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Alpine Treelines

Alpine Treelines Author Christian Körner
ISBN-10 9783034803960
Release 2012-05-26
Pages 220
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Alpine treelines mark the low-temperature limit of tree growth and occur in mountains world-wide. Presenting a companion to his book Alpine Plant Life, Christian Körner provides a global synthesis of the treeline phenomenon from sub-arctic to equatorial latitudes and a functional explanation based on the biology of trees. The comprehensive text approaches the subject in a multi-disciplinary way by exploring forest patterns at the edge of tree life, tree morphology, anatomy, climatology and, based on this, modelling treeline position, describing reproduction and population processes, development, phenology, evolutionary aspects, as well as summarizing evidence on the physiology of carbon, water and nutrient relations, and stress physiology. It closes with an account on treelines in the past (palaeo-ecology) and a section on global change effects on treelines, now and in the future. With more than 100 illustrations, many of them in colour, the book shows alpine treelines from around the globe and offers a wealth of scientific information in the form of diagrams and tables.



Alpine Plant Life

Alpine Plant Life Author Christian Körner
ISBN-10 9783642980183
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 343
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Generations of plant scientists have been fascinated by alpine plant lifean ecosystem that experiences dramatic climatic gradients over a very short distance. This comprehensive book examines a wide range of topics including alpine climate and soils, plant distribution and the treeline phenomenon, plant stress and development, global change at high elevation, and the human impact on alpine vegetation. Geographically, the book covers all parts of the world including the tropics.



The Changing Alpine Treeline

The Changing Alpine Treeline Author David R. Butler
ISBN-10 0080957099
Release 2009-03-13
Pages 224
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The alpine treeline ecotone (ATE) is an area of transition high on mountains where closed canopy forests from lower elevations give way to the open alpine tundra and rocky expanses above. Alpine tundra is an island biome and its ecotone with forest is subject to change, and like oceanic islands, alpine tundra is subject to invasion – or the upward advance of treeline. The invasion of tundra by trees will have consequences for the tundra biome as invasion does for other island flora and fauna. To examine the invasibility of tundra we take a plant’s-eye-view, wherein the local conditions become extremely important. Among these local conditions, we find geomorphology to be exceptionally important. We concentrate on aspects of microtopography (and microgeomorphology) and microclimate because these are the factors that matter: from the plant’s-eye-view, but we pay attention to multiple scales. At coarse scales, snow avalanches and debris flows are widespread and create “disturbance treelines whose elevation is well below those controlled by climate. At medium scales, turf-banked terraces create tread-and-riser topography that is a difficult landscape for a tree seedling to survive upon because of exposure to wind, dryness, and impenetrable surfaces. At fine scales, turf exfoliation of the fronts of turf-banked risers, and boulders, offer microsites where tree seedlings may find shelter and are able to gain a foothold in the alpine tundra; conversely, however, surfaces of needle-ice pans and frost heaving associated with miniature patterned ground production are associated with sites inimical to seedling establishment or survival. We explicitly consider how local scale processes propagate across scales into landscape patterns. The objective of this book is to examine the controls on change at alpine treeline. All the papers are focused on work done in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. Although any one place is limiting, we are able to examine the alpine treeline here in some detail – and an advantage is that the treeline ecotone in Glacier National Park is quite variable in itself due to the underlying variability in geomorphology at multiple scales. This book will provide insights into an important ecological phenomenon with a distinctly geomorphic perspective. The editors collectively have over 100 years of experience in working in geomorphology, biogeography, and ecology. They also have each worked on research in Glacier National Park for several decades. The book will be a reference for a variety of professionals and students, both graduate and undergraduate, with interests in Physical Geography, Geomorphology, Ecology, and Environmental Science. Because of the importance of the alpine treeline ecotone for recreation and aesthetic interests in mountain environments, wildland and park managers will also use this book. * Subject matter: geomorphology at alpine treeline * Expertise of contributors: each editor brings over 25 years of experience in studies of ecotones and geomorphology, and collectively over 100 years of experience in Glacier National Park * Changing alpine treeline examines climate change



Mountain Timberlines

Mountain Timberlines Author Friedrich-Karl Holtmeier
ISBN-10 9781402097058
Release 2009-03-15
Pages 438
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For more than 40 years I have been engaged in timberline research. Thus, one could suppose that writing this book should not have been too difficult. It was harder, however, than expected, and in the end I felt that more questions had arisen than could be answered within its pages. Perhaps it would have been easier to write the book 30 years ago and then leave the subject to mature. Lastly it was the late Prof. Heinz Ellenberg who had convinced me to portray a much needed and complete picture of what we know of the timberline with special respect to its great physiognomic, structural and ecological variety. The first version of this book was p- lished in the German language (Holtmeier, 2000). Nevertheless, I was very delighted when Prof. Martin Beniston encouraged me to prepare an English edition for the series ‘Advances in Global Change Research’, which guaranteed a wider circulation. Timberline is a worldwide and very heterogeneous phenomenon, which can only be presented by way of examples. My own field experience is necessarily limited to certain timberline areas, such as the Alps, northern Scandinavia, northern Finland and many high mountain ranges in the western United States and Canada. However, my own observations and the results of my and my previous collaborators research were essential for developing the concept of the book and became integrated into the picture of timberline that is presented in the following chapters.



