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Arctic Ice Shelves and Ice Islands

Arctic Ice Shelves and Ice Islands Author Luke Copland
ISBN-10 9789402411010
Release 2017-05-25
Pages 422
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This book provides an overview of the current state of knowledge of Arctic ice shelves, ice islands and related features. Ice shelves are permanent areas of ice which float on the ocean surface while attached to the coast, and typically occur in very cold environments where perennial sea ice builds up to great thickness, and/or where glaciers flow off the land and are preserved on the ocean surface. These landscape features are relatively poorly studied in the Arctic, yet they are potentially highly sensitive indicators of climate change because they respond to changes in atmospheric, oceanic and glaciological conditions. Recent fracturing and breakup events of ice shelves in the Canadian High Arctic have attracted significant scientific and public attention, and produced large ice islands which may pose a risk to Arctic shipping and offshore infrastructure. Much has been published about Antarctic ice shelves, but to date there has not been a dedicated book about Arctic ice shelves or ice islands. This book fills that gap.



Global Land Ice Measurements from Space

Global Land Ice Measurements from Space Author Jeffrey Stuart Kargel
ISBN-10 9783540798187
Release 2014-07-08
Pages 936
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Global Land Ice Measurements from Space - Satellite Multispectral Imaging of Glaciers (GLIMS book for short) will be the leading state-of-the-art technical and interpretive presentation of satellite image data and analysis of the changing state of the world's glaciers. The book will be by far the most definitive, comprehensive product of a global glacier remote sensing consortium, Global Land Ice Measurements from Space (GLIMS, http://www.glims.org), led by Dr Jeffrey Kargel, the lead science editor of the team that will produce the GLIMS book. This unique book will summarize the findings of the consortium's work. With 43 chapters and a companion DVD, the world's foremost experts in satellite image analysis of glaciers will analyze the current state and recent and possible future changes of glaciers across the globe and interpret these findings for policy planners. Climate change is with us for some time to come, and its impacts are being felt by the world's population.



The Arctic Seas

The Arctic Seas Author Yvonne Herman
ISBN-10 9781461306771
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 888
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The Arctic region has long held a fascination for explorers and scientists of many countries. Despite the numerous voyages of exploration, the na ture of the central Arctic was unknown only 90 years ago; it was believed to be a shallow sea dotted with islands. During Nansen's historic voyage on the polarship Fram, which commenced in 1893, the great depth of the central basin was discovered. In the Soviet Union, investigation of the Arctic Ocean became national policy after 1917. Today research at several scientific institutions there is devoted primarily to the study of the North Polar Ocean and seas. The systematic exploration of the Arctic by the United States com menced in 1951. Research has been conducted year-round from drifting ice islands, which are tabular fragments of glacier ice that break away from ice shelves. Most frequently, ice islands originate off the northern coast of Ellesmere Island. These research platforms are occupied as weather sta tions, as well as for oceanographic and geophysical studies. Several inter national projects, conducted by Canadian, European, and U. S. groups, have been underway during the last three decades. Although much new data have accumulated since the publication of the Marine Geology and Oceanography of the Arctic Seas volume in 1974 (Yvonne Herman, ed. ), in various fields of polar research-including present-day ice cover, hydrogra phy, fauna, flora, and geology-many questions remain to be answered.



Polar Microbiology

Polar Microbiology Author Robert V. Miller
ISBN-10 9781555816049
Release 2011-12-29
Pages 334
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Sheds new light on the microbial ecology and physiology of the Earth’s polar regions. • Examines the microbial investigations during the International Polar Year of 2008 focusing on the Arctic and Antarctic, along with earlier investigations on critical environmental issues such as climate change, ozone depletion, and elemental cycling. • Offers a survey of what is known and unknown about the microbial inhabitants of polar environments, addresses the adaptations and physiology of cold-adapted microorganisms, and explores the ecological role that polar microbial communities play in biogeochemical cycling. • Presents the challenges that polar and subpolar microorganisms face and describes the lowest temperatures in which microbial life can exist—and the prospects for life on other planets. Recommended for a general microbiology audience as well as for scientists and students in all areas of biology and geomicrobiology.



