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Applied Multilevel Analysis

Applied Multilevel Analysis Author Jos W. R. Twisk
ISBN-10 9780521849753
Release 2006-04-06
Pages 184
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This is a practical introduction to multilevel analysis suitable for all those doing research. Most books on multilevel analysis are written by statisticians, and they focus on the mathematical background. These books are difficult for non-mathematical researchers. In contrast, this volume provides an accessible account on the application of multilevel analysis in research. It addresses the practical issues that confront those undertaking research and wanting to find the correct answers to research questions. This book is written for non-mathematical researchers and it explains when and how to use multilevel analysis. Many worked examples, with computer output, are given to illustrate and explain this subject. Datasets of the examples are available on the internet, so the reader can reanalyse the data. This approach will help to bridge the conceptual and communication gap that exists between those undertaking research and statisticians.



Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis for Epidemiology

Applied Longitudinal Data Analysis for Epidemiology Author Jos W. R. Twisk
ISBN-10 9781107030039
Release 2013-05-09
Pages 321
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A practical guide to the most important techniques available for longitudinal data analysis, essential for non-statisticians and researchers.



Measurement in Medicine

Measurement in Medicine Author Henrica C. W. de Vet
ISBN-10 9781139497817
Release 2011-08-11
Pages
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The success of the Apgar score demonstrates the astounding power of an appropriate clinical instrument. This down-to-earth book provides practical advice, underpinned by theoretical principles, on developing and evaluating measurement instruments in all fields of medicine. It equips you to choose the most appropriate instrument for specific purposes. The book covers measurement theories, methods and criteria for evaluating and selecting instruments. It provides methods to assess measurement properties, such as reliability, validity and responsiveness, and interpret the results. Worked examples and end-of-chapter assignments use real data and well-known instruments to build your skills at implementation and interpretation through hands-on analysis of real-life cases. All data and solutions are available online. This is a perfect course book for students and a perfect companion for professionals/researchers in the medical and health sciences who care about the quality and meaning of the measurements they perform.



Survival Analysis for Epidemiologic and Medical Research

Survival Analysis for Epidemiologic and Medical Research Author Steve Selvin
ISBN-10 9781139471244
Release 2008-03-03
Pages
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This practical guide to survival data and its analysis for readers with a minimal background in statistics shows why the analytic methods work and how to effectively analyze and interpret epidemiologic and medical survival data with the help of modern computer systems. The introduction presents a review of a variety of statistical methods that are not only key elements of survival analysis but are also central to statistical analysis in general. Techniques such as statistical tests, transformations, confidence intervals, and analytic modeling are presented in the context of survival data but are, in fact, statistical tools that apply to understanding the analysis of many kinds of data. Similarly, discussions of such statistical concepts as bias, confounding, independence, and interaction are presented in the context of survival analysis and also are basic components of a broad range of applications. These topics make up essentially a 'second-year', one-semester biostatistics course in survival analysis concepts and techniques for non-statisticians.



Statistical Modeling for Biomedical Researchers

Statistical Modeling for Biomedical Researchers Author William D. Dupont
ISBN-10 9781139643818
Release 2009-02-12
Pages
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The second edition of this standard text guides biomedical researchers in the selection and use of advanced statistical methods and the presentation of results to clinical colleagues. It assumes no knowledge of mathematics beyond high school level and is accessible to anyone with an introductory background in statistics. The Stata statistical software package is again used to perform the analyses, this time employing the much improved version 10 with its intuitive point and click as well as character-based commands. Topics covered include linear, logistic and Poisson regression, survival analysis, fixed-effects analysis of variance, and repeated-measure analysis of variance. Restricted cubic splines are used to model non-linear relationships. Each method is introduced in its simplest form and then extended to cover more complex situations. An appendix will help the reader select the most appropriate statistical methods for their data. The text makes extensive use of real data sets available at http://biostat.mc.vanderbilt.edu/dupontwd/wddtext/.



Statistical Learning for Biomedical Data

Statistical Learning for Biomedical Data Author James D. Malley
ISBN-10 9781139496858
Release 2011-02-24
Pages
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This book is for anyone who has biomedical data and needs to identify variables that predict an outcome, for two-group outcomes such as tumor/not-tumor, survival/death, or response from treatment. Statistical learning machines are ideally suited to these types of prediction problems, especially if the variables being studied may not meet the assumptions of traditional techniques. Learning machines come from the world of probability and computer science but are not yet widely used in biomedical research. This introduction brings learning machine techniques to the biomedical world in an accessible way, explaining the underlying principles in nontechnical language and using extensive examples and figures. The authors connect these new methods to familiar techniques by showing how to use the learning machine models to generate smaller, more easily interpretable traditional models. Coverage includes single decision trees, multiple-tree techniques such as Random ForestsTM, neural nets, support vector machines, nearest neighbors and boosting.



