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Agricultural Law and Economics in Sub Saharan Africa

Agricultural Law and Economics in Sub Saharan Africa Author Frederick Owusu Boadu
ISBN-10 9780128018453
Release 2016-04-27
Pages 624
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Agricultural Law in Sub-Saharan Africa: Cases and Comments introduces the subject of agricultural law and economics to researchers, practitioners, and students in common law countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, and presents information from the legal system in Botswana, Gambia, Ghana, Lesotho, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. The law and economics approach entails the use of quantitative methods in research. This is consistent with the expectations in an applied economics field such as agricultural economics. Covering the general traditional law topics in contracts, torts, and property, the book goes further to introduce cutting-edge and region-relevant topics, including contracts with illiterate parties, contract farming, climate change, and transboundary water issues. The book is supported by an extensive list of reference materials, as well as study and enrichment exercises, to deepen readers’ understanding of the principles discussed in the book. It is a learning tool, first and foremost, and can be used as a stand-alone resource to teach the subject matter of agricultural law and economics to professionals new to the subject area as well as to students in law school, agricultural economics, economics, and inter-disciplinary classes. Offers research findings on such topics as food safety, climate change, transboundary natural resources, international sale of goods, patents, and trademarks to highlight the future sources of pressure on the agriculture industry Uses case-studies to provide real-world insights into the challenges and considerations of appropriate agricultural law development Challenges readers to carry out their own research in their areas of study, and to gain some understanding of the relationship between law, economics, and statistics Includes extensive resources, such as chapter summaries, study questions, and challenge questions at the end of each chapter to assist instructors and students in gaining full benefits from using the book Provides separate instructor and student study guides, a test bank, and test bank answers, in hardcopy and electronic formats

Assessing opportunities and constraints for biofuel development in sub Saharan Africa

Assessing opportunities and constraints for biofuel development in sub Saharan Africa Author Graham von Maltitz
Release 2011-08-24
Pages 56
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Sustainable biofuel production should provide opportunities for sub-Saharan African countries and their inhabitants, especially in impoverished rural areas. Biofuel feedstock production has the potential to bring job opportunities and earnings, but this should not be at the cost of existing livelihoods and the local environment. Biofuels also have the potential to increase energy security in these countries for both transportation and household needs. Sub-Saharan African biofuel feedstock production projects can be classified into 4 distinct models based on production scales (small- versus large-scale farm/plantations) and on the intended use of the biofuel (local versus national). The first type embraces large corporate plantations to supply the market for liquid transport fuel blends. The second type comprises small-scale producers linked to the corporate producers. The third type involves small-scale producers supplying the local energy needs of farmers and villages. The fourth and rarest type is linked to the large corporate plantations, to meet the corporation’s own energy needs. The introduction of foreign-owned, large-scale corporate plantations producing biofuel for transport fuel blends causes the most concern in sub-Saharan Africa, as their scale and ownership arrangements may disrupt rural livelihoods and affect access rights to land resources. However, these projects can also bring job opportunities, thereby providing alternative sources of income for poor communities. This working paper assesses mechanisms for limiting the negative impacts while maximising national benefit capture. Market-based mechanisms versus legal and policy mechanisms to enhance long-term sustainability are also discussed.

Market Institutions in Sub Saharan Africa

Market Institutions in Sub Saharan Africa Author Marcel Fafchamps
ISBN-10 0262262703
Release 2003-12-05
Pages 464
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In Market Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa, Marcel Fafchamps synthesizes the results of recent surveys of indigenous market institutions in twelve countries, including Benin, Ghana, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, and Zimbabwe, and presents findings about economics exchange in Africa that have implications both for future research and current policy. Employing empirical data as well as theoretical models that clarify the data, Fafchamps takes as his unifying principle the difficulties of contract enforcement. Arguing that in an unpredictable world contracts are not always likely to be respected, he shows that contract agreements in sub-Saharan Africa are affected by the absence of large hierarchies (both corporate and governmental) and as a result must depend to a greater degree than in more developed economies on social networks and personal trust. Fafchamps considers policy recommendations as they apply to countries in three different stages of development: countries with undeveloped market institutions, like Ghana; countries at an intermediate stage, like Kenya; and countries with developed market institutions, like Zimbabwe.Market Institutions in Sub-Saharan Africa caps ten years of personal research by the author. Fafchamps, in collaboration with such institutions as the Africa Division of the World Bank and the International Food Policy Research Institute, participated in the surveys of manufacturing firms and agricultural traders that provide the empirical basis for the book. The result is a work that makes a significant contribution to research on the continuing economic stagnation of many countries in sub-Saharan Africa and is also largely accessible to researchers in other fields and policy professionals.

