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Applied Multidimensional Scaling

Applied Multidimensional Scaling Author Ingwer Borg
ISBN-10 9783642318481
Release 2012-10-30
Pages 113
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This book introduces MDS as a psychological model and as a data analysis technique for the applied researcher. It also discusses, in detail, how to use two MDS programs, Proxscal (a module of SPSS) and Smacof (an R-package). The book is unique in its orientation on the applied researcher, whose primary interest is in using MDS as a tool to build substantive theories. This is done by emphasizing practical issues (such as evaluating model fit), by presenting ways to enforce theoretical expectations on the MDS solution, and by discussing typical mistakes that MDS users tend to make. The primary audience of this book are psychologists, social scientists, and market researchers. No particular background knowledge is required, beyond a basic knowledge of statistics.



Applied Multidimensional Scaling and Unfolding

Applied Multidimensional Scaling and Unfolding Author Ingwer Borg
ISBN-10 9783319734712
Release 2018-05-16
Pages 122
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This book introduces multidimensional scaling (MDS) and unfolding as data analysis techniques for applied researchers. MDS is used for the analysis of proximity data on a set of objects, representing the data as distances between points in a geometric space (usually of two dimensions). Unfolding is a related method that maps preference data (typically evaluative ratings of different persons on a set of objects) as distances between two sets of points (representing the persons and the objects, resp.). This second edition has been completely revised to reflect new developments and the coverage of unfolding has also been substantially expanded. Intended for applied researchers whose main interests are in using these methods as tools for building substantive theories, it discusses numerous applications (classical and recent), highlights practical issues (such as evaluating model fit), presents ways to enforce theoretical expectations for the scaling solutions, and addresses the typical mistakes that MDS/unfolding users tend to make. Further, it shows how MDS and unfolding can be used in practical research work, primarily by using the smacof package in the R environment but also Proxscal in SPSS. It is a valuable resource for psychologists, social scientists, and market researchers, with a basic understanding of multivariate statistics (such as multiple regression and factor analysis).



Modern Multidimensional Scaling

Modern Multidimensional Scaling Author Ingwer Borg
ISBN-10 9781475727111
Release 2013-04-18
Pages 472
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Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a technique for the analysis of similarity or dissimilarity data on a set of objects. Such data may be intercorrelations of test items, ratings of similarity on political candidates, or trade indices for a set of countries. MDS attempts to model such data as distances among points in a geometric space. The main reason for doing this is that one wants a graphical display of the structure of the data, one that is much easier to understand than an array of numbers and, moreover, one that displays the essential information in the data, smoothing out noise. There are numerous varieties of MDS. Some facets for distinguishing among them are the particular type of geometry into which one wants to map the data, the mapping function, the algorithms used to find an optimal data representation, the treatment of statistical error in the models, or the possibility to represent not just one but several similarity matrices at the same time. Other facets relate to the different purposes for which MDS has been used, to various ways of looking at or "interpreting" an MDS representation, or to differences in the data required for the particular models. In this book, we give a fairly comprehensive presentation of MDS. For the reader with applied interests only, the first six chapters of Part I should be sufficient. They explain the basic notions of ordinary MDS, with an emphasis on how MDS can be helpful in answering substantive questions.



Humor at Work in Teams Leadership Negotiations Learning and Health

Humor at Work in Teams  Leadership  Negotiations  Learning and Health Author Tabea Scheel
ISBN-10 9783319656915
Release 2017-09-04
Pages 143
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This book provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art on the adaptive and maladaptive functions of humor. Humor is inescapable in our daily interactions - also at the work place. Affiliative, self-enhancing, self-deprecating and aggressive humor can all occur at work and have unique and sometimes ambiguous effects. The volume presents humor research on five important workplace topics: teams, leadership, negotiation, learning, and health. It combines and integrates research from a range of fields, including work and organizational psychology, social psychology, communication, linguistics and sociology. In highlighting research gaps and stating future research questions, the book provides a sufficient starting point for further research on humor in relation to the aforementioned topics. For practitioners, recommendations are provided specific to each area.



