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Amphioxus Immunity

Amphioxus Immunity Author An-Long Xu
ISBN-10 9780128096475
Release 2015-12-31
Pages 304
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Amphioxus Immunity: Tracing the Origin of Human Immunity covers a remarkable range of information about Amphioxus and its evolutionary context. This compilation of what is currently known about Amphioxus, with a sharp focus on its immune system, includes 13 topics, such as: Amphioxus as a model for understanding the evolution of vertebrates basic knowledge of immunology immune organs and cells of amphioxus a genomic and transcriptomic view of the Amphioxus immunity pattern recognition system in Amphioxus transcription factors in Amphioxus the complement system of Amphioxus the oxidative burst system in Amphioxus immune effectors in Amphioxus lipid signaling of immune response in Amphioxus apoptosis in amphioxus; primitive adaptive immune system of Amphioxus and future research directions This valuable reference book is loaded with information that will be useful for anyone who wishes to learn more about the origin of vertebrates and adaptive immunity. Provides new evidence on the origin of the adaptive immune system, the evolution of innate immunity, and evolution-stage specific immune defense mechanisms Not only presents the cells and molecules involved in the adaptive immune response in Amphioxus, but also characterizes the origination and evolution of the gene families and pathways involved in innate immunity Includes much pioneering work, from the molecular, genomic, and cellular to the individual level



Skin Immune System SIS

Skin Immune System  SIS Author Jan D. Bos
ISBN-10 0849340160
Release 1997-04-10
Pages 752
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Immunodermatology is a field covering the majority of skin diseases, including the most prevalent onesin the general population. The Second Edition of Skin Immune System (SIS) discusses immune-mediated skin diseases and disease groups in which the SIS plays a role. It covers major findings in immunophysiology and immunopathology that have occurred since the introduction of the First Edition in 1990. As the subtitle indicates, the Second Edition adds a new emphasis on cutaneous immunology, and also includes new information on immune-based therapeutic interventions and methods, such as phototherapy and the immunological therapy of skin cancer. The book contains Part I, with introductory chapters; Part II, with descriptions of the cellular elements; and Part III, which describes the humoral and molecular components of SIS. Part IV follows to integrate the facts described in Parts II and III into concepts of pathophysiology. It contains a number of concepts entitled "response patterns" that describe how the constitutional elements of SIS work together. New in this edition are the descriptions of immunodermatological diseases individually described in Part V. Part VI is also all new and summarizes principles of immunotherapy.



M1 M2 Macrophages The Arginine Fork in the Road to Health and Disease

M1 M2 Macrophages  The Arginine Fork in the Road to Health and Disease Author Charles Dudley Mills
ISBN-10 9782889194995
Release 2015-03-23
Pages
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Macrophages have unique and diverse functions necessary for survival. And, in humans (and other species), they are the most abundant leukocytes in tissues. The Innate functions of macrophages that are best known are their unusual ability to either “Kill” or “Repair”. Since killing is a destructive process and repair is a constructive process, it was stupefying how one cell could exhibit these 2 polar – opposite functions. However, in the late 1980’s, it was shown that macrophages have a unique ability to enzymatically metabolize Arginine to Nitric Oxide (NO, a gaseous non – specific killer molecule) or to Ornithine (a precursor of polyamines and collagen for repair). The dual Arginine metabolic capacity of macrophages provided a functional explanation for their ability to kill or repair. Macrophages predominantly producing NO are called M1 and those producing Ornithine are called M2. M1 and M2 – dominant responses occur in lower vertebrates, and in T cell deficient vertebrates being directly driven by Damage and Pathogen Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMP and PAMP). Thus, M1 and M2 are Innate responses that protect the host without Adaptive Immunity. In turn, M1/M2 is supplanting previous models in which T cells were necessary to “activate” or “alternatively activate” macrophages (the Th1/Th2 paradigm). M1 and M2 macrophages were named such because of the additional key findings that these macrophages stimulate Th1 and Th2 – like responses, respectively. So, in addition to their unique ability to kill or repair, macrophages also govern Adaptive Immunity. All of the foregoing would be less important if M1 or M2 – dominant responses were not observed in disease. But, they are. The best example to date is the predominance of M2 macrophages in human tumors where they act like wound repair macrophages and actively promote growth. More generally, humans have become M2 – dominant because sanitation, antibiotics and vaccines have lessened M1 responses. And, M2 dominance seems the cause of ever - increasing allergies in developed countries. Obesity represents a new and different circumstance. Surfeit energy (e.g., lipoproteins) causes monocytes to become M1 dominant in the vessel walls causing plaques. Because M1 or M2 dominant responses are clearly causative in many modern diseases, there is great potential in developing the means to selectively stimulate (or inhibit) either M1 or M2 responses to kill or repair, or to stimulate Th1 or Th2 responses, depending on the circumstance. The contributions here are meant to describe diseases of M1 or M2 dominance, and promising new methodologies to modulate the fungible metabolic machinery of macrophages for better health.