Geological History of the Polar Oceans Arctic versus Antarctic

Geological History of the Polar Oceans  Arctic versus Antarctic Author U. Bleil
ISBN-10 9789400920293
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 823
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Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Research Workshop, Bremen, Germany, October 10-14, 1988



The Climate of the Arctic

The Climate of the Arctic Author Rajmund Przybylak
ISBN-10 9789401703796
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 272
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th Towards the end of the 19 century some researchers put forward the hypothesis that the Polar regions may play the key role in the shaping of the global climate. This supposition found its full confirmation in empirical and th model research conducted in the 20 century, particularly in recent decades. The intensification of the global warming after about 1975 brought into focus the physical causes of this phenomenon. The first climatic models created at that time, and the analyses of long observation series consistently showed that the Polar regions are the most sensitive to climatic changes. This aroused the interest of numerous researchers, who thought that the examination of the proc esses taking place in these regions might help to determine the mechanisms responsible for the "working" of the global climatic system. To date, a great number of publications on this issue have been published. However, as a re view of the literature shows, there is not a single monograph which comprises the basic information concerning the current state of the Arctic climate. The last study to discuss the climate of the Arctic in any depth was published in 1970 (Climates a/the Polar Regions, vol. 14, ed. S. Orvig) by the World Survey of Climatology, edited by H. E. Landsberg. This publication, however, does not provide the full climatic picture of many meteorological elements.



Eurasian Arctic Land Cover and Land Use in a Changing Climate

Eurasian Arctic Land Cover and Land Use in a Changing Climate Author Garik Gutman
ISBN-10 9048191181
Release 2010-10-26
Pages 306
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This volume is a compilation of studies on interactions of land-cover/land-use change with climate in a region where the climate warming is most pronounced compared to other areas of the globe. The climate warming in the far North, and in the Arctic region of Northern Eurasia in particular, affects both the landscape and human activities, and hence human dimensions are an important aspect of the topic. Environmental pollution together with climate warming may produce irreversible damages to the current Arctic ecosystems. Regional land-atmosphere feedbacks may have large global importance. Remote sensing is a primary tool in studying vast northern territories where in situ observations are sporadic. State-of-the-art methods of satellite remote sensing combined with GIS and models are used to tackle science questions and provide an outlook of current land-cover changes and potential scenarios for the future. Audience: The book is a truly international effort involving U.S. and European scientists. It is directed at the broad science community including graduate students, academics and other professionals in this field.



Dynamics of Ice Sheets and Glaciers

Dynamics of Ice Sheets and Glaciers Author Ralf Greve
ISBN-10 3642034152
Release 2009-08-07
Pages 288
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Dynamics of Ice Sheets and Glaciers presents an introduction to the dynamics and thermodynamics of flowing ice masses on Earth. Based on an outline of general continuum mechanics, the different initial-boundary-value problems for the flow of ice sheets, ice shelves, ice caps and glaciers are systematically derived. Special emphasis is put on developing hierarchies of approximations for the different systems, and suitable numerical solution techniques are discussed. A separate chapter is devoted to glacial isostasy. The book is appropriate for graduate courses in glaciology, cryospheric sciences, environmental sciences, geophysics and related fields. Standard undergraduate knowledge of mathematics (calculus, linear algebra) and physics (classical mechanics, thermodynamics) provide a sufficient background for successfully studying the text.



Encyclopedia of Snow Ice and Glaciers

Encyclopedia of Snow  Ice and Glaciers Author Vijay P. Singh
ISBN-10 9789048126422
Release 2011-06-29
Pages 1253
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The earth’s cryosphere, which includes snow, glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, ice shelves, sea ice, river and lake ice, and permafrost, contains about 75% of the earth’s fresh water. It exists at almost all latitudes, from the tropics to the poles, and plays a vital role in controlling the global climate system. It also provides direct visible evidence of the effect of climate change, and, therefore, requires proper understanding of its complex dynamics. This encyclopedia mainly focuses on the various aspects of snow, ice and glaciers, but also covers other cryospheric branches, and provides up-to-date information and basic concepts on relevant topics. It includes alphabetically arranged and professionally written, comprehensive and authoritative academic articles by well-known international experts in individual fields. The encyclopedia contains a broad spectrum of topics, ranging from the atmospheric processes responsible for snow formation; transformation of snow to ice and changes in their properties; classification of ice and glaciers and their worldwide distribution; glaciation and ice ages; glacier dynamics; glacier surface and subsurface characteristics; geomorphic processes and landscape formation; hydrology and sedimentary systems; permafrost degradation; hazards caused by cryospheric changes; and trends of glacier retreat on the global scale along with the impact of climate change. This book can serve as a source of reference at the undergraduate and graduate level and help to better understand snow, ice and glaciers. It will also be an indispensable tool containing specialized literature for geologists, geographers, climatologists, hydrologists, and water resources engineers; as well as for those who are engaged in the practice of agricultural and civil engineering, earth sciences, environmental sciences and engineering, ecosystem management, and other relevant subjects.