Data Science

Data Science Author Francesco Palumbo
ISBN-10 9783319557236
Release 2017-07-04
Pages 342
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This edited volume on the latest advances in data science covers a wide range of topics in the context of data analysis and classification. In particular, it includes contributions on classification methods for high-dimensional data, clustering methods, multivariate statistical methods, and various applications. The book gathers a selection of peer-reviewed contributions presented at the Fifteenth Conference of the International Federation of Classification Societies (IFCS2015), which was hosted by the Alma Mater Studiorum, University of Bologna, from July 5 to 8, 2015.



Intelligent Systems for Computer Modelling

Intelligent Systems for Computer Modelling Author Vítězslav Stýskala
ISBN-10 9783319276441
Release 2016-02-13
Pages 246
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This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains papers presented at the 1st European-Middle Asian Conference on Computer Modelling, EMACOM 2015. This international conference was conceived as a brand new scientific and social event of mutual collaboration between the VSB - Technical University of Ostrava (Ostrava, Czech Republic) and the Kyrgyz National University named after J. Balasagyn (Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic). The aim of EMACOM 2015 was to present the latest development in the field of computer-aided modelling as an essential aspect of research and development of innovative systems and their applications. The conference showed that together with simulations, various modeling techniques, enabled and encouraged by the rapid development of high-performance computing platforms, are crucial for cost-efficient design, verification, and prototyping of solutions in many diverse industrial fields spanning the whole range from manufacturing, mining, machinery, and automotive industries to infrastructure planning and development, economics, energy, and modern agriculture and food industry.



Re activation of Vacant Retail Spaces

Re activation of Vacant Retail Spaces Author Luca Tamini
ISBN-10 9783319708720
Release 2017-11-16
Pages 96
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This book presents an original methodology for analyzing urban retail systems, addressing the strong retail meltdown (increase in closed corner-shops and dead malls) that is severely affecting cities and suburban areas in Europe and the USA. Taking into account both spatial and regulative aspects, it offers a new approach to retailing and retail spaces developed within the urban planning field. The book describes international case studies together with solutions to the problem of vacant retail spaces, and provides a comprehensive toolbox of guidelines useful to local and regional governments facing the problem of retail meltdown. As such, it is of interest to architects, engineers, urban planners, decision-makers and government representatives. It also provides a valuable methodological reference resource for researchers engaged in this particular field of study.



The Proper Generalized Decomposition for Advanced Numerical Simulations

The Proper Generalized Decomposition for Advanced Numerical Simulations Author Francisco Chinesta
ISBN-10 9783319028651
Release 2013-10-08
Pages 117
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Many problems in scientific computing are intractable with classical numerical techniques. These fail, for example, in the solution of high-dimensional models due to the exponential increase of the number of degrees of freedom. Recently, the authors of this book and their collaborators have developed a novel technique, called Proper Generalized Decomposition (PGD) that has proven to be a significant step forward. The PGD builds by means of a successive enrichment strategy a numerical approximation of the unknown fields in a separated form. Although first introduced and successfully demonstrated in the context of high-dimensional problems, the PGD allows for a completely new approach for addressing more standard problems in science and engineering. Indeed, many challenging problems can be efficiently cast into a multi-dimensional framework, thus opening entirely new solution strategies in the PGD framework. For instance, the material parameters and boundary conditions appearing in a particular mathematical model can be regarded as extra-coordinates of the problem in addition to the usual coordinates such as space and time. In the PGD framework, this enriched model is solved only once to yield a parametric solution that includes all particular solutions for specific values of the parameters. The PGD has now attracted the attention of a large number of research groups worldwide. The present text is the first available book describing the PGD. It provides a very readable and practical introduction that allows the reader to quickly grasp the main features of the method. Throughout the book, the PGD is applied to problems of increasing complexity, and the methodology is illustrated by means of carefully selected numerical examples. Moreover, the reader has free access to the Matlab© software used to generate these examples.