The Evolution of the Immune System

The Evolution of the Immune System Author Davide Malagoli
ISBN-10 9780128020135
Release 2016-07-21
Pages 384
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The Evolution of the Immune System: Conservation and Diversification is the first book of its kind that prompts a new perspective when describing and considering the evolution of the immune system. Its unique approach summarizes, updates, and provides new insights on the different immune receptors, soluble factors, and immune cell effectors. Helps the reader gain a modern idea of the evolution of the immune systems in pluricellular organisms Provides a complete overview of the most studied and hot topics in comparative and evolutionary immunology Reflects the organisation of the immune system (cell-based, humoral [innate], humoral [adaptive]) without introducing further and misleading levels of organization Brings concepts and ideas on the evolution of the immune system to a wide readership



Marine OMICS

Marine OMICS Author Se-Kwon Kim
ISBN-10 9781482258219
Release 2016-11-18
Pages 724
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This book provides comprehensive coverage on current trends in marine omics of various relevant topics such as genomics, lipidomics, proteomics, foodomics, transcriptomics, metabolomics, nutrigenomics, pharmacogenomics and toxicogenomics as related to and applied to marine biotechnology, molecular biology, marine biology, marine microbiology, environmental biotechnology, environmental science, aquaculture, pharmaceutical science and bioprocess engineering.



The Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal Axis

The Hypothalamus Pituitary Adrenal Axis Author
ISBN-10 0080559360
Release 2008-09-12
Pages 416
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The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis controls reactions to stress and regulates various body processes such as digestion, the immune system, mood and sexuality, and energy usage. This volume focuses on the role it plays in the immune system and provides substantive experimental and clinical data to support current understanding in the field, and potential applications of this knowledge in the treatment of disease. * Evidence presented in this book suggests that the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems form the Neuroendoimmune Supersystem, which integrates all the biological functions of higher organisms both in health and disease for their entire life cycle. * Contributors include both the scientists who initiated the work on the HPA axis and on the autonomic nervous system, and those who joined the field later.



Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Immune System

Origin and Evolution of the Vertebrate Immune System Author L. Du Pasquier
ISBN-10 9783642596742
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 326
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The comparative approach to immunology can be traced to the era of Pasteur and Metchnikov in which observations regarding foreign recognition in invertebrates was a factor in the develop ment of the principal concepts that created the foundation of what now is the broad field of immunology. With each major experimental and conceptual breakthrough, the classical, albeit essential, question has been asked "are the immune systems of phylogenetically primitive vertebrates and invertebrates similar to that of mammals?" Somewhat surprisingly for the jawed verte brates, the general answer has been a qualified form of "yes", whereas for agnathans and invertebrate phyla it has been "no" so far. The apparent abruptness in the appearance of the immune system of vertebrates is linked to the introduction of the somatic generation of the diversity of its antigen specific receptors. Therefore the questions regarding the origin and evolution of the specific immune system revolve around this phenomenon. With respect to the origin of the system (aside from the or igin of the rearranging machinery itself, the study of which is still in its infancy) one can ask questions about the cellular and mo lecular contexts in which the mechanism was introduced.