The International Covenant on Economic Social and Cultural Rights

The International Covenant on Economic  Social and Cultural Rights Author Ben Saul
ISBN-10 9780199640300
Release 2014-03
Pages 1092
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Economic, social and cultural rights are finally coming of age. This book brings together all essential documents, materials, and case law relating to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) - one of the most important human rights instruments in international law - and its Optional Protocol. This book presents extracts from primary materials alongside critical commentary and analysis, placing the documents in their wider context and situating economic, social, and cultural rights within the broader human rights framework.There is increasing interest internationally, regionally, and in domestic legal systems in the protection of economic, social, and cultural rights. The Optional Protocol of 2008 allows for individual communications to be made to the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights after its entry into force in 2013. At the regional level, socio-economic rights are well embedded in human rights systems in Europe, Africa and the Americas. At the national level, constitutions and courts have increasingly regarded socio-economic rights as justiciable, narrowing the traditional divide with civil and political rights. This book contextualises these developments in the context of the ICESCR. It provides detailed analysis of the ICESCR structured around its articles, drawing on national as well as international case law and materials, and containing all of the key primary materials in its extensive appendices. This book is indispensible for the judiciary, human rights practitioners, government legal advisers and agencies, national human rights institutions, international organisations, regional human rights bodies, NGOs and human rights activists, academics, and students alike.

Monthly Bibliography

Monthly Bibliography Author United Nations Library (Geneva, Switzerland)
ISBN-10 UCR:31210011537022
Release 1996
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Monthly Bibliography has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Monthly Bibliography also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Monthly Bibliography book for free.

Young Entrepreneurs in Sub Saharan Africa

Young Entrepreneurs in Sub Saharan Africa Author Katherine V. Gough
ISBN-10 9781317548362
Release 2016-03-02
Pages 292
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Young people in sub-Saharan Africa are growing up in rapidly changing social and economic environments which produce high levels of un- and underemployment. Job creation through entrepreneurship is currently being promoted by international organizations, governments and NGOs as a key solution, despite there being a dearth of knowledge about youth entrepreneurship in an African context. This book makes an important contribution by exploring the nature of youth entrepreneurship in Ghana, Uganda and Zambia. It provides new insights into conceptual and methodological discussions of youth entrepreneurship as well as presenting original empirical data. Drawing on quantitative and qualitative research, conducted under the auspices of a collaborative, interdisciplinary and comparative research project, it highlights the opportunities and challenges young people face in setting up and running businesses. Divided into a number of clear sections, each with its own introduction and conclusion, the book considers the nature of youth entrepreneurship at the national level, in both urban and rural areas, in specific sectors - including mobile telephony, mining, handicrafts and tourism - and analyses how key factors, such as microfinance, social capital and entrepreneurship education, affect youth entrepreneurship. New light is shed on the multi-faceted nature of youth entrepreneurship and a convincing case is presented for a more nuanced understanding of the term entrepreneurship and the situation faced by many African youth today. This book will be of interest to a wide range of scholars interested in youth entrepreneurship, including in development studies, business studies, youth studies and geography, as well as to development practitioners and policy makers. The Open Access title has now been added to the Open Access page.

Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Africa

Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Africa Author Kym Anderson
ISBN-10 0821376640
Release 2009-03-13
Pages 656
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The vast majority of the world s poorest households depend on farming for their livelihoods. During the 1960s and 1970s, most developing countries imposed pro-urban and anti-agricultural policies, while many high-income countries restricted agricultural imports and subsidized their farmers. Both sets of policies inhibited economic growth and poverty alleviation in developing countries. Although progress has been made over the past two decades to reduce those policy biases, many trade- and welfare-reducing price distortions remain between agriculture and other sectors and within the agricultural sector of both rich and poor countries. Comprehensive empirical studies of the disarray in world agricultural markets appeared approximately 20 years ago. Since then, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has provided estimates each year of market distortions in high-income countries, but there have been no comparable estimates for the world s developing countries. This volume is the third in a series (other volumes cover Asia, Europe s transition economies, and Latin America and the Caribbean) that not only fills that void for recent years but extends the estimates in a consistent and comparable way back in time and provides analytical narratives for scores of countries that shed light on the evolving nature and extent of policy interventions over the past half-century. 'Distortions to Agricultural Incentives in Africa' provides an overview of the evolution of distortions to agricultural incentives caused by price and trade policies in the Arab Republic of Egypt plus 20 countries that account for about of 90 percent of Sub-Saharan Africa s population, farm households, agricultural output, and overall GDP. Sectoral, trade, and exchange rate policies in the region have changed greatly since the 1950s, and there have been substantial reforms since the 1980s. Nonetheless, numerous price distortions in this region remain, others have been added in recent years, and there has also been some backsliding, such as in Zimbabwe. The new empirical indicators in these country studies provide a strong evidence-based foundation for assessing the successes and failures of the past and for evaluating policy options for the years ahead.

