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An Introduction to Modelling of Power System Components

An Introduction to Modelling of Power System Components Author S Krishna
ISBN-10 9788132218470
Release 2014-04-02
Pages 134
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The brief provides a quick introduction to the dynamic modelling of power system components. It gives a rigorous derivation of the model of different components of the power system such as synchronous generator, transformer, transmission line, FACTS, DC transmission system, excitation system and speed governor. Models of load and prime movers are also discussed. The brief can be used as a reference for researchers working in the areas of power system dynamics, stability analysis and design of stability controllers. It can also serve as a text for a short course on power system modelling, or as a supplement for a senior undergraduate/graduate course on power system stability.



Spatial Data Analysis

Spatial Data Analysis Author Manfred M. Fischer
ISBN-10 3642217206
Release 2011-08-05
Pages 88
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The availability of spatial databases and widespread use of geographic information systems has stimulated increasing interest in the analysis and modelling of spatial data. Spatial data analysis focuses on detecting patterns, and on exploring and modelling relationships between them in order to understand the processes responsible for their emergence. In this way, the role of space is emphasised, and our understanding of the working and representation of space, spatial patterns, and processes is enhanced. In applied research, the recognition of the spatial dimension often yields different and more meaningful results and helps to avoid erroneous conclusions. This book aims to provide an introduction into spatial data analysis to graduates interested in applied statistical research. The text has been structured from a data-driven rather than a theory-based perspective, and focuses on those models, methods and techniques which are both accessible and of practical use for graduate students. Exploratory techniques as well as more formal model-based approaches are presented, and both area data and origin-destination flow data are considered.



Control Oriented Modelling of AC Electric Machines

Control Oriented Modelling of AC Electric Machines Author Ahmed Masmoudi
ISBN-10 9789811090561
Release 2018-04-11
Pages 75
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The book discusses the modeling of induction and synchronous machines aimed at the synthesis of dedicated control strategies. The first part focuses on induction machines (IMs), and starts with the analysis of the principle of operation, which is based on the induction phenomenon. It then establishes the a-b-c model, assuming a sinusoidal spatial repartition of the air gap flux density, a linear magnetic circuit, and constant phase resistors. The a-b-c model enables the establishment of a state representation of the induction machine. Then, the Park transformation is introduced and applied to the IM a-b-c model, leading to its Park one, which is then used to analyze the IM steady-state operation. The chapter also includes a case study dealing with the doubly fed induction machine, which is widely integrated in wind power generating systems. Following the introduction of the continuous development of synchronous machines (SMs), the second part establishes the a-b-c model for salient pole machines. Then, the Park transformation is applied to the established a-b-c model, leading to the Park one. The section highlights the formulation and analysis of the electromagnetic torque, with its synchronizing and reluctant components investigated in terms of the torque angle. Subsequently, it characterizes the operation at (i) maximum torque and (ii) unity power factor before focusing on the flux weakening approaches that could be implemented in SMs considering both smooth and salient pole topologies. Lastly, it presents a case study dealing with an investigation of the main features of the electric drive unit of a hybrid propulsion system and the possibility of their improvement, with an emphasis on the extension of the flux weakening range.



Time of Flight Cameras

Time of Flight Cameras Author Miles Hansard
ISBN-10 9781447146582
Release 2012-11-06
Pages 96
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Time-of-flight (TOF) cameras provide a depth value at each pixel, from which the 3D structure of the scene can be estimated. This new type of active sensor makes it possible to go beyond traditional 2D image processing, directly to depth-based and 3D scene processing. Many computer vision and graphics applications can benefit from TOF data, including 3D reconstruction, activity and gesture recognition, motion capture and face detection. It is already possible to use multiple TOF cameras, in order to increase the scene coverage, and to combine the depth data with images from several colour cameras. Mixed TOF and colour systems can be used for computational photography, including full 3D scene modelling, as well as for illumination and depth-of-field manipulations. This work is a technical introduction to TOF sensors, from architectural and design issues, to selected image processing and computer vision methods.