Microbiology of the Rapidly Changing Polar Environments

Microbiology of the Rapidly Changing Polar Environments Author Julie Dinasquet
ISBN-10 9782889455133
Release 2018-07-05
Pages
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Marine and freshwater polar environments are characterized by intense physical forces and strong seasonal variations. The persistent cold and sometimes inhospitable conditions create unique ecosystems and habitats for microbial life. Polar microbial communities are diverse productive assemblages, which drive biogeochemical cycles and support higher food-webs across the Arctic and over much of the Antarctic. Recent studies on the biogeography of microbial species have revealed phylogenetically diverse polar ecotypes, suggesting adaptation to seasonal darkness, sea-ice coverage and high summer irradiance. Because of the diversity of habitats related to atmospheric and oceanic circulation, and the formation and melting of ice, high latitude oceans and lakes are ideal environments to investigate composition and functionality of microbial communities. In addition, polar regions are responding more dramatically to climate change compared to temperate environments and there is an urgent need to identify sensitive indicators of ecosystem history, that may be sentinels for change or adaptation. For instance, Antarctic lakes provide useful model systems to study microbial evolution and climate history. Hence, it becomes essential and timely to better understand factors controlling the microbes, and how, in turn, they may affect the functioning of these fragile ecosystems. Polar microbiology is an expanding field of research with exciting possibilities to provide new insights into microbial ecology and evolution. With this Research Topic we seek to bring together polar microbiologists studying different aquatic systems and components of the microbial food web, to stimulate discussion and reflect on these sensitive environments in a changing world perspective.



Sensing the Past

Sensing the Past Author Nicola Masini
ISBN-10 9783319505183
Release 2017-04-06
Pages 593
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This book provides a complete overview of novel and state of art sensing technologies and geotechnologies relevant to support management and conservation of CH sites, monuments and works of art. The book is organized in an introduction stating the motivations and presenting the overall content of the volume and four parts. The first part focuses on remote sensing and geophysics for the study of human past and cultural heritage at site scale and as element of the surrounding territory. The second part presents an overview of non invasive technologies for investigating monuments and works of art. The third part presents the new opportunities of ICT for an improved and safe cultural heritage fruition, from the virtual and augmented reality of historical context to artifact tracking. Finally, the forth part presents a significant worldwide set of success cases of the exploitation of the integration of geotechnologies in archeology and architectural heritage management. This book is of interest to researchers, experts of heritage science, archaeologists, students, conservators and other professionals of cultural heritage.



Introduction to the Physics of the Cryosphere

Introduction to the Physics of the Cryosphere Author Melody Sandells
ISBN-10 9781627056052
Release 2014-11-01
Pages 88
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The cryosphere encompasses all regions of the planet that experiences water in ice form for some portion of the year. In this book, authors Melody Sandells and Daniela Flocco deliver an introduction to the physics of the cryosphere. This includes the Arcti