Islamic Finance in Sub Saharan Africa Status and Prospects

Islamic Finance in Sub Saharan Africa  Status and Prospects Author Mr. E. Gelbard
ISBN-10 9781498375276
Release 2014-08-11
Pages 27
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Islamic finance is a fast growing activity in world markets. This paper provides a survey on Islamic Finance in SSA. Ongoing activities include Islamic banking, sukuk issuances (to finance infrastructure projects), Takaful (insurance), and microfinance. While not yet significant in most Sub-Saharan countries, several features make Islamic finance instruments relevant to the region, in particular the ability to foster SMEs and micro-credit activtities. As a first step, policy makers could introduce Islamic financing windows within the conventional system and facilitate sukuk issuance to tap foreign investors. The entrance of full-fleged Islamic banks require addressing systemic issues, and adapting the crisis management and resolution frameworks. The IMF can play a role by sharing international experiences and providing advice on supervisory and regulatory frameworks as needed.

Supply Chains in Export Agriculture Competition and Poverty in Sub Saharan Africa

Supply Chains in Export Agriculture  Competition  and Poverty in Sub Saharan Africa Author Guido Gustavo Porto
ISBN-10 1907142207
Release 2011-01
Pages 288
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Rural poverty is a widespread phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa. While most farmers produce for home consumption, some are engaged in high-value export agriculture crops and changes in export prices and in the conditions faced in export markets (both internally and externally) can therefore play a big role in shaping poverty in a region. Traditionally, the literature has focused on how external conditions affect poverty. By contrast, this unique and timely book breaks new ground by exploring domestic factors. In particular, the authors investigate the role played by the structure of competition in export agriculture supply chains Combining theory with detailed empirical analyses of the cotton, coffee, tobacco, and cocoa sectors in eight sub-Saharan countries, the book reveals important new insights. While there is much variation within and between countries and crops, the authors show conclusively that measures to increase competition in export agriculture supply chains can be just as significant as external factors such as subsidies, quotas, and tariffs - and that these measures can have worthwhile effects on poverty reduction in the exporting countries. ***** "The last two decades' reforms in Africa's agricultural marketing channels have taken place against a background of relative ignorance of how these markets work. Combining theory (with coverage of complex contractual arrangements like outgrower contracts), household surveys, and in-depth knowledge of local contexts, this masterful book provides the first systematic answer. In their characteristically careful approach, the authors use simulation analysis based on oligopoly theory to isolate and quantify the effect of policy shocks one by one and with synergies, yielding precise orders of magnitude where theory is usually silent. Written in a limpid style, this book is a must-read for academics and sophisticated policy analysts. It will be a reference for years to come." Olivier Cadot, Professor of International Economics and Director of the Institute of Applied Economics at the University of Lausanne "This is an innovative and important book. The authors explicitly model the institutions and industrial organization of global trade and commodity exchanges, which have major implications for the efficiency and surplus distribution among the participants in the chain. The combination of theory and empirical analysis across many developing countries is unique and yields important new insights." Jo Swinnen, Professor of Development Economics at K.U.Leuven, Director of LICOS-Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance at K.U.Leuven and Senior Research Fellow in the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS), Brussels

The economics of agricultural technology in semiarid Sub Saharan Africa

The economics of agricultural technology in semiarid Sub Saharan Africa Author John H. Sanders
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105018439013
Release 1996
Pages 303
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Most researchers on agriculture in Sub-Saharan Africa have become pessimistic about future potential after observing the decline of food output per capita over the past two decades. Although the authors of this study identify factors that have resulted in this stagnation, they also document technological successes and then develop a strategy for increasing the effectiveness of future research and development. This strategy is evaluated using field studies and modeling from the major agroecological zones of crop production. The authors address the higher-input, yield-increasing strategy from the perspective of risk, sustainability, and the impact on women. They also consider alternative approaches to increasing output through area expansion and livestock-crop integrated systems. The strategy emphasizes the combined effects of water availability, soil fertility, and new cultivars. It requires public support for adaptive research, higher input purchases by farmers, and increased foreign-exchange expenditures. However, there have already been successes with this strategy, and a more rapid adoption is expected to accelerate the growth of agricultural output and to increase the efficiency of agricultural research. The authors maintain that it is now appropriate to be more optimistic about the potential of Africa to feed itself and to maintain its resource base.