Primitive Immune Systems

Primitive Immune Systems Author Jules Hoffmann
ISBN-10 NWU:35557000119584
Release 2004
Pages 303
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Primitive Immune Systems has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Primitive Immune Systems also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Primitive Immune Systems book for free.



Pathogen Host Interactions Antigenic Variation v Somatic Adaptations

Pathogen Host Interactions  Antigenic Variation v  Somatic Adaptations Author Ellen Hsu
ISBN-10 9783319208190
Release 2015-11-04
Pages 336
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This volume provides in-depth reviews of model systems that exemplify the arms race in host-pathogen interactions. Somatic adaptations are responsible for the individualization of biological responses to the environment, and the continual struggle between host immune systems and invading pathogens has given rise to corresponding processes that produce molecular variation. Whether in mollusks or human beings, various host somatic mechanisms have evolved independently, providing responses to counter rapidly-changing pathogens. The pathways they utilize can include non-heritable changes involving RNA and post-translational modifications, or changes that produce somatic DNA recombination and mutation. For infectious organisms such as protozoans and flatworms, antigenic variation is central to their survival strategy. Evolving the ability to evade the host immune system not only increases their chances of survival but is also necessary for successful re-infection within the host population.



Genome Research

Genome Research Author
ISBN-10 UOM:39015072624201
Release 2008
Pages
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Genome Research has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Genome Research also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Genome Research book for free.



Lectures on the Comparative Pathology of Inflammation

Lectures on the Comparative Pathology of Inflammation Author Elie Metchnikoff
ISBN-10 STANFORD:24503313871
Release 1893
Pages 218
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Lectures on the Comparative Pathology of Inflammation has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Lectures on the Comparative Pathology of Inflammation also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Lectures on the Comparative Pathology of Inflammation book for free.



Fundamental Immunology

Fundamental Immunology Author William E. Paul
ISBN-10 9781451117837
Release 2012-12-10
Pages 1283
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Fundamental Immunology Seventh Edition This standard-setting textbook has defined the field of immunology since 1984, and is now in its Seventh Edition continuing to deliver the detailed, authoritative, and timely coverage readers expect. This comprehensive, up-to-date text is ideal for graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, basic and clinical immunologists, microbiologists and infectious disease physicians, and any physician treating diseases in which immunologic mechanisms play a role. Now full-color throughout the book's fully revised and updated content reflects the latest advances in the field. Current insights enhance readers' understanding of immune system function. The text's unique approach bridges the gap between basic immunology and the disease process. Extensive coverage of molecular biology explains the molecular dynamics underlying immune disorders and their treatment. Abundant illustrations and tables deliver essential information at a glance. Plus a convenient companion website features the fully searchable text with all references linked to PubMed. Look inside and discover... * Fully revised and updated content reflects the latest advances in the field. * Current insights enhance readers' understanding of immune system function * Unique approach bridges the gap between basic immunology and the disease process. * Extensive coverage of molecular biology explains the molecular dynamics underlying immune disorders and their treatment. * Abundant illustrations and tables deliver essential information at a glance. PLUS... A convenient companion website features the fully searchable text with all references linked to PubMed. Pick up your copy today!



