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An Introduction to Modelling of Power System Components

An Introduction to Modelling of Power System Components Author S Krishna
ISBN-10 9788132218470
Release 2014-04-02
Pages 134
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The brief provides a quick introduction to the dynamic modelling of power system components. It gives a rigorous derivation of the model of different components of the power system such as synchronous generator, transformer, transmission line, FACTS, DC transmission system, excitation system and speed governor. Models of load and prime movers are also discussed. The brief can be used as a reference for researchers working in the areas of power system dynamics, stability analysis and design of stability controllers. It can also serve as a text for a short course on power system modelling, or as a supplement for a senior undergraduate/graduate course on power system stability.



Spatial Data Analysis

Spatial Data Analysis Author Manfred M. Fischer
ISBN-10 3642217206
Release 2011-08-05
Pages 88
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The availability of spatial databases and widespread use of geographic information systems has stimulated increasing interest in the analysis and modelling of spatial data. Spatial data analysis focuses on detecting patterns, and on exploring and modelling relationships between them in order to understand the processes responsible for their emergence. In this way, the role of space is emphasised, and our understanding of the working and representation of space, spatial patterns, and processes is enhanced. In applied research, the recognition of the spatial dimension often yields different and more meaningful results and helps to avoid erroneous conclusions. This book aims to provide an introduction into spatial data analysis to graduates interested in applied statistical research. The text has been structured from a data-driven rather than a theory-based perspective, and focuses on those models, methods and techniques which are both accessible and of practical use for graduate students. Exploratory techniques as well as more formal model-based approaches are presented, and both area data and origin-destination flow data are considered.



Time Domain Ultra Wideband Radar Sensor and Components

Time Domain Ultra Wideband Radar  Sensor and Components Author Cam Nguyen
ISBN-10 9781461495789
Release 2014-04-09
Pages 133
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This book presents the theory, analysis, and design of ultra-wideband (UWB) radar and sensor systems (in short, UWB systems) and their components. UWB systems find numerous applications in the military, security, civilian, commercial and medicine fields. This book addresses five main topics of UWB systems: System Analysis, Transmitter Design, Receiver Design, Antenna Design and System Integration and Test. The developments of a practical UWB system and its components using microwave integrated circuits, as well as various measurements, are included in detail to demonstrate the theory, analysis and design technique. Essentially, this book will enable the reader to design their own UWB systems and components. In the System Analysis chapter, the UWB principle of operation as well as the power budget analysis and range resolution analysis are presented. In the UWB Transmitter Design chapter, the design, fabrication and measurement of impulse and monocycle pulse generators are covered. The UWB Receiver Design chapter addresses the design and measurement of the strobe pulse generator, sampling mixer, low-noise amplifier and synchronous sampling receiver. Next, the UWB Antenna Design chapter details the design and measurement of to two UWB antennas: the microstrip quasi-horn antenna and the UWB uniplanar antenna. The System Integration and Test chapter covers the transmission-reception test, signal processing, system integration, and evaluation of the UWB sensor. The final chapter provides a summary and conclusion of the work.



Control Oriented Modelling of AC Electric Machines

Control Oriented Modelling of AC Electric Machines Author Ahmed Masmoudi
ISBN-10 9789811090561
Release 2018-04-11
Pages 75
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The book discusses the modeling of induction and synchronous machines aimed at the synthesis of dedicated control strategies. The first part focuses on induction machines (IMs), and starts with the analysis of the principle of operation, which is based on the induction phenomenon. It then establishes the a-b-c model, assuming a sinusoidal spatial repartition of the air gap flux density, a linear magnetic circuit, and constant phase resistors. The a-b-c model enables the establishment of a state representation of the induction machine. Then, the Park transformation is introduced and applied to the IM a-b-c model, leading to its Park one, which is then used to analyze the IM steady-state operation. The chapter also includes a case study dealing with the doubly fed induction machine, which is widely integrated in wind power generating systems. Following the introduction of the continuous development of synchronous machines (SMs), the second part establishes the a-b-c model for salient pole machines. Then, the Park transformation is applied to the established a-b-c model, leading to the Park one. The section highlights the formulation and analysis of the electromagnetic torque, with its synchronizing and reluctant components investigated in terms of the torque angle. Subsequently, it characterizes the operation at (i) maximum torque and (ii) unity power factor before focusing on the flux weakening approaches that could be implemented in SMs considering both smooth and salient pole topologies. Lastly, it presents a case study dealing with an investigation of the main features of the electric drive unit of a hybrid propulsion system and the possibility of their improvement, with an emphasis on the extension of the flux weakening range.