International Labour Documentation

International Labour Documentation Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105022058239
Release 1997
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International Labour Documentation has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from International Labour Documentation also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full International Labour Documentation book for free.

Challenges for African Agriculture

Challenges for African Agriculture Author Jean-Claude Devèze
ISBN-10 0821384813
Release 2011
Pages 267
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This book presents the key demographic, economic, and environmental challenges for agriculture in Africa and proposes courses of action for Africa to be successful in its agricultural transitions.

Youth Employment in Sub Saharan Africa

Youth Employment in Sub Saharan Africa Author Deon Filmer
ISBN-10 9781464801082
Release 2014-01-24
Pages 280
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This book focuses on how to improve the quality of jobs and meet the aspirations of youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. It finds that a strong foundation for human capital development can be key to boosting earnings, arguing for a balanced approach that builds skills and demand for labor.

Bibliography of Agriculture

Bibliography of Agriculture Author
ISBN-10 OSU:32435060479649
Release 1998
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Bibliography of Agriculture has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Bibliography of Agriculture also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Bibliography of Agriculture book for free.

Bibliography of Agriculture Annual Cumulative Indexes

Bibliography of Agriculture Annual Cumulative Indexes Author U. S. Department of Agriculture Staff
ISBN-10 0897742176
Release 1986
Pages 2300
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Bibliography of Agriculture Annual Cumulative Indexes has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Bibliography of Agriculture Annual Cumulative Indexes also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Bibliography of Agriculture Annual Cumulative Indexes book for free.

Building Resilience in Sub Saharan Africa s Fragile States

Building Resilience in Sub Saharan Africa s Fragile States Author Mr. E. Gelbard
ISBN-10 9781513500539
Release 2015-06-26
Pages 99
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This paper analyzes the persistence of fragility in some sub-Saharan African states and the multiple dimensions of state weakness that are simultaneously at play. This study also provides an overview of the analytics of fragility, conflict, and international engagement with fragile states before turning to an assessment of the current state of affairs and the areas in which there has been progress in building resilience. The paper also looks at the role of fiscal policies and institutions and analyzes growth accelerations and decelerations. Seven country case studies help identify more concretely some key factors at play, and the diversity of paths followed, with an emphasis on the sequencing of reforms. The paper concludes with a summary of the main findings and policy implications.

Independent Power Projects in Sub Saharan Africa

Independent Power Projects in Sub Saharan Africa Author Anton Eberhard
ISBN-10 9781464808012
Release 2016-04-18
Pages 382
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Inadequate electricity services pose a major impediment to reducing extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in Sub-Saharan Africa. Simply put, Africa does not have enough power. Despite the abundant low-carbon and low-cost energy resources available to Sub-Saharan Africa, the region s entire installed electricity capacity, at a little over 80 GW, is equivalent to that of the Republic of Korea. Looking ahead, Sub-Saharan Africa will need to ramp-up its power generation capacity substantially. The investment needed to meet this goal largely exceeds African countries already stretched public finances. Increasing private investment is critical to help expand and improve electricity supply. Historically, most private sector finance has been channeled through privately financed independent power projects (IPP), supported by nonrecourse or limited recourse loans, with long-term power purchase agreements with the state utility or another off-taker. Between 1990 and 2014, IPPs have spread across Sub-Saharan Africa and are now present in 17 countries. Currently, there are 125 IPPs, with an overall installed capacity of 10.7 GW and investments of $24.6 billion. However, private investment could be much greater and less concentrated. South Africa alone accounts for 67 IPPs, 4.3 GW of capacity and $14.4 billion of investments; the remaining projects are concentrated in a handful of countries. The objective of this study is to evaluate the experience of IPPs and identify lessons that can help African countries attract more and better private investment. At the core of this analysis is a reflection on whether IPPs have in fact benefited Sub-Saharan Africa, and how they might be improved. The analysis is based primarily on in depth case studies, carried out in five countries, including Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda, which not only have the most numerous but also among the most extensive experience with IPPs.