Independent Random Sampling Methods

Independent Random Sampling Methods Author Luca Martino
ISBN-10 9783319726342
Release 2018-03-31
Pages 280
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This book systematically addresses the design and analysis of efficient techniques for independent random sampling. Both general-purpose approaches, which can be used to generate samples from arbitrary probability distributions, and tailored techniques, designed to efficiently address common real-world practical problems, are introduced and discussed in detail. In turn, the monograph presents fundamental results and methodologies in the field, elaborating and developing them into the latest techniques. The theory and methods are illustrated with a varied collection of examples, which are discussed in detail in the text and supplemented with ready-to-run computer code. The main problem addressed in the book is how to generate independent random samples from an arbitrary probability distribution with the weakest possible constraints or assumptions in a form suitable for practical implementation. The authors review the fundamental results and methods in the field, address the latest methods, and emphasize the links and interplay between ostensibly diverse techniques.



Facet Theory and the Mapping Sentence

Facet Theory and the Mapping Sentence Author P. Hackett
ISBN-10 9781137345929
Release 2016-04-16
Pages 113
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How do we think about the worlds we live in? The formation of categories of events and objects seems to be a fundamental orientation procedure. Facet theory and its main tool, the mapping sentence, deal with categories of behavior and experience, their interrelationship, and their unification as our worldviews. In this book Hackett reviews philosophical writing along with neuroscientific research and information form other disciplines to provide a context for facet theory and the qualitative developments in this approach. With a variety of examples, the author proposes mapping sentences as a new way of understanding and defining complex behavior.



Simplicial Global Optimization

Simplicial Global Optimization Author Remigijus Paulavičius
ISBN-10 9781461490937
Release 2013-10-09
Pages 137
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Simplicial Global Optimization is centered on deterministic covering methods partitioning feasible region by simplices. This book looks into the advantages of simplicial partitioning in global optimization through applications where the search space may be significantly reduced while taking into account symmetries of the objective function by setting linear inequality constraints that are managed by initial partitioning. The authors provide an extensive experimental investigation and illustrates the impact of various bounds, types of subdivision, strategies of candidate selection on the performance of algorithms. A comparison of various Lipschitz bounds over simplices and an extension of Lipschitz global optimization with-out the Lipschitz constant to the case of simplicial partitioning is also depicted in this text. Applications benefiting from simplicial partitioning are examined in detail such as nonlinear least squares regression and pile placement optimization in grillage-type foundations. Researchers and engineers will benefit from simplicial partitioning algorithms such as Lipschitz branch and bound, Lipschitz optimization without the Lipschitz constant, heuristic partitioning presented. This book will leave readers inspired to develop simplicial versions of other algorithms for global optimization and even use other non-rectangular partitions for special applications.



Global Perspectives and Local Challenges Surrounding International Student Mobility

Global Perspectives and Local Challenges Surrounding International Student Mobility Author Bista, Krishna
ISBN-10 9781466697478
Release 2015-12-09
Pages 354
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As one of the fastest growing trends in higher education, study abroad programs are having a critical impact on the educational landscape. While international study programs generate more revenue and promote campus diversity, there are several challenges that must be considered when integrating non-native students into native universities. Global Perspectives and Local Challenges Surrounding International Student Mobility explores comparative research regarding the implementation of effective strategies needed when working with native and non-native individuals in educational settings. Offering perspectives from international student experiences, as well as views on current mobility trends, immigration policies, and challenges with cultural expectations, this publication will be a critical source for educators, policymakers, and university staff who interact with international students.