Big Data

Big Data Author Min Chen
ISBN-10 9783319062457
Release 2014-05-05
Pages 89
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This Springer Brief provides a comprehensive overview of the background and recent developments of big data. The value chain of big data is divided into four phases: data generation, data acquisition, data storage and data analysis. For each phase, the book introduces the general background, discusses technical challenges and reviews the latest advances. Technologies under discussion include cloud computing, Internet of Things, data centers, Hadoop and more. The authors also explore several representative applications of big data such as enterprise management, online social networks, healthcare and medical applications, collective intelligence and smart grids. This book concludes with a thoughtful discussion of possible research directions and development trends in the field. Big Data: Related Technologies, Challenges and Future Prospects is a concise yet thorough examination of this exciting area. It is designed for researchers and professionals interested in big data or related research. Advanced-level students in computer science and electrical engineering will also find this book useful.



Spain s Photovoltaic Revolution

Spain   s Photovoltaic Revolution Author Pedro A. Prieto
ISBN-10 9781441994370
Release 2013-01-04
Pages 128
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The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or “energy profit” from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI



Control Oriented Modelling of AC Electric Machines

Control Oriented Modelling of AC Electric Machines Author Ahmed Masmoudi
ISBN-10 9789811090561
Release 2018-04-11
Pages 75
Download Link Click Here

The book discusses the modeling of induction and synchronous machines aimed at the synthesis of dedicated control strategies. The first part focuses on induction machines (IMs), and starts with the analysis of the principle of operation, which is based on the induction phenomenon. It then establishes the a-b-c model, assuming a sinusoidal spatial repartition of the air gap flux density, a linear magnetic circuit, and constant phase resistors. The a-b-c model enables the establishment of a state representation of the induction machine. Then, the Park transformation is introduced and applied to the IM a-b-c model, leading to its Park one, which is then used to analyze the IM steady-state operation. The chapter also includes a case study dealing with the doubly fed induction machine, which is widely integrated in wind power generating systems. Following the introduction of the continuous development of synchronous machines (SMs), the second part establishes the a-b-c model for salient pole machines. Then, the Park transformation is applied to the established a-b-c model, leading to the Park one. The section highlights the formulation and analysis of the electromagnetic torque, with its synchronizing and reluctant components investigated in terms of the torque angle. Subsequently, it characterizes the operation at (i) maximum torque and (ii) unity power factor before focusing on the flux weakening approaches that could be implemented in SMs considering both smooth and salient pole topologies. Lastly, it presents a case study dealing with an investigation of the main features of the electric drive unit of a hybrid propulsion system and the possibility of their improvement, with an emphasis on the extension of the flux weakening range.



Communication Systems for Electrical Engineers

Communication Systems for Electrical Engineers Author Mohammad A. Matin
ISBN-10 9783319701295
Release 2017-12-28
Pages 125
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This book is written as a very concise introduction for students taking a first course in communication systems. It provides the reader with fundamentals of digital communication systems and disseminates the essentials needed for the understanding of wire and wireless communication systems for Electrical Engineers. It covers important topics right from the beginning of the subject which communication engineers must understand. Example problems in each chapter will help them in understanding the materials well. The study of data networking will include multiple access, reliable packet transmission, routing and protocols of the internet. The concepts taught in class will be discussed in the context of aerospace communication systems: aircraft communications, satellite communications. The book includes example problems in each chapter to help the reader in understanding the materials well.