Mountain Geography

Mountain Geography Author Martin F. Price
ISBN-10 9780520254312
Release 2013-08-24
Pages 378
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Mountain Geography is a comprehensive resource that gives readers an in-depth understanding of the geographical processes that occur in the world's mountains and the impact of these regions on culture and society. The volume begins with an introduction that defines mountains, followed by a comprehensive treatment of their physical geography, including origins, climatology, snow and ice, landforms and geomorphic processes, soils, vegetation, and wildlife. The concluding chapters discuss the human geography of mountains and our attitudes toward them, populations in the mountain regions and their livelihoods and interactions within dynamic environments, the diversity of mountain agriculture, and the challenges of sustainable mountain development. -- Book Jacket.



Trees at their Upper Limit

Trees at their Upper Limit Author Gerhard Wieser
ISBN-10 9781402050749
Release 2007-05-15
Pages 232
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The product of decades of intensive research into alpine timberlines, this book presents a complete synthesis of current knowledge on the ecophysiology of tree growth and survival on high mountains in Europe. Amid growing realization that high elevation forests have a crucial role to play in protection against natural hazards, this book sets a new standard for research on the ecophysiology of trees growing at the alpine timberline.



Progress in Botany

Progress in Botany Author Ulrich Lüttge
ISBN-10 9783319088075
Release 2014-09-22
Pages 438
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With one volume each year, this series keeps scientists and advanced students informed of the latest developments and results in all areas of the plant sciences. The present volume includes reviews on physiology, ecology and vegetation science.



Physiological Ecology of Tropical Plants

Physiological Ecology of Tropical Plants Author Ulrich Lüttge
ISBN-10 9783662033401
Release 2013-03-09
Pages 384
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Physiological Ecology of Tropical Plants has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Physiological Ecology of Tropical Plants also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Physiological Ecology of Tropical Plants book for free.



Climate Change Glacier Response and Vegetation Dynamics in the Himalaya

Climate Change  Glacier Response  and Vegetation Dynamics in the Himalaya Author RB Singh
ISBN-10 9783319289779
Release 2016-06-06
Pages 399
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This book provides information essential for anyone interested in climate and environmental change of the Himalayan region, including land and resource managers, environmental planners, conservationists, environmentalists, geographers, climatologists, ecologists, and students. The book is unique in its coverage of the current understanding of the science of climate change in the Himalayan mountain system and of the major impacts on physical systems and ecosystems. The book gives an overview of the physical science basis of climate change and explains drivers and processes of glacier and vegetation dynamics. The book covers relevant aspects of accelerated climate change observed in the Himalayan mountain system, and highlights the regional differentiation of climatic changes and associated environmental modifications. The focus is on climate variability and change, and how physical systems and ecosystems respond to climate change impacts. Consequences include impacts on physical systems such as glacier shrinkage, glacial lake outburst floods, altered hydrological characteristics, permafrost warming and thawing, and mass movements on slopes. Climate change is also a powerful stressor on ecosystems and induces range shifts of plant and animal species and alterations in terms of phenology, biomass, plant cover, plant group dominance and species composition. Thus, ecosystem structure and functioning will be strongly affected. The book has an introductory chapter followed by a section on climate change, a section on impacts on glaciers and hydrology, and a section on vegetation dynamics. Each section has several chapters presenting key concepts, major drivers and key processes of environmental change in the Himalayan region from different perspectives. Climate change impacts in the Himalaya have not been studied in much detail, and respective findings were not presented so far in a comprehensive overview. This book summarizes the current knowledge of interactions between climate change and the dynamics of glaciers, hydrology, and vegetation.



