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Applications of Supercritical Fluids in Industrial Analysis

Applications of Supercritical Fluids in Industrial Analysis Author J.R. Dean
ISBN-10 9789401121460
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 224
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The continued search for rapid, efficient and cost-effective means of analytical measurement has introduced supercritical fluids into the field of analytical chemistry. Two areas are common: supercritical fluid chroma tography and supercritical fluid extraction. Both seek to exploit the unique properties of a gas at temperatures and pressures above the critical point. The most common supercritical fluid is carbon dioxide, employed because of its low critical temperature (31 °C), inertness, purity, non-toxicity and cheapness. Alternative supercritical fluids are also used and often in conjunction with modifiers. The combined gas-like mass transfer and liquid-like solvating characteristics have been used for improved chroma tographic separation and faster sample preparation. Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is complementary to gas chro matography ( GC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), providing higher efficiency than HPLC, together with the ability to analyse thermally labile and high molecular weight analytes. Both packed and open tubular columns can be employed, providing the capability to analyse a wide range of sample types. In addition, flame ionization detection can be used, thus providing 'universal' detection.



Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Author Gregory K. Webster
ISBN-10 9789814463003
Release 2014-02-04
Pages 418
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Analytical chemists in the pharmaceutical industry are always looking for more-efficient techniques to meet the analytical challenges of today’s pharmaceutical industry. One technique that has made steady advances in pharmaceutical analysis is supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC). SFC is meeting the chromatography needs of the industry by providing efficient and selective testing capabilities on the analytical and preparative scale. The supercritical fluid mobile phase, consisting mainly of CO2, facilitates cost reduction costs and helps the industry in meeting green chemistry standards. This book provides a comprehensive overview of the use of SFC in pharmaceutical analysis. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography reviews the use of SFC in drug-discovery applications and describes its application in drug development. When a drug is developed and brought to market, it is tested many times for impurities and degradants, enantiomeric purity, and analytical and preparative isolations—it is tested during discovery and development and for under-regulated and unregulated methodologies. The book describes the use of SFC for each of these applications and discusses more in-depth topics, such as the use of SFC in mass spectrometric and polarographic detection. The book also sheds light on the role of SFC in drug development from natural products and the advancement of SFC with new technologies and its use in pilot-scale operations as a chromatographic technique.



Supercritical Fluid Cleaning

Supercritical Fluid Cleaning Author Samuel P. Sawan
ISBN-10 9780815519164
Release 1998-12-31
Pages 306
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Although supercritial fluid (SCF) technology is now widely used in extraction and purification processes (in the petrochemical, food and pharmaceuticals industries), this book is the first to address the new application of cleaning. The objective is to provide a roadmap for readers who want to know whether SCF technology can meet their own processing and cleaning needs. It is particularly helpful to those striving to balance the requirements for a clean product and a clean environment. The interdisciplinary subject matter will appeal to scientists and engineers in all specialties ranging from materials and polymer sciences to chemistry and physics. It is also useful to those developing new processes for other applications, and references given at the end of each chapter provide links to the wider body of SCF literature. The book is organized with topics progressing from the fundamental nature of the supercritical state, through process conditions and materials interactions, to economic considerations. Practical examples are included to show how the technology has been successfully applied. The first four chapters consider principles governing SCF processing, detailing issues such as solubility, design for cleanability, and the dynamics of particle removal. The next three chapters discuss surfactants and microemulsions, SCF interaction with polymers, and the use of supercritical carbon dioxide (CO2) as a cleaning solvent. The closing chapters focus on more practical considerations such as scaleup, equipment costs, and financial analysis.



Practical Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Extraction

Practical Supercritical Fluid Chromatography and Extraction Author Thomas Caudell
ISBN-10 9781351422505
Release 2018-05-04
Pages 456
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An exploration of fundamental as well as practical aspects of supercritical fluid chromatography and extraction. It addresses topics such as: packed columns in SFC; detection in SFC; supercritical fluid chromatography/mass spectroscopy; and evaporative light scattering detection in SFC.



Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Drug Product Development Author Peter York
ISBN-10 9780824751029
Release 2004-03-23
Pages 632
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Interconnecting the fundamentals of supercritical fluid (SCF) technologies, their current and anticipated utility in drug delivery, and process engineering advances from related methodological domains and pharmaceutical applications, this volume unlocks the potential of supercritical fluids to further the development of improved pharmaceutical products-from drug powders for respiratory delivery to drug delivery systems for controlled release.



Plant Volatile Analysis

Plant Volatile Analysis Author Hans F. Linskens
ISBN-10 354061589X
Release 1997-04-16
Pages 266
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The book covers a vast array of methods for the analysis of volatile compounds exuded by plants. Some of these volatiles are of great commercial importance, including the aromas of wines and teas, and volatiles in fruits. Other volatiles such as essential oils can be useful for chemotaxonomic purposes, and a chapter on an emerging method, that of chemometric analysis of such data, is included. Isoprene and ammonia rarely find a place in analytical methods presented for plant materials, but methods for these volatiles are described in this book. The volatiles given off by flowers are also included, and in situ headspace analysis of these volatiles is described, a method of potential use for the study of insect-plant interactions.



Supercritical Fluid Chromatography with Patked Columns

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography with Patked Columns Author Klaus Anton
ISBN-10 0824700139
Release 1997-09-19
Pages 472
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From the analytical to industrial preparative scale, this work provides a praxis-oriented overview of packed column supercritical fluid chromatography. It discusses and evaluates established applications and techniques, up-to-date and promising developments, and commercial instrumentation devices for use in industry. The book also reveals possibilities for problem solving and future innovations.



Supercritical Fluid Chromatography

Supercritical Fluid Chromatography Author Colin F. Poole
ISBN-10 9780128093672
Release 2017-02-16
Pages 572
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Supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) is a rapidly developing laboratory technique for the separation and identification of compounds in mixtures. Significant improvements in instrumentation have rekindled interest in SFC in recent years and enhanced its standing in the scientific community. Many scientists are familiar with column liquid chromatography and its strengths and weaknesses, but the possibilities brought to the table by SFC are less well-known and are underappreciated. Supercritical Fluid Chromatography is a thorough and encompassing reference that defines the concept of contemporary practice in SFC and how it should be implemented in laboratory science. Given the changes that have taken place in SFC, this book presents contemporary aspects and applications of the technique and introduces SFC as a natural solution in the larger field of separation science. The focus on state-of-the-art instrumental SFC distinguishes this work as the go-to reference work for those interested in implementing the technique at an advanced level. Edited and authored by world-leading chromatography experts Provides comprehensive coverage of SFC in a single source Extensive referencing facilitates identification of key research developments More than 200 figures and tables aid in the retention of key concepts



Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds

Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds Author Jose L. Martinez
ISBN-10 1420006517
Release 2007-11-28
Pages 424
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Enhanced concern for the quality and safety of food products, increased preference for natural products, and stricter regulations on the residual level of solvents, all contribute to the growing use of supercritical fluid technology as a primary alternative for the extraction, fractionation, and isolation of active ingredients. As a solvent-free process, supercritical fluid technology is a popular answer for the functional foods and nutraceutical sector, one of the fastest growing consumer driven markets. Recent advancements in the technology and increased utilization of the process demand a comprehensive, single-source review of current and future trends in supercritical fluid technology. Compiling contributions from international experts in the field, Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Nutraceuticals and Bioactive Compounds presents the state-of-the-science in the extraction and fractionation of bioactive ingredients by supercritical fluids. Focusing on implemented industrial processes and trends, it reviews the fundamentals of the technology and examines the economics of supercritical fluid extraction systems and processes. Over the course of twelve chapters, the book presents the supercritical fluid extraction processes in edible oils, including fish oils and specialty oils; herbs, such as Latin American plants and those used in Traditional Chinese Medicine; algae; spices; antioxidants and essential oils; as well as the processing of micro and nano-scale materials by supercritical fluid technology. Each chapter covers the major active components in the target material, including chemical, physical, nutritional, and pharmaceutical properties; an analysis of the specific supercritical fluid process used; a comparison of traditional processing methods versus supercritical fluid technology; and a set of conclusions with supporting data and insight.



Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media

Supercritical Fluids as Solvents and Reaction Media Author Gerd H. Brunner
ISBN-10 0080542107
Release 2004-06-11
Pages 650
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Supercritical fluids behave either like a gas or a liquid, depending on the values of thermodynamic properties. This tuning of properties, and other advantageous properties of supercritical fluids led to innovative technologies. More than 100 plants of production size are now in operation worldwide in the areas of process and production technology, environmental applications, and particle engineering. New processes are under research and development in various fields. This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany. It is based on the research program "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the "GVC-Fachausschuß Hochdruckverfahrenstechnik" (i.e. the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers). This research program provided an immensely valuable platform for exchange of knowledge and experience. More than 50 young researchers were involved contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth. The results of this innovative research are described in this book. - This book provides an overview of the research activities in the field of Supercritical Fluids in Germany - Contains results of projects within the research program on "Supercritical fluids as solvents and reaction media" on the initiative of the German working party on High Pressure Chemical Engineering of the Society of Chemical Engineers. - More than 50 young researchers were involved in contributing with their expertise, their new ideas, and the motivation of youth.



Supercritical Fluids

Supercritical Fluids Author E. Kiran
ISBN-10 9789401139298
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 596
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Supercritical fluids are neither gas nor liquid, but can be compressed gradually from low to high density and they are therefore interesting and important as tunable solvents and reaction media in the chemical process industry. By adjusting the density the properties of these fluids can be customised and manipulated for a given process - physical or chemical transformation. Separation and processing using supercritical solvents such as CO2 are currently on-line commercially in the food, essential oils and polymer industries. Many agencies and industries are considering the use of supercritical water for waste remediation. Supercritical fluid chromatography represents another, major analytical application. Significant advances have recently been made in materials processing, ranging from particle formation to the creation of porous materials. The chapters in this book provide tutorial accounts of topical areas centred around: (1) phase equilibria, thermodynamics and equations of state; (2) critical behaviour, crossover effects; (3) transport and interfacial properties; (4) molecular modelling, computer simulation; (5) reactions, spectroscopy; (6) phase separation kinetics; (7) extractions; (8) applications to polymers, pharmaceuticals, natural materials and chromatography; (9) process scale-up.



Oil Extraction and Analysis

Oil Extraction and Analysis Author D. L. Luthria
ISBN-10 1893997782
Release 2004-04-30
Pages 282
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This book contains papers from the symposium "Critical Issues, Current and Emerging Technologies for Determination of Crude Fat Content in Food, Feed and Seeds," held in 2003 at the AOCS Annual Meeting in Kansas City, Missouri. The topics covered give a broad perspective of the challenges and issues of the value-added enhanced products. This book will be of interest to biotechnology professionals, processors, scientists, nutritionists, economists, new product development and business professionals, official agencies, and others actively engaged in the development and marketing of value-added products.



Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction Techniques

Analytical Supercritical Fluid Extraction Techniques Author E.D. Ramsey
ISBN-10 9789401149488
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 432
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During the past decade supercritical fluid extration (SFE) has attracted considerable attention as a sample preparation procedure in analytical chemistry. The successful implementation of this technique can lead to improved sample throughput, more efficient recovery of analytes, cleaner extracts, economic replacement of halogenated solvents and a high level of automation, compared to conventional sample preparation procedures. This book provides an overview of basic principles of SFE as well as in-depth reviews of both on- and off-line SFE methods. The on-line coupling of SFE with both chromatographic and spectroscopics techniques has been the subject of a great deal of research effort and is dealt with in detail. Newer developments, such as off-line SFE of solid and liquid matrices, are starting to attract a great deal of interest, and the coverage of these areas will prove of particular value to the analytical chemist. The international team of authors has illustrated these topics with many `state-of-the-art' applications, and each chapter provides a comprehensive list of references. For the convenience of the reader, an appendix which contains pressure conversion scales and supercritical fluid carbon dioxide density tables appears at the end of the book. The volume's extensive coverage of both on-line and off-line extraction will be particularly useful to analytical chemists, in a wide range of environments, seeking to develop high quality, simple and robust SFE methods.



Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications

Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications Author Vladimir Anikeev
ISBN-10 9780444626974
Release 2013-12-21
Pages 284
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Supercritical Fluid Technology for Energy and Environmental Applications covers the fundamental principles involved in the preparation and characterization of supercritical fluids (SCFs) used in the energy production and other environmental applications. Energy production from diversified resources — including renewable materials — using clean processes can be accomplished using technologies like SCFs. This book is focused on critical issues scientists and engineers face in applying SCFs to energy production and environmental protection, the innovative solutions they have found, and the challenges they need to overcome. The book also covers the basics of sub- and supercritical fluids, like the thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations. A supercritical fluid is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist. At this state the compound demonstrates unique properties, which can be "fine-tuned," making them suitable as organic solvents in a range of industrial and laboratory processes. This volume enables readers to select the most appropriate medium for a specific situation. It helps instructors prepare course material for graduate and postgraduate courses in the area of chemistry, chemical engineering, and environmental engineering. And it helps professional engineers learn supercritical fluid-based technologies and use them in solving the increasingly challenging environmental issues. Relates theory, chemical characteristics, and properties of the particular supercritical fluid to its various applications Covers the fundamentals of supercritical fluids, like thermodynamics of phase and chemical equilibria, mathematical modeling, and process calculations Includes the most recent applications of supercritical fluids, including energy generation, materials synthesis, and environmental protection



Supercritical fluid extraction and its use in chromatographic sample preparation

Supercritical fluid extraction and its use in chromatographic sample preparation Author S. A. Westwood
ISBN-10 0849371074
Release 1993
Pages 170
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Supercritical fluid extraction and its use in chromatographic sample preparation has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Supercritical fluid extraction and its use in chromatographic sample preparation also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Supercritical fluid extraction and its use in chromatographic sample preparation book for free.



Characterization of Porous Solids and Powders Surface Area Pore Size and Density

Characterization of Porous Solids and Powders  Surface Area  Pore Size and Density Author Seymour Lowell
ISBN-10 9781402023033
Release 2012-09-14
Pages 350
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The growth of interest in newly developed porous materials has prompted the writing of this book for those who have the need to make meaningful measurements without the benefit of years of experience. One might consider this new book as the 4th edition of "Powder Surface Area and Porosity" (Lowell & Shields), but for this new edition we set out to incorporate recent developments in the understanding of fluids in many types of porous materials, not just powders. Based on this, we felt that it would be prudent to change the title to "Characterization of Porous Solids and Powders: Surface Area, Porosity and Density". This book gives a unique overview of principles associated with the characterization of solids with regard to their surface area, pore size, pore volume and density. It covers methods based on gas adsorption (both physi and chemisorption), mercury porosimetry and pycnometry. Not only are the theoretical and experimental basics of these techniques presented in detail but also, in light of the tremendous progress made in recent years in materials science and nanotechnology, the most recent developments are described. In particular, the application of classical theories and methods for pore size analysis are contrasted with the most advanced microscopic theories based on statistical mechanics (e.g. Density Functional Theory and Molecular Simulation). The characterization of heterogeneous catalysts is more prominent than in earlier editions; the sections on mercury porosimetry and particularly chemisorption have been updated and greatly expanded.



Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology

Supercritical Fluid Nanotechnology Author Concepcion Domingo Pascual
ISBN-10 9789814613415
Release 2015-10-22
Pages 566
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The environmental and climate program demands technological solutions in the chemical industry that incorporate prevention of pollution. Major advances are needed to reduce the use of organic solvents, such as methanol, toluene, xylene, methyl ethyl ketone, and dichloromethane, which account for 27 percent of total toxics release inventory chemicals. The replacement of those solvents is a key point to enable the transition from classical synthesis to green chemistry and nanotechnology concepts, i.e., to sustainability. The first radical option to achieve this goal is to completely avoid the use of solvents, as occurs in mechanochemical processes. A wide-range synthesis prospect is given by identifying between known solvents those with less negative environmental impact. This book concerns the analysis of the advantages of using compressed CO2 to produce not only improved materials in a better way, but also new nanoproducts. Recovering and using CO2, otherwise released into the atmosphere, is a means of recycling emissions resulting from other users. The use of supercritical CO2 is a complex option from a conceptual point of view requiring enhanced technical preparation.