Energy Efficient Non Road Hybrid Electric Vehicles

Energy Efficient Non Road Hybrid Electric Vehicles Author Johannes Unger
ISBN-10 9783319297965
Release 2016-02-10
Pages 116
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This book analyzes the main problems in the real-time control of parallel hybrid electric powertrains in non-road applications that work in continuous high dynamic operation. It also provides practical insights into maximizing the energy efficiency and drivability of such powertrains. It introduces an energy-management control structure, which considers all the physical powertrain constraints and uses novel methodologies to predict the future load requirements to optimize the controller output in terms of the entire work cycle of a non-road vehicle. The load prediction includes a methodology for short-term loads as well as cycle detection methodology for an entire load cycle. In this way, the energy efficiency can be maximized, and fuel consumption and exhaust emissions simultaneously reduced. Readers gain deep insights into the topics that need to be considered in designing an energy and battery management system for non-road vehicles. It also becomes clear that only a combination of management systems can significantly increase the performance of a controller.



In Phase and Quadrature Imbalance

In Phase and Quadrature Imbalance Author Yabo Li
ISBN-10 9781461486183
Release 2013-10-01
Pages 62
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This book provides a unified IQ imbalance model and systematically reviews the existing estimation and compensation schemes. It covers the different assumptions and approaches that lead to many models of IQ imbalance. In wireless communication systems, the In-phase and Quadrature (IQ) modulator and demodulator are usually used as transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX), respectively. For Digital-to-Analog Converter (DAC) and Analog-to-Digital Converter (ADC) limited systems, such as multi-giga-hertz bandwidth millimeter-wave systems, using analog modulator and demodulator is still a low power and low cost solution. In these kind of systems, the IQ imbalance cannot be ignored. By explaining a variety of assumptions and models of IQ imbalance, the author provides a helpful resource for those who are new to this complex topic. The intended audience of this book is researchers working on the IQ imbalance as well as the system design engineers who use IQ imbalance in their systems.



Time of Flight Cameras

Time of Flight Cameras Author Miles Hansard
ISBN-10 9781447146582
Release 2012-11-06
Pages 96
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Time-of-flight (TOF) cameras provide a depth value at each pixel, from which the 3D structure of the scene can be estimated. This new type of active sensor makes it possible to go beyond traditional 2D image processing, directly to depth-based and 3D scene processing. Many computer vision and graphics applications can benefit from TOF data, including 3D reconstruction, activity and gesture recognition, motion capture and face detection. It is already possible to use multiple TOF cameras, in order to increase the scene coverage, and to combine the depth data with images from several colour cameras. Mixed TOF and colour systems can be used for computational photography, including full 3D scene modelling, as well as for illumination and depth-of-field manipulations. This work is a technical introduction to TOF sensors, from architectural and design issues, to selected image processing and computer vision methods.



Radio Link Quality Estimation in Low Power Wireless Networks

Radio Link Quality Estimation in Low Power Wireless Networks Author Nouha Baccour
ISBN-10 9783319007748
Release 2013-07-18
Pages 147
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This book provides a comprehensive survey on related work for radio link quality estimation, which covers the characteristics of low-power links, the fundamental concepts of link quality estimation in wireless sensor networks, a taxonomy of existing link quality estimators and their performance analysis. It then shows how link quality estimation can be used for designing protocols and mechanisms such as routing and hand-off. The final part is dedicated to radio interference estimation, generation and mitigation.



Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters

Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters Author Chi-Seng Lam
ISBN-10 9783642413230
Release 2013-11-20
Pages 158
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Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters presents an overview of the current quality problems and their compensators. To get a balance between the system cost and performance, hybrid active power filters (HAPFs) are valuable. The book presents the coverage of resonance phenomena prevention capability, filtering performance and system robustness analysis of HAPF; nonlinear inverter current slope characteristics and their linear operation region requirement analysis of the hysteresis PWM for the HAPF; minimum inverter capacity design procedure of HAPF, adaptive dc-link voltage controller for the HAPF and the real design example of a 220V 10kVA HAPF, in which the system performance analysis method, minimum dc voltage deduction concept and adaptive dc voltage idea can be further extended into the other active compensators, such as APF, static synchronous compensator STATCOM, etc. This book will benefit researchers, graduate students, and electrical power engineers in the field of power-quality compensation. Dr. Chi-Seng Lam and Dr. Man-Chung Wong are both from the University of Macau, Macao, China.