Secondary Data Sources for Public Health

Secondary Data Sources for Public Health Author Sarah Boslaugh
ISBN-10 1139464477
Release 2007-04-09
Pages
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Secondary data play an increasingly important role in epidemiology and public health research and practice; examples of secondary data sources include national surveys such as the BRFSS and NHIS, claims data for the Medicare and Medicaid systems, and public vital statistics records. Although a wealth of secondary data is available, it is not always easy to locate and access appropriate data to address a research or policy question. This practical guide circumvents these difficulties by providing an introduction to secondary data and issues specific to its management and analysis, followed by an enumeration of major sources of secondary data in the United States. Entries for each data source include the principal focus of the data, years for which it is available, history and methodology of the data collection process, and information about how to access the data and supporting materials, including relevant details about file structure and format.



Preventing and Treating Missing Data in Longitudinal Clinical Trials

Preventing and Treating Missing Data in Longitudinal Clinical Trials Author Craig H. Mallinckrodt
ISBN-10 9781107311367
Release 2013-01-28
Pages
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Recent decades have brought advances in statistical theory for missing data, which, combined with advances in computing ability, have allowed implementation of a wide array of analyses. In fact, so many methods are available that it can be difficult to ascertain when to use which method. This book focuses on the prevention and treatment of missing data in longitudinal clinical trials. Based on his extensive experience with missing data, the author offers advice on choosing analysis methods and on ways to prevent missing data through appropriate trial design and conduct. He offers a practical guide to key principles and explains analytic methods for the non-statistician using limited statistical notation and jargon. The book's goal is to present a comprehensive strategy for preventing and treating missing data, and to make available the programs used to conduct the analyses of the example dataset.



Applied Missing Data Analysis

Applied Missing Data Analysis Author Craig K. Enders
ISBN-10 9781606236406
Release 2010-04-23
Pages 377
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Walking readers step by step through complex concepts, this book translates missing data techniques into something that applied researchers and graduate students can understand and utilize in their own research. Enders explains the rationale and procedural details for maximum likelihood estimation, Bayesian estimation, multiple imputation, and models for handling missing not at random (MNAR) data. Easy-to-follow examples and small simulated data sets illustrate the techniques and clarify the underlying principles. The companion website (www.appliedmissingdata.com) includes data files and syntax for the examples in the book as well as up-to-date information on software. The book is accessible to substantive researchers while providing a level of detail that will satisfy quantitative specialists.



Survival Analysis

Survival Analysis Author David G. Kleinbaum
ISBN-10 9781475725551
Release 2013-04-18
Pages 324
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A straightforward and easy-to-follow introduction to the main concepts and techniques of the subject. It is based on numerous courses given by the author to students and researchers in the health sciences and is written with such readers in mind. A "user-friendly" layout includes numerous illustrations and exercises and the book is written in such a way so as to enable readers learn directly without the assistance of a classroom instructor. Throughout, there is an emphasis on presenting each new topic backed by real examples of a survival analysis investigation, followed up with thorough analyses of real data sets. Each chapter concludes with practice exercises to help readers reinforce their understanding of the concepts covered, before going on to a more comprehensive test. Answers to both are included. Readers will enjoy David Kleinbaums style of presentation, making this an excellent introduction for all those coming to the subject for the first time.



Multivariable Analysis

Multivariable Analysis Author Mitchell H. Katz
ISBN-10 9781139500319
Release 2011-03-10
Pages
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Now in its third edition, this highly successful text has been fully revised and updated with expanded sections on cutting-edge techniques including Poisson regression, negative binomial regression, multinomial logistic regression and proportional odds regression. As before, it focuses on easy-to-follow explanations of complicated multivariable techniques. It is the perfect introduction for all clinical researchers. It describes how to perform and interpret multivariable analysis, using plain language rather than complex derivations and mathematical formulae. It focuses on the nuts and bolts of performing research, and prepares the reader to set up, perform and interpret multivariable models. Numerous tables, graphs and tips help to demystify the process of performing multivariable analysis. The text is illustrated with many up-to-date examples from the medical literature on how to use multivariable analysis in clinical practice and in research.



Biostatistics for Epidemiology and Public Health Using R

Biostatistics for Epidemiology and Public Health Using R Author Bertram K.C. Chan, PhD
ISBN-10 9780826110268
Release 2015-11-05
Pages 500
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Since it first appeared in 1996, the open-source programming language R has become increasingly popular as an environment for statistical analysis and graphical output. This is the first textbook to present classical biostatistical analysis for epidemiology and related public health sciences to students using the R language. Based on the assumption that readers have minimal familiarity with statistical concepts, the author uses a step-by-step approach to building skills. The text encompasses biostatistics from basic descriptive and quantitative statistics to survival analysis and missing data analysis in epidemiology. Illustrative examples, including real-life research problems drawn from such areas as nutrition, environmental health, and behavioral health, engage students and reinforce the understanding of R. These examples illustrate the replication of R for biostatistical calculations and graphical display of results. The text covers both essential and advanced techniques and applications in biostatistics that are relevant to epidemiology. Also included are an instructor's guide, student solutions manual, and downloadable data sets. Key Features: First overview biostatistics textbook for epidemiology and public health that uses the open-source R program Covers essential and advanced techniques and applications in biostatistics as relevant to epidemiology Features abundant examples to illustrate the application of R language for biostatistical calculations and graphical displays of results Includes instructor's guide, student solutions manual, and downloadable data sets.