An Introduction to Bartlett Correction and Bias Reduction

An Introduction to Bartlett Correction and Bias Reduction Author Gauss M. Cordeiro
ISBN-10 9783642552557
Release 2014-05-08
Pages 107
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This book presents a concise introduction to Bartlett and Bartlett-type corrections of statistical tests and bias correction of point estimators. The underlying idea behind both groups of corrections is to obtain higher accuracy in small samples. While the main focus is on corrections that can be analytically derived, the authors also present alternative strategies for improving estimators and tests based on bootstrap, a data resampling technique and discuss concrete applications to several important statistical models.



Multidisciplinary Information Retrieval

Multidisciplinary Information Retrieval Author David Lamas
ISBN-10 9783319129792
Release 2014-10-13
Pages 133
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This book constitutes the proceedings of the 7th International Information Retrieval Facility Conference, IRFC 2014, held in Copenhagen, Denmark, November 2014. The 10 papers presented together with one industry paper were carefully reviewed and selected from 13 submissions. The conference aims at bringing young researchers into contact with the industry at an early stage, emphasizing the applicability of IR solutions to real industry cases and the respective challenges.



Independent Component Analysis of Edge Information for Face Recognition

Independent Component Analysis of Edge Information for Face Recognition Author Kailash J. Karande
ISBN-10 9788132215127
Release 2013-07-15
Pages 81
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The book presents research work on face recognition using edge information as features for face recognition with ICA algorithms. The independent components are extracted from edge information. These independent components are used with classifiers to match the facial images for recognition purpose. In their study, authors have explored Canny and LOG edge detectors as standard edge detection methods. Oriented Laplacian of Gaussian (OLOG) method is explored to extract the edge information with different orientations of Laplacian pyramid. Multiscale wavelet model for edge detection is also proposed to extract edge information. The book provides insights for advance research work in the area of image processing and biometrics.



Asymmetric Kernel Smoothing

Asymmetric Kernel Smoothing Author Masayuki Hirukawa
ISBN-10 9789811054662
Release 2018-06-08
Pages 110
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This is the first book to provide an accessible and comprehensive introduction to a newly developed smoothing technique using asymmetric kernel functions. Further, it discusses the statistical properties of estimators and test statistics using asymmetric kernels. The topics addressed include the bias-variance tradeoff, smoothing parameter choices, achieving rate improvements with bias reduction techniques, and estimation with weakly dependent data. Further, the large- and finite-sample properties of estimators and test statistics smoothed by asymmetric kernels are compared with those smoothed by symmetric kernels. Lastly, the book addresses the applications of asymmetric kernel estimation and testing to various forms of nonnegative economic and financial data. Until recently, the most popularly chosen nonparametric methods used symmetric kernel functions to estimate probability density functions of symmetric distributions with unbounded support. Yet many types of economic and financial data are nonnegative and violate the presumed conditions of conventional methods. Examples include incomes, wages, short-term interest rates, and insurance claims. Such observations are often concentrated near the boundary and have long tails with sparse data. Smoothing with asymmetric kernel functions has increasingly gained attention, because the approach successfully addresses the issues arising from distributions that have natural boundaries at the origin and heavy positive skewness. Offering an overview of recently developed kernel methods, complemented by intuitive explanations and mathematical proofs, this book is highly recommended to all readers seeking an in-depth and up-to-date guide to nonparametric estimation methods employing asymmetric kernel smoothing.



Quantifying Functional Biodiversity

Quantifying Functional Biodiversity Author Laura Pla
ISBN-10 9400726481
Release 2011-11-02
Pages 98
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This book synthesizes current methods used to quantify functional diversity, providing step-by-step examples for defining functional groups and estimating functional indices. The authors show how to compare communities, and how to analyze changes of diversity along environmental gradients, using real-life examples throughout. One section of the book demonstrates the selection of traits, and the standardization and characterization of ecosystem data. Another section presents methods used to quantify functional diversity, shows how to relate functional diversity with environmental variables and how to connect these to ecosystem services. The concluding section introduces FDiversity, a free program developed by the authors. The reader is guided through every step from software installation and basic functions, to sample and database design, to graphical projection methods, employing case study data to illustrate key concepts.