The Ecology of Cyanobacteria

The Ecology of Cyanobacteria Author B.A. Whitton
ISBN-10 9780306468551
Release 2007-05-08
Pages 669
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Cyanobacteria make a major contribution to world photosynthesis and nitrogen fixation, but are also notorious for causing nuisances such as dense and often toxic `blooms' in lakes and the ocean. The Ecology of Cyanobacteria: Their Diversity in Time and Space is the first book to focus solely on ecological aspects of these organisms. Its twenty-two chapters are written by some thirty authors, who are leading experts in their particular subject. The book begins with an overview of the cyanobacteria - or blue-green algae, for those who are not specialists - then looks at their diversity in the geological record and goes on to describe their ecology in present environments where they play important roles. Why is one of the key groups of organisms in the Precambrian still one of the most important groups of phototrophs today? The importance of ecological information for rational management and exploitation of these organisms for commercial and other practical purposes is also assessed. Accounts are provided of nuisances as well as the ecology of the commercially successful Spirulina and the role of cyanobacteria in ecosystem recovery from oil pollution. Many chapters include aspects of physiology, biochemistry, geochemistry and molecular biology where these help general understanding of the subject. In addition there are three chapters dealing specifically with molecular ecology. Thirty-two pages of colour photos incorporate about seventy views and light micrographs. These features make the book valuable to a wide readership, including biologists, microbiologists, geologists, water managers and environmental consultants. The book complements the highly successful The Molecular Biology of Cyanobacteria already published by Kluwer.



The Northern Sea Route as a Shipping Lane

The Northern Sea Route as a Shipping Lane Author Tadeusz Pastusiak
ISBN-10 9783319418346
Release 2016-08-06
Pages 219
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This book analyses the current and future viability of the Northern Sea Route as a stable transport route for the international transit traffic between Europe and the Far East. It includes the present conditions, defining and evaluating viability factors for using the Northern Sea Route (NSR). The book makes a projection for NSR in the future, taking into account the climatic change in the Arctic findings presented in the IPCC report. This study, based on the author’s PhD thesis, analyses meteorological, hydrologic, bathymetric and other data for the evaluation of the navigation criteria. It is intended for a wide spectrum of readers, from students and scientists of Earth sciences and polar geography, navigation, political science researchers and politicians interested in Arctic affairs.



Early Investigations of the Devonian System in New York 1656 1836

Early Investigations of the Devonian System in New York  1656 1836 Author John West Wells
ISBN-10 CHI:19494367
Release 1963
Pages 74
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Early Investigations of the Devonian System in New York 1656 1836 has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Early Investigations of the Devonian System in New York 1656 1836 also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Early Investigations of the Devonian System in New York 1656 1836 book for free.



Planning Support Science for Smarter Urban Futures

Planning Support Science for Smarter Urban Futures Author Stan Geertman
ISBN-10 9783319578194
Release 2017-06-19
Pages 599
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This book offers a selection of the best articles presented at the CUPUM (Computers in Urban Planning and Urban Management) Conference, held in the second week of July 2017 at the University of South Australia in Adelaide. It provides a state-of-the-art overview of the availability and application of planning support systems (PSS) in the context of smart cities, big data, and urban futures. Rapid advances in computing, information, communication and web-based technologies are reaching into all facets of urban life, creating new and exciting urban futures. With the universal adoption of networked computing technologies, data generation is now so massive and all pervasive in society that it offers unprecedented technological solutions for planning and managing urban futures. These technologies are essential to effective urban planning and urban management in an increasingly challenging world, with socially disruptive changes, more complex and sophisticated urban lives and the need for resilience to deal with the possibility of adverse future environmental events and climate change. The book discusses examples of these technologies which encompass, inter alia: ‘smart urban futures’, where cities with myriad sensors are networked with communication technologies that enable the city planners to monitor well-being and be responsive to citizens' needs to allow dynamic management in real-time; PSS that encompass new hardware, develop new indicators, applications and innovative ways of facilitating public and community involvement in the management and planning of urban areas; and urban modelling that draws on theory and the richness of data from the growing range of urban sensing and communication technologies to build a better understanding of urban dynamics, trends and 'what-if' scenario investigations, and to provide better tools for planning and policymaking.



Ice Core Studies of Global Biogeochemical Cycles

Ice Core Studies of Global Biogeochemical Cycles Author Robert J. Delmas
ISBN-10 9783642511721
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 478
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The analysis of polar ice cores has proven to be very instructive about past environmental conditions on the time scale of several climatic cycles, and recent drilling operations have provided information of great value for global change issues. The book presents the most recent data extracted from Greenland ice cores and surface experiments and compares them with former Antarctic results. It contains background articles, original contributions and group reports of interest to scientists, climatologists, atmospheric chemists, and glaciologists involved in global change research.