Spain s Photovoltaic Revolution

Spain   s Photovoltaic Revolution Author Pedro A. Prieto
ISBN-10 9781441994370
Release 2013-01-04
Pages 128
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The Energy Return on Energy Invested (EROI or EROEI) is the amount of energy acquired from a particular energy source divided by the energy expended, or invested, in obtaining that energy. EROI is an essential and seemingly simple measure of the usable energy or “energy profit” from the exploitation of an energy source, but it is not so easy to determine all of the energy expenditures that should be included in the calculation. Because EROI values are generally low for renewable energy sources, differences in these estimates can lead to sharply divergent conclusions about the viability of these energy technologies. This book presents the first complete energy analysis of a large-scale, real-world deployment of photovoltaic (PV) collection systems representing 3.5 GW of installed, grid-connected solar plants in Spain. The analysis includes all of the factors that limit and adjust the real electricity output through one full-year cycle, and all of the fossil fuel inputs required to achieve these results. The authors’ comprehensive analysis of energy inputs, which assigns energy cost estimates to all financial expenditures, yields EROI values that are less than half of those claimed by other investigators and by the solar industry. Sensitivity analysis is used to test various assumptions in deriving these EROI estimates. The results imply that the EROI of current, large-scale PV systems may be too low to seamlessly support an energy and economic transition away from fossil fuels. Given the pervasiveness of fossil fuel subsidies in the modern economy, a key conclusion is that all components of the system that brings solar power to the consumer, from manufacturing to product maintenance and life cycle, must be improved in terms of energy efficiency. The materials science of solar conversion efficiency is only one such component. Sunny Spain represented an ideal case study as the country had the highest penetration of solar PV energy at 2.3 percent of total national demand as well as state-of-the-art expertise in solar power including grid management of intermittent, modern renewable systems. This book, written by a uniquely qualified author team consisting of the chief engineer for several major photovoltaic projects in Spain and the world’s leading expert on the concept and application of EROI, provides a comprehensive understanding of the net energy available to society from energy sources in general and from functioning PV installations under real-world conditions in particular. The authors provide critical insight into the capacity of renewable energy sources to fill the foreseeable gap between world energy demand and depletion rates for fossil fuels. · Presents the first comprehensive study of the EROI of large-scale solar PV systems in a developed country · Uses real-world operational data rather than laboratory approximations and extrapolations · Describes the dependence of one alternative energy source on the goods and services of a fossil-fueled economy · Has global implications for the potential of renewable energy sources to replace dwindling reserves of fossil fuels · Written with the first-hand knowledge of the chief, on-site engineer for many solar installations in Spain together with the leader in the development and application of the concept of EROI



Basics of Computer Networking

Basics of Computer Networking Author Thomas Robertazzi
ISBN-10 1461421047
Release 2011-11-04
Pages 84
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Springer Brief Basics of Computer Networking provides a non-mathematical introduction to the world of networks. This book covers both technology for wired and wireless networks. Coverage includes transmission media, local area networks, wide area networks, and network security. Written in a very accessible style for the interested layman by the author of a widely used textbook with many years of experience explaining concepts to the beginner.



Automated Solution of Differential Equations by the Finite Element Method

Automated Solution of Differential Equations by the Finite Element Method Author Anders Logg
ISBN-10 9783642230998
Release 2012-02-24
Pages 731
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This book is a tutorial written by researchers and developers behind the FEniCS Project and explores an advanced, expressive approach to the development of mathematical software. The presentation spans mathematical background, software design and the use of FEniCS in applications. Theoretical aspects are complemented with computer code which is available as free/open source software. The book begins with a special introductory tutorial for beginners. Following are chapters in Part I addressing fundamental aspects of the approach to automating the creation of finite element solvers. Chapters in Part II address the design and implementation of the FEnicS software. Chapters in Part III present the application of FEniCS to a wide range of applications, including fluid flow, solid mechanics, electromagnetics and geophysics.



Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters

Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters Author Chi-Seng Lam
ISBN-10 9783642413230
Release 2013-11-20
Pages 158
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Design and Control of Hybrid Active Power Filters presents an overview of the current quality problems and their compensators. To get a balance between the system cost and performance, hybrid active power filters (HAPFs) are valuable. The book presents the coverage of resonance phenomena prevention capability, filtering performance and system robustness analysis of HAPF; nonlinear inverter current slope characteristics and their linear operation region requirement analysis of the hysteresis PWM for the HAPF; minimum inverter capacity design procedure of HAPF, adaptive dc-link voltage controller for the HAPF and the real design example of a 220V 10kVA HAPF, in which the system performance analysis method, minimum dc voltage deduction concept and adaptive dc voltage idea can be further extended into the other active compensators, such as APF, static synchronous compensator STATCOM, etc. This book will benefit researchers, graduate students, and electrical power engineers in the field of power-quality compensation. Dr. Chi-Seng Lam and Dr. Man-Chung Wong are both from the University of Macau, Macao, China.