Plant Diversity in the Central Great Caucasus A Quantitative Assessment

Plant Diversity in the Central Great Caucasus  A Quantitative Assessment Author George Nakhutsrishvili
ISBN-10 9783319557779
Release 2017-05-18
Pages 170
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This book presents the first assessment of the high-elevation flora of the Central Caucasus with a community ecology emphasis. Following a geostatistical-climatological description of the region (in comparison to the European Alps), it describes the montane, alpine and nival plant assemblages on the basis of an ecological approach that combines moisture, soils and local habitat peculiarities. Highlights include the famous giant herb communities in treeless parts of the upper montane belt, the various facets of alpine turf, and the unique assemblages and settings in the nival region. Further chapters address potential niche conservation between the Caucasus and the Alps, as well as a compilation of plant species habitat preferences (indicator values) that applies to a concept developed for the Alps. Richly illustrated and featuring extensive quantitative data on species abundance, the book offers a unique guide to the plant species diversity of this prominent mountain range, and a valuable resource for comparative ecology and biodiversity assessments of warm temperate mountain systems.



Alpine Biodiversity in Europe

Alpine Biodiversity in Europe Author Laszlo Nagy
ISBN-10 9783642189678
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 479
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The United Nations Conference on the Environment and Development (UNCED), held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, spawned a multitude of pro grammes aimed at assessing, managing and conserving the earth's biological diversity. One important issue addressed at the conference was the mountain environment. A specific feature of high mountains is the so-called alpine zone, i. e. the treeless regions at the uppermost reaches. Though covering only a very small proportion of the land surface, the alpine zone contains a rela tively large number of plants, animals, fungi and microbes which are specifi cally adapted to cold environments. This zone contributes fundamentally to the planet's biodiversity and provides many resources for mountain dwelling as well as lowland people. However, rapid and largely man-made changes are affecting mountain ecosystems, such as soil erosion, losses of habitat and genetic diversity, and climate change, all of which have to be addressed. As stated in the European Community Biodiversity Strategy, "the global scale of biodiversity reduction or losses and the interdependence of different species and ecosystems across national borders demands concerted international action". Managing biodiversity in a rational and sustainable way needs basic knowledge on its qualitative and quantitative aspects at local, regional and global scales. This is particularly true for mountains, which are distributed throughout the world and are indeed hot spots of biodiversity in absolute terms as well as relative to the surrounding lowlands.



Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands

Invertebrates in Freshwater Wetlands Author Darold Batzer
ISBN-10 9783319249780
Release 2016-02-05
Pages 645
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Wetlands are among the world’s most valuable and most threatened habitats, and in these crucially important ecosystems, the invertebrate fauna holds a focal position. Most of the biological diversity in wetlands is found within resident invertebrate assemblages, and those invertebrates are the primary trophic link between lower plants and higher vertebrates (e.g. amphibians, fish, and birds). As such, most scientists, managers, consultants, and students who work in the world’s wetlands should become better informed about the invertebrate components in their habitats of interest. Our book serves to fill this need by assembling the world’s most prominent ecologists working on freshwater wetland invertebrates, and having them provide authoritative perspectives on each the world’s most important freshwater wetland types. The initial chapter of the book provides a primer on freshwater wetland invertebrates, including how they are uniquely adapted for life in wetland environments and how they contribute to important ecological functions in wetland ecosystems. The next 15 chapters deal with invertebrates in the major wetlands across the globe (rock pools, alpine ponds, temperate temporary ponds, Mediterranean temporary ponds, turloughs, peatlands, permanent marshes, Great Lakes marshes, Everglades, springs, beaver ponds, temperate floodplains, neotropical floodplains, created wetlands, waterfowl marshes), each chapter written by groups of prominent scientists intimately knowledgeable about the individual wetland types. Each chapter reviews the relevant literature, provides a synthesis of the most important ecological controls on the resident invertebrate fauna, and highlights important conservation concerns. The final chapter synthesizes the 15 habitat-based chapters, providing a macroscopic perspective on natural variation of invertebrate assemblage structure across the world’s wetlands and a paradigm for understanding how global variation and environmental factors shape wetland invertebrate communities.



Physiological Ecology of the Alpine Timberline

Physiological Ecology of the Alpine Timberline Author W. Tranquillini
ISBN-10 9783642671074
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 140
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In the European Alps the importance of forests as protection against ava lanches and soil erosion is becoming ever clearer with the continuing increase in population and development of tourism. The protective potential of the moun tain forests can currently only be partially realised because a considerable propor tion of high-altitude stands has been destroyed in historical times by man's extensive clearing ofthe forests. The forests still remaining are of limited effec tiveness, due to inadequate density of trees and over-maturity. Considerable efforts, however, are now being made in the Alps and other mountains of the globe to increase the high-altitude forested area through reforestation, to raise depressed timberlines, and to restore remaining protection forests using suit able silvicultural methods to their full protective value. This momentous task, if it is to be successful, must be planned on a sound foundation. An important prerequisite is the assembly of scientific facts con cerning the physical environment in the protection forest zone of mountains, and the course of various life processes of tree species occurring there. Since the introduction of practical field techniques it has been possible to investigate successfully the reaction of trees at various altitudes to recorded factors, and the extent to which they are adapted to the measured situations. Such ecophysio logical studies enable us to recognize the site requirements for individual tree species, and the reasons for the limits of their natural distribution.



