol sampling may be carried out in a manner matching the health-related and other criteria that have been proposed as parts of standards. Finally Part D contains 6 chapters that describe how a wide range of aerosol sampling instruments have performed when they have been applied in the field in both occupational and ambient atmospheric environments, including how different instruments, nominally intended to measure the same aerosol fraction, compare when used side-by-side in the real world. The book draws together all that is known about aerosol sampling, for the benefit of researchers and practitioners in occupational and environmental health and all other fields of science and engineering where aerosols are of interest.



Aerosol Measurement

Aerosol Measurement Author Paul A. Baron
ISBN-10 0471784923
Release 2005-11-04
Pages 1160
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In recent years, industry has become increasingly interested in modern aerosol measurement methods, not only to protect the health of their workers but also to augment productivity and thereby gain competitive advantage. Aerosol Measurement: Principles, Techniques, and Applications, Second Edition offers scientists and practitioners the fundamental principles used in deciding which aerosol properties to measure and how to interpret the results. Divided into three parts, the material reviews the physical understanding of aerosols, covers specific instrumental techniques, and explains applications in fields ranging from health care to mining and upper-atmosphere research. Leading experts contribute to the review of such areas as direct-reading techniques, bioaerosol sampling, indoor air evaluations, industrial aerosol processing, and measurement in semiconductor clean rooms. Plus, all the chapters in this latest edition have been updated and some have been rewritten by new authors. Two new chapters have been added: one on historical aspects of aerosol measurements and the other on real-time single particle analysis.



Aerosol Technology

Aerosol Technology Author William C. Hinds
ISBN-10 9781118591970
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 504
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The #1 guide to aerosol science and technology -now better than ever Since 1982, Aerosol Technology has been the text of choice among students and professionals who need to acquire a thorough working knowledge of modern aerosol theory and applications. Now revised to reflect the considerable advances that have been made over the past seventeen years across a broad spectrum of aerosol-related application areas - from occupational hygiene and biomedical technology to microelectronics and pollution control -this new edition includes: * A chapter on bioaerosols * New sections on resuspension, transport losses, respiratory deposition models, and fractal characterization of particles * Expanded coverage of atmospheric aerosols, including background aerosols and urban aerosols * A section on the impact of aerosols on global warming and ozone depletion. Aerosol Technology, Second Edition also features dozens of new, fully worked examples drawn from a wide range of industrial and research settings, plus new chapter-end practice problems to help readers master the material quickly.



Environmental Control of Plant Growth

Environmental Control of Plant Growth Author L.T. Evans
ISBN-10 9780323149211
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 468
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Environmental Control of Plant Growth consists of the proceedings of a symposium held at Canberra, Australia, in August 1962. The symposium aims to consider the natural microenvironments of plants and the associations between natural and controlled environments. It also considers the physiological and genetic bases of responses by plants to environmental conditions. The book contains 24 chapters and discusses the physics of plant environment, as well as the physical quantities within plant-air layers. It also elucidates the energy and water balance, light relations, gas exchange, and energy relations in plant communities. The book also looks into the respiration of various organs and of whole plants. Lastly, the effects of the environment, including “climatic factors, on the metabolism of plant cells are addressed.



Aerosols Handbook

Aerosols Handbook Author Lev S. Ruzer
ISBN-10 9781439855195
Release 2012-08-15
Pages 666
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With the rapid growth of the nanotechnology industry, the need to understand the biological effects of aerosol exposure has become increasingly important. Featuring contributions by leading experts in the field, Aerosols Handbook: Measurement, Dosimetry, and Health Effects, Second Edition offers an up-to-date overview of many aspects of aerosols, from properties to health effects and epidemiology. Covering indoor, outdoor, industrial, medical, pharmaceutical, and radioactive aerosols, this book explores aerosol dosimetry by defining terms such as exposure and dose. In addition, it looks at nanometer particles, the mechanism of aerosol deposition in the lungs, and modeling deposition with a corresponding uncertainty in risk assessment. The text also emphasizes the importance of accurate aerosol measurements, particularly breathing zone exposure assessments. Examining radioactive aerosols, the book discusses lessons learned from nuclear accidents, radon and thoron, and long-lived radionuclides in the environment. It brings together research on both radioactive and nonradioactive aerosols, supplying readers with a more complete view of how aerosols behave in the lungs. New in This Edition Five new chapters that address the safety of nanomaterials, dealing with nanoparticle cell penetration, high aspect ratio nanomaterials, nanoaerosols in drug delivery, risk assessment, and health effects New chapters on atmospheric pollution related to climate change, chemical analyses of particle filter deposits, and classical nucleation theory New data on measurement, dosimetry, and health effects Updated throughout, this second edition continues to be an essential resource for those who study exposure, dosages, and toxicity to develop treatments for exposure, reduce air pollution, and establish better safety regulations, particularly in industries using nanotechnologies.