Sparse and Redundant Representations

Sparse and Redundant Representations Author Michael Elad
ISBN-10 9781441970114
Release 2010-08-12
Pages 376
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A long long time ago, echoing philosophical and aesthetic principles that existed since antiquity, William of Ockham enounced the principle of parsimony, better known today as Ockham’s razor: “Entities should not be multiplied without neces sity. ” This principle enabled scientists to select the ”best” physical laws and theories to explain the workings of the Universe and continued to guide scienti?c research, leadingtobeautifulresultsliketheminimaldescriptionlength approachtostatistical inference and the related Kolmogorov complexity approach to pattern recognition. However, notions of complexity and description length are subjective concepts anddependonthelanguage“spoken”whenpresentingideasandresults. The?eldof sparse representations, that recently underwent a Big Bang like expansion, explic itly deals with the Yin Yang interplay between the parsimony of descriptions and the “language” or “dictionary” used in them, and it became an extremely exciting area of investigation. It already yielded a rich crop of mathematically pleasing, deep and beautiful results that quickly translated into a wealth of practical engineering applications. You are holding in your hands the ?rst guide book to Sparseland, and I am sure you’ll ?nd in it both familiar and new landscapes to see and admire, as well as ex cellent pointers that will help you ?nd further valuable treasures. Enjoy the journey to Sparseland! Haifa, Israel, December 2009 Alfred M. Bruckstein vii Preface This book was originally written to serve as the material for an advanced one semester (fourteen 2 hour lectures) graduate course for engineering students at the Technion, Israel.



Modeling Discrete Event Systems with GPenSIM

Modeling Discrete Event Systems with GPenSIM Author Reggie Davidrajuh
ISBN-10 9783319731025
Release 2018-02-28
Pages 138
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Modeling Discrete-Event Systems with GPenSIM describes the design and applications of General Purpose Petri Net Simulator (GPenSIM), which is a software tool for modeling, simulation, and performance analysis of discrete-event systems. The brief explains the principles of modelling discrete-event systems, as well as the design and applications of GPenSIM. It is based on the author’s lectures that were given on “modeling, simulation, and performance analysis of discrete event systems”. The brief uses GPenSIM to enable the efficient modeling of complex and large-scale discrete-event systems. GPenSIM, which is based on MATLAB®, is designed to allow easy integration of Petri net models with a vast number of toolboxes that are available on the MATLAB®. The book offers an approach for developing models that can interact with the external environment; this will help readers to solve problems in industrial diverse fields. These problems include: airport capacity evaluation for aviation authorities; finding bottlenecks in supply chains; scheduling drilling operations in the oil and gas industry; and optimal scheduling of jobs in grid computing. This brief is of interest to researchers working on the modeling, simulation and performance evaluation of discrete-event systems, as it shows them the design and applications of an efficient modeling package. Since the book also explains the basic principles of modeling discrete-event systems in a step-by-step manner, it is also of interest to final-year undergraduate and postgraduate students.



Iterative Learning Control for Electrical Stimulation and Stroke Rehabilitation

Iterative Learning Control for Electrical Stimulation and Stroke Rehabilitation Author Chris Freeman
ISBN-10 9781447167266
Release 2015-06-25
Pages 124
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Iterative learning control (ILC) has its origins in the control of processes that perform a task repetitively with a view to improving accuracy from trial to trial by using information from previous executions of the task. This brief shows how a classic application of this technique – trajectory following in robots – can be extended to neurological rehabilitation after stroke. Regaining upper limb movement is an important step in a return to independence after stroke, but the prognosis for such recovery has remained poor. Rehabilitation robotics provides the opportunity for repetitive task-oriented movement practice reflecting the importance of such intense practice demonstrated by conventional therapeutic research and motor learning theory. Until now this technique has not allowed feedback from one practice repetition to influence the next, also implicated as an important factor in therapy. The authors demonstrate how ILC can be used to adjust external functional electrical stimulation of patients’ muscles while they are repeatedly performing a task in response to the known effects of stimulation in previous repetitions. As the motor nerves and muscles of the arm reaquire the ability to convert an intention to move into a motion of accurate trajectory, force and rapidity, initially intense external stimulation can now be scaled back progressively until the fullest possible independence of movement is achieved.



Basics of Computer Networking

Basics of Computer Networking Author Thomas Robertazzi
ISBN-10 1461421047
Release 2011-11-04
Pages 84
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Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.