Invertebrate Immunity

Invertebrate Immunity Author Karl Maramorosch
ISBN-10 9780323153263
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 378
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Invertebrate Immunity: Mechanisms of Invertebrate Vector-Parasite Relations consists of chapters presented at a workshop on invertebrate defense mechanisms, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and held in Bethesda, Maryland, on April 17 and 18, 1974. Organized into four parts, having a total of 24 chapters, this book first discusses the barrier imposed by the gut of invertebrates to invading parasites. It then centers on the role of invertebrate hemocytes and other phagocytic cells in immunity, as well as the humoral defense mechanisms of these organisms. Other topics discussed include parasite encapsulation in insects, role of melanin in host-parasite interaction, and use of host hormones by insect parasites to make the host environment favorable for their growth and development. This book will be essential for those interested in comparative immunology and in invertebrate immune responses. It will be of special interest to entomologists, protozoologists, physicians, veterinarians, ecologists, pathologists, research workers, science teachers, and graduate students.



Bacterial Pathogenesis

Bacterial Pathogenesis Author Virginia L. Clark
ISBN-10 0121821374
Release 1994
Pages 642
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This volume of Methods in Enzymology contains contributions covering the wide spectrum of interactions between bacterial pathogens and their eukaryotic hosts. It complements Volume 235, in which methods for the isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens and associated virulence determinants are described. Since the study of bacterial pathogenesis borrows from a great variety of technologies and disciplines, we aim to provide the reader with a representative sample of the most advanced pathogenesis research.



Of Pandas and People

Of Pandas and People Author P. William Davis
ISBN-10 0914513400
Release 1993
Pages 170
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Of Pandas and People has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Of Pandas and People also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Of Pandas and People book for free.



The Book of Barely Imagined Beings

The Book of Barely Imagined Beings Author Caspar Henderson
ISBN-10 9780226044705
Release 2013-04-10
Pages 448
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From medieval bestiaries to Borges’s Book of Imaginary Beings, we’ve long been enchanted by extraordinary animals, be they terrifying three-headed dogs or asps impervious to a snake charmer’s song. But bestiaries are more than just zany zoology—they are artful attempts to convey broader beliefs about human beings and the natural order. Today, we no longer fear sea monsters or banshees. But from the infamous honey badger to the giant squid, animals continue to captivate us with the things they can do and the things they cannot, what we know about them and what we don’t. With The Book of Barely Imagined Beings, Caspar Henderson offers readers a fascinating, beautifully produced modern-day menagerie. But whereas medieval bestiaries were often based on folklore and myth, the creatures that abound in Henderson’s book—from the axolotl to the zebrafish—are, with one exception, very much with us, albeit sometimes in depleted numbers. The Book of Barely Imagined Beings transports readers to a world of real creatures that seem as if they should be made up—that are somehow more astonishing than anything we might have imagined. The yeti crab, for example, uses its furry claws to farm the bacteria on which it feeds. The waterbear, meanwhile, is among nature’s “extreme survivors,” able to withstand a week unprotected in outer space. These and other strange and surprising species invite readers to reflect on what we value—or fail to value—and what we might change. A powerful combination of wit, cutting-edge natural history, and philosophical meditation, The Book of Barely Imagined Beings is an infectious and inspiring celebration of the sheer ingenuity and variety of life in a time of crisis and change.



Before the Backbone

Before the Backbone Author H. Gee
ISBN-10 9780585252728
Release 2007-07-27
Pages 346
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We cannot catechise our stony ichthyolites, as did the necromantic lady of the Arabian Nights did the coloured fishes of the lake which had once been a city, when she touched their dead bodies with her wand, and they straightaway raised their heads and rephed to her queries. We would have many a question to ask them if we could - questions never to be solved. Hugh Miller, The Old Red Sandstone When I started this book in 1991, the subject of vertebrate origins was fusty and unfashionable. Early drafts for this preface read like an extend ed complaint at the lot of traditional morphologists, cast aside by the march of modern molecular biology. But no longer - this book should reach you at a time of renewed inter est in the origin of the vertebrates, our own particular corner of creation. For although the topic has excited interest for well over a century, molec ular biology has only lately achieved the maturity necessary to test its predictions. As a legitimate field of study, it is fashionable again.