Silent Spring

Silent Spring Author Rachel Carson
ISBN-10 0618249060
Release 2002
Pages 378
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Discusses the reckless annihilation of fish and birds by the use of pesticides and warns of the possible genetic effects on humans.



Aerosol Filtration

Aerosol Filtration Author Dominique Thomas
ISBN-10 9780081021163
Release 2016-11-30
Pages 226
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Filtration of aerosols is omnipresent in our daily lives, in areas as diverse as health, the protection of people and the environment, and air treatment inside buildings. However, the collection of particles within a filter media is not, contrary to popular belief, linked to a simple screen effect. The phenomena involved are much more complex and require the consideration of aerosol interactions, filter media and process conditions to select the best fiber filter for a given application. Aerosol Filtration, book for students, hygiene or process engineers, fibrous media manufacturers, designers, and filtration system suppliers or users addresses the filtration of aerosols in six chapters. These chapters cover physics and aerosol characterization, the fibrous media, and efficiency and filter clogging by solid or liquid aerosols, with special attention to the filtration of the nanoparticles. Analyses the behavior of fibrous media against solid and liquid aerosols Presents models of efficiency and pressure drop Introduces computing elements for estimating the lifetime of filters Provides guidance for designing filters and predicting their behavior over time



Air Pollution Science for the 21st Century

Air Pollution Science for the 21st Century Author J. Austin
ISBN-10 008052690X
Release 2002-10-31
Pages 686
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Acid rain, photochemistry, long-range transport of pollutants, greenhouse gas emissions and aerosols have dominated tropospheric air pollution for the last 30 years of the 20th century. At the start of the 21st century, acid rain is subject to planned improvement in Europe and North America, but is still a growing problem in Asia. Tropospheric ozone is understood much better, but the problem is still with us, and desirable levels are difficult to achieve over continental Europe. The heterogeneous chemistry that is responsible for ozone depletion in the stratosphere is now reasonably clear, but there is on-going interest in the sources and sinks of CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) replacements in the troposphere. There is also increasing interest in indoor air quality, and the origin and health implications of atmospheric particles. Perhaps most important on a global perspective, intensive research has not yet determined the relationship between greenhouse gases, aerosols and surface temperature. The climactic implications of these are now more urgent than ever. This book, the first in the Developments in Environmental Science series, consists of a collection of authoritative reviews and essays on the science and application of air pollution research at the start of this new century.



Environmental Science

Environmental Science Author Frank R. Spellman
ISBN-10 9780810886117
Release 2013-02-14
Pages 732
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The goal of Environmental Science: Principles and Practices provides the scientific principles, concepts, applications, and methodologies required to understand the interrelationships of the natural world, to identify and analyze environmental problems both natural and human-made, to evaluate the relative risks associated with these problems, and to examine alternative solutions, such as renewable energy sources, for resolving and even preventing them.



Atmospheric Impacts of the Oil and Gas Industry

Atmospheric Impacts of the Oil and Gas Industry Author Eduardo P Olaguer
ISBN-10 9780128018583
Release 2016-11-22
Pages 170
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Atmospheric Impacts of the Oil and Gas Industry provides the most up-to-date scientific and technological methods available to quantify oil and gas industry emissions and atmospheric impacts in a manner that is relevant to the development of, compliance with, and enforcement of effective policy and regulations. The book offers a concise survey of these methods to facilitate the implementation of solutions that promote sustainable energy production. Part I covers a technical and descriptive summary of air quality and global change issues relevant to the oil and gas industry, with Part II summarizing state-of-the-art methods pertaining to the analysis and solution of the problems identified in the earlier section. Examples of state-of-the-art methods covered include real-time monitoring with chemical ionization mass spectrometry, drone-mounted mini-lasers and gas cells, tomographic remote sensing, inverse modeling of emissions, 3D fluid, chemical, and transport models, and contemporary control technologies, such as flare minimization, oxidation catalysts, and vapor recovery. In addition, field studies, policy-relevant modeling assessments, and regulatory decisions from multiple geographic regions are presented, providing readers best practices from real world applications. Addresses major environmental issues of concern as a result of the oil and gas industry Reflects a balanced, objective view that is based on scientific principles Provides a wide geographical perspective Presents a rigorous and comprehensive scientific basis for crafting solutions to air quality problems created by the oil and gas industry