Battery Power Management for Portable Devices

Battery Power Management for Portable Devices Author Yevgen Barsukov
ISBN-10 9781608074914
Release 2013-05-01
Pages 268
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The introduction of Li-ion batteries in 1991 created a tremendous change in the handheld devices landscape. Since then, the energy stored and put to use in palm-sized electronic devices has quadrupled. Devices are continuously getting more power hungry, outpacing battery development. Written by leading engineers in the field, This cutting-edge resource helps you overcome this challenge, offering you an insightful overview and in-depth guide to the many varied areas of battery power management for portable devices. You find the latest details on optimizing charging circuits, developing battery gauges that provide the longest possible run-time while ensuring data protection, and utilizing safety circuits that provide multiple independent levels of protection for highly energetic batteries. This unique book features detailed design examples of whole systems, providing you with the real-world perspective needed to put this knowledge into practice. You get the state-of-the-art know-how you need to perfect your device designs, helping you make them strong competitors in the fast-growing portable device marketplace.



Radio Link Quality Estimation in Low Power Wireless Networks

Radio Link Quality Estimation in Low Power Wireless Networks Author Nouha Baccour
ISBN-10 9783319007748
Release 2013-07-18
Pages 147
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This book provides a comprehensive survey on related work for radio link quality estimation, which covers the characteristics of low-power links, the fundamental concepts of link quality estimation in wireless sensor networks, a taxonomy of existing link quality estimators and their performance analysis. It then shows how link quality estimation can be used for designing protocols and mechanisms such as routing and hand-off. The final part is dedicated to radio interference estimation, generation and mitigation.



Time Domain Ultra Wideband Radar Sensor and Components

Time Domain Ultra Wideband Radar  Sensor and Components Author Cam Nguyen
ISBN-10 9781461495789
Release 2014-04-09
Pages 133
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This book presents the theory, analysis, and design of ultra-wideband (UWB) radar and sensor systems (in short, UWB systems) and their components. UWB systems find numerous applications in the military, security, civilian, commercial and medicine fields. This book addresses five main topics of UWB systems: System Analysis, Transmitter Design, Receiver Design, Antenna Design and System Integration and Test. The developments of a practical UWB system and its components using microwave integrated circuits, as well as various measurements, are included in detail to demonstrate the theory, analysis and design technique. Essentially, this book will enable the reader to design their own UWB systems and components. In the System Analysis chapter, the UWB principle of operation as well as the power budget analysis and range resolution analysis are presented. In the UWB Transmitter Design chapter, the design, fabrication and measurement of impulse and monocycle pulse generators are covered. The UWB Receiver Design chapter addresses the design and measurement of the strobe pulse generator, sampling mixer, low-noise amplifier and synchronous sampling receiver. Next, the UWB Antenna Design chapter details the design and measurement of to two UWB antennas: the microstrip quasi-horn antenna and the UWB uniplanar antenna. The System Integration and Test chapter covers the transmission-reception test, signal processing, system integration, and evaluation of the UWB sensor. The final chapter provides a summary and conclusion of the work.



Spatio temporal Networks

Spatio temporal Networks Author Betsy George
ISBN-10 9781461449188
Release 2012-09-05
Pages 73
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Spatio-temporal networks (STN)are spatial networks whose topology and/or attributes change with time. These are encountered in many critical areas of everyday life such as transportation networks, electric power distribution grids, and social networks of mobile users. STN modeling and computations raise significant challenges. The model must meet the conflicting requirements of simplicity and adequate support for efficient algorithms. Another challenge is to address the change in the semantics of common graph operations, such as, shortest path computation assuming different semantics, or when temporal dimension is added. Also paradigms (e.g. dynamic programming) used in algorithm design may be ineffective since their assumptions (e.g. stationary ranking of candidates) may be violated by the dynamic nature of STNs. In recent years, STNs have attracted attention in research. New representations have been proposed along with algorithms to perform key STN operations, while accounting for their time dependence. Designing a STN database would require the development of data models, query languages, and indexing methods to efficiently represent, query, store, and manage time-variant properties of the network. The purpose of Spatio-temporal Networks: Modeling and Algorithms is to explore this design at the conceptual, logical, and physical level. Models used to represent STNs are explored and analyzed. STN operations, with an emphasis on their altered semantics with the addition of temporal dimension, are also addressed.