Tree and Forest Measurement

Tree and Forest Measurement Author P. W. West
ISBN-10 9783319147086
Release 2015-03-10
Pages 214
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Forests must be measured if they are to be managed and conserved properly. This book describes the essential principles of modern forest measurement, whether using simple hand-held equipment or sophisticated satellite imagery. It particularly focuses on measuring forest biomass over large forest areas, a key aspect of climate change studies, as well as the volumes of wood that are commercially available. Written in a straightforward style, it will be accessible to anyone who works with forests, from the professional forester to the layperson. It considers not only how and why forests are measured but also the scientific basis of the measurements taken.



High Mountain Conservation in a Changing World

High Mountain Conservation in a Changing World Author Jordi Catalan
ISBN-10 9783319559827
Release 2017-08-03
Pages 413
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This book provides case studies and general views of the main processes involved in the ecosystem shifts occurring in the high mountains and analyses the implications for nature conservation. Case studies from the Pyrenees are preponderant, with a comprehensive set of mountain ranges surrounded by highly populated lowland areas also being considered. The introductory and closing chapters will summarise the main challenges that nature conservation may face in mountain areas under the environmental shifting conditions. Further chapters put forward approaches from environmental geography, functional ecology, biogeography, and paleoenvironmental reconstructions. Organisms from microbes to large carnivores, and ecosystems from lakes to forest will be considered. This interdisciplinary book will appeal to researchers in mountain ecosystems, students and nature professionals. This book is open access under a CC BY license.



Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy

Handbook of Biological Confocal Microscopy Author James Pawley
ISBN-10 9781461571339
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 232
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In 1987 the Electron Microscopy Society of America (EMSA) going to drive important scientific discoveries across wide areas under the leadership of J. P. Revel (Cal Tech) initiated a major of physiology, cellular biology and neurobiology. They had been program to present a discussion of recent advances in light looking for a forum in which they could advance the state of microscopy as part of the annual meeting. The result was three the art of confocal microscopy, alert manufacturers to the lim special LM sessions at the Milwaukee meeting in August 1988: itations of current instruments, and catalyze progress toward The LM Forum, organized by me, and Symposia on Confocal new directions in confocal instrument development. LM, organized by G. Schatten (Madison), and on Integrated These goals were so close to those of the EMSA project that Acoustic/LM/EM organized by C. Rieder (Albany). In addition, the two groups decided to join forces with EMSA to provide there was an optical micro-analysis session emphasizing Raman the organization and the venue for a Confocal Workshop and techniques, organized by the Microbeam Analysis Society, for NSF to provide the financial support for the speakers expenses a total of 40 invited and 30 contributed papers on optical tech and for the publication of extended abstracts.



Atlas of Stem Anatomy in Herbs Shrubs and Trees

Atlas of Stem Anatomy in Herbs  Shrubs and Trees Author Fritz Hans Schweingruber
ISBN-10 9783642204340
Release 2012-09-07
Pages 415
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This work, published in two volumes, contains descriptions of the wood and bark anatomies of 3000 dicotyledonous plants of 120 families, highlighting the anatomical and phylogenetic diversity of dicotyledonous plants of the Northern Hemisphere. The first volume principally treats families of the Early Angiosperms, Eudicots, Core Eudicots and Rosids, while the second concentrates on the Asterids. Presented in Volume 2 are microsections of the xylem and phloem of herbs, shrubs and trees of 1000 species and ca. 35 families of various life forms of the temperate zone along altitudinal gradients from the lowland at the Mediterranean coast to the alpine zone in Western Europe. Special attention is given to the very diverse family of Asteraceae. The global perspective of the findings is underlined by the analysis of 400 species from the Caucasus, the Rocky Mountains and Andes, the subtropical zone on the Canary Islands, the arid zones in the Sahara, in Eurasia, Arabia and Southwest North America, New Zealand and the boreal and arctic zones in Eurasia and Canada. The presence of annual rings in all life forms demonstrates that herbs and dwarf shrubs are an excellent tool for the reconstruction of annual biomass production and the interannual dynamic of plant associations. The common principle of the anatomical expression of secondary growth is a key factor in understanding evolution and adaptation processes in all life forms, from the 3 cm tall crepide pigmea (Crepis pygmaea) in the alpine zone to the 40 m tall ash (Fraxinus excelsior) in Central European riparian forests. The study opens vast fields of research for dendrochronology, wood anatomy, taxonomy and ecology.