A Life Course Perspective on Health Trajectories and Transitions

A Life Course Perspective on Health Trajectories and Transitions Author Claudine Burton-Jeangros
ISBN-10 9783319204840
Release 2015-08-11
Pages 213
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This open access book examines health trajectories and health transitions at different stages of the life course, including childhood, adulthood and later life. It provides findings that assess the role of biological and social transitions on health status over time. The essays examine a wide range of health issues, including the consequences of military service on body mass index, childhood obesity and cardiovascular health, socio-economic inequalities in preventive health care use, depression and anxiety during the child rearing period, health trajectories and transitions in people with cystic fibrosis and oral health over the life course. The book addresses theoretical, empirical and methodological issues as well as examines different national contexts, which help to identify factors of vulnerability and potential resources that support resilience available for specific groups and/or populations. Health reflects the ability of individuals to adapt to their social environment. This book analyzes health as a dynamic experience. It examines how different aspects of individual health unfold over time as a result of aging but also in relation to changing socioeconomic conditions. It also offers readers potential insights into public policies that affect the health status of a population.



Practical Statistics for Medical Research

Practical Statistics for Medical Research Author Douglas G. Altman
ISBN-10 0412276305
Release 1990-11-22
Pages 624
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Most medical researchers, whether clinical or non-clinical, receive some background in statistics as undergraduates. However, it is most often brief, a long time ago, and largely forgotten by the time it is needed. Furthermore, many introductory texts fall short of adequately explaining the underlying concepts of statistics, and often are divorced from the reality of conducting and assessing medical research. Practical Statistics for Medical Research is a problem-based text for medical researchers, medical students, and others in the medical arena who need to use statistics but have no specialized mathematics background. The author draws on twenty years of experience as a consulting medical statistician to provide clear explanations to key statistical concepts, with a firm emphasis on practical aspects of designing and analyzing medical research. The text gives special attention to the presentation and interpretation of results and the many real problems that arise in medical research.



Multiple Imputation and its Application

Multiple Imputation and its Application Author James Carpenter
ISBN-10 9781118442616
Release 2012-12-19
Pages 368
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A practical guide to analysing partially observed data. Collecting, analysing and drawing inferences from data is central to research in the medical and social sciences. Unfortunately, it is rarely possible to collect all the intended data. The literature on inference from the resulting incomplete data is now huge, and continues to grow both as methods are developed for large and complex data structures, and as increasing computer power and suitable software enable researchers to apply these methods. This book focuses on a particular statistical method for analysing and drawing inferences from incomplete data, called Multiple Imputation (MI). MI is attractive because it is both practical and widely applicable. The authors aim is to clarify the issues raised by missing data, describing the rationale for MI, the relationship between the various imputation models and associated algorithms and its application to increasingly complex data structures. Multiple Imputation and its Application: Discusses the issues raised by the analysis of partially observed data, and the assumptions on which analyses rest. Presents a practical guide to the issues to consider when analysing incomplete data from both observational studies and randomized trials. Provides a detailed discussion of the practical use of MI with real-world examples drawn from medical and social statistics. Explores handling non-linear relationships and interactions with multiple imputation, survival analysis, multilevel multiple imputation, sensitivity analysis via multiple imputation, using non-response weights with multiple imputation and doubly robust multiple imputation. Multiple Imputation and its Application is aimed at quantitative researchers and students in the medical and social sciences with the aim of clarifying the issues raised by the analysis of incomplete data data, outlining the rationale for MI and describing how to consider and address the issues that arise in its application.



Medical Statistics

Medical Statistics Author Belinda Barton
ISBN-10 9781118589922
Release 2014-08-06
Pages 408
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Medical Statistics provides the necessary statistical tools to enable researchers to undertake and understand evidence-based clinical research. It is a practical guide to conducting statistical research and interpreting statistics in the context of how the participants were recruited, how the study was designed, what types of variables were used, what effect size was found, and what the P values mean. It guides researchers through the process of selecting the correct statistics and show how to best report results for presentation and publication. Clear and concise explanations, combined with plenty of examples and tabulated explanations are based on the authors’ popular medical statistics courses. The table of contents is divided into sections according to whether data are continuous or categorical in nature as this distinction is fundamental to selecting the correct statistics. Each chapter provides a clear step-by-step guide to each statistical test with practical instructions on how to generate and interpret the numbers, and present the results as scientific tables or graphs. The chapters conclude with critical appraisal guidelines to help researchers review the reporting of results from each type of statistical test. This new edition includes a new chapter on repeated measures and mixed models and a helpful glossary of terms provides an easy reference that applies to all chapters.



Medical Statistics from A to Z

Medical Statistics from A to Z Author B. S. Everitt
ISBN-10 0521532043
Release 2003-06-26
Pages 230
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An accessible non-technical introduction to the terminology of medical statistics.