Design of CMOS Analog Integrated Fractional Order Circuits

Design of CMOS Analog Integrated Fractional Order Circuits Author Georgia Tsirimokou
ISBN-10 9783319556338
Release 2017-05-03
Pages 116
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This book describes the design and realization of analog fractional-order circuits, which are suitable for on-chip implementation, capable of low-voltage operation and electronic adjustment of their characteristics. The authors provide a brief introduction to fractional-order calculus, followed by design issues for fractional-order circuits of various orders and types. The benefits of this approach are demonstrated with current-mode and voltage-mode filter designs. Electronically tunable emulators of fractional-order capacitors and inductors are presented, where the behavior of the corresponding chips fabricated using the AMS 0.35um CMOS process has been experimentally verified. Applications of fractional-order circuits are demonstrated, including a pre-processing stage suitable for the implementation of the Pan-Tompkins algorithm for detecting the QRS complexes of an electrocardiogram (ECG), a fully tunable implementation of the Cole-Cole model used for the modeling of biological tissues, and a simple, non-impedance based measuring technique for super-capacitors.



Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks

Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks Author Yuanyuan Yang
ISBN-10 9783319176567
Release 2015-04-20
Pages 56
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This SpringerBrief provides a concise guide to applying wireless energy transfer techniques in traditional battery-powered sensor networks. It examines the benefits and challenges of wireless power including efficiency and reliability. The authors build a wireless rechargeable sensor networks from scratch and aim to provide perpetual network operation. Chapters cover a wide range of topics from the collection of energy information and recharge scheduling to joint design with typical sensing applications such as data gathering. Problems are approached using a natural combination of probability theory, optimization, algorithm and protocol designs. All proposed mechanisms are evaluated by extensive simulations. Wireless Rechargeable Sensor Networks targets professionals and researchers working in networks, wireless communications, energy technology and information technology. Advanced-level students studying electrical engineering and computer science will also find this material useful as a study guide.



MIMO Radar Waveform Design for Spectrum Sharing with Cellular Systems

MIMO Radar Waveform Design for Spectrum Sharing with Cellular Systems Author Awais Khawar
ISBN-10 9783319297255
Release 2016-02-13
Pages 59
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This book discusses spectrum sharing between cellular systems and radars. The book addresses a novel way to design radar waveforms that can enable spectrum sharing between radars and communication systems, without causing interference to communication systems, and at the same time achieving radar objectives of target detection, estimation, and tracking. The book includes a MATLAB-based approach, which provides reader with a way to learn, experiment, compare, and build on top of existing algorithms.



Control Oriented Modelling of AC Electric Machines

Control Oriented Modelling of AC Electric Machines Author Ahmed Masmoudi
ISBN-10 9789811090561
Release 2018-04-11
Pages 75
Download Link Click Here

The book discusses the modeling of induction and synchronous machines aimed at the synthesis of dedicated control strategies. The first part focuses on induction machines (IMs), and starts with the analysis of the principle of operation, which is based on the induction phenomenon. It then establishes the a-b-c model, assuming a sinusoidal spatial repartition of the air gap flux density, a linear magnetic circuit, and constant phase resistors. The a-b-c model enables the establishment of a state representation of the induction machine. Then, the Park transformation is introduced and applied to the IM a-b-c model, leading to its Park one, which is then used to analyze the IM steady-state operation. The chapter also includes a case study dealing with the doubly fed induction machine, which is widely integrated in wind power generating systems. Following the introduction of the continuous development of synchronous machines (SMs), the second part establishes the a-b-c model for salient pole machines. Then, the Park transformation is applied to the established a-b-c model, leading to the Park one. The section highlights the formulation and analysis of the electromagnetic torque, with its synchronizing and reluctant components investigated in terms of the torque angle. Subsequently, it characterizes the operation at (i) maximum torque and (ii) unity power factor before focusing on the flux weakening approaches that could be implemented in SMs considering both smooth and salient pole topologies. Lastly, it presents a case study dealing with an investigation of the main features of the electric drive unit of a hybrid propulsion system and the possibility of their improvement, with an emphasis on the extension of the flux weakening range.



Communication Systems for Electrical Engineers

Communication Systems for Electrical Engineers Author Mohammad A. Matin
ISBN-10 9783319701295
Release 2017-12-28
Pages 125
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This book is written as a very concise introduction for students taking a first course in communication systems. It provides the reader with fundamentals of digital communication systems and disseminates the essentials needed for the understanding of wire and wireless communication systems for Electrical Engineers. It covers important topics right from the beginning of the subject which communication engineers must understand. Example problems in each chapter will help them in understanding the materials well. The study of data networking will include multiple access, reliable packet transmission, routing and protocols of the internet. The concepts taught in class will be discussed in the context of aerospace communication systems: aircraft communications, satellite communications. The book includes example problems in each chapter to help the reader in understanding the materials well.