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Assessment of Total Evacuation Systems for Tall Buildings

Assessment of Total Evacuation Systems for Tall Buildings Author Enrico Ronchi
ISBN-10 9781493910748
Release 2014-05-27
Pages 51
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This SpringerBrief focuses on the use of egress models to assess the optimal strategy for total evacuation in high-rise buildings. It investigates occupant relocation and evacuation strategies involving the exit stairs, elevators, sky bridges and combinations thereof. Chapters review existing information on this topic and describe case study simulations of a multi-component exit strategy. This review provides the architectural design, regulatory and research communities with a thorough understanding of the current and emerging evacuation procedures and possible future options. A model case study simulates seven possible strategies for the total evacuation of two identical twin towers linked with two sky-bridges at different heights. The authors present the layout of the building and the available egress components including both vertical and horizontal egress components, namely stairs, occupant evacuation elevators (OEEs), service elevators, transfer floors and sky-bridges. The evacuation strategies employ a continuous spatial representation evacuation model (Pathfinder) and are cross-validated by a fine network model (STEPS). Assessment of Total Evacuation Systems for Tall Buildings is intended for practitioners as a tool for analyzing evacuation methods and efficient exit strategies. Researchers working in architecture and fire safety will also find the book valuable.



Home Fire Sprinkler Cost Assessment

Home Fire Sprinkler Cost Assessment Author Newport Partners LLC
ISBN-10 9781493910830
Release 2014-07-23
Pages 38
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This SpringerBrief reviews current home fire sprinkler system costs in one- and two-family dwellings, mobile homes, and multifamily residential buildings up to four stories. It provides individual community data and qualitative data gained through interviews with community officials, builders, and fire sprinkler contractors. The systems are reviewed against a 2008 benchmark study in order to analyze how the increasingly widespread adoption of national sprinkler ordinances impacts system cost. Using 51 homes in 17 communities, the authors discuss the impact of sprinkler ordinances on home fire sprinkler system cost, including extent of coverage, system types, water sources, permit and inspection fees, and statewide requirements. Methods and community comparisons are presented with the analysis. Home Fire Sprinkler Assessment is intended for practitioners working with sprinkler codes and building regulation safety. Researchers working in a related field will also find the book valuable.



Fire Hazards of Exterior Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components

Fire Hazards of Exterior Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components Author Nathan White
ISBN-10 9781493928989
Release 2015-07-20
Pages 166
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This SpringerBrief presents strategies for fire mitigation based on combustible assembly systems of exterior walls. Providing background information on common exterior wall systems, the mechanisms of fire spread, and case studies, it examines the difficulties in controlling a fire with several materials and assembly methods. The brief compiles information on typical fire scenarios which involve the exterior wall, along with further exploration into test methods, approval and regulatory requirements for the various assembly systems. Offering testing approaches for possible mitigation strategies, the brief takes into account that current commercial wall assembly systems are constructed to improve energy performance, reduce water and air infiltration, and allow for aesthetic design flexibility. Exterior Insulation Finish Systems, metal composite claddings, high-pressure laminates, and weather-resistive barrier systems all have components which directly impact the fire hazard. Recommendations for future exterior wall construction are based on identified knowledge gaps.



Lightweight Landscape

Lightweight Landscape Author Alessandra Zanelli
ISBN-10 9783319216652
Release 2015-10-13
Pages 109
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This book explains how lightweight materials and structures can be deployed in buildings to meet high environmental and aesthetic standards and emphasizes how the concept of lightness in building technology and design dovetails with the desire to enhance landscape. The first part of the book, on lightweight construction, aims to foster the use of membranes within the specific climatic context and in particular considers how lightweight materials and innovative technologies can enrich the quality of temporary spaces. The second part focuses exclusively on landscape, presenting novel approaches in the search for visual lightness and the quest to improve urban spaces. Particular attention is paid to the Italian experience, where the traditional appreciation of brick and stone has limited the scope for use of lightweight structures and membrane materials, often relegating them to a secondary or inappropriate role. The reader will come to appreciate how this attitude demeans a very advanced productive sector and neglects the ancient tradition of temporary architecture.



Space Systems for Disaster Warning Response and Recovery

Space Systems for Disaster Warning  Response  and Recovery Author Scott Madry
ISBN-10 9781493915132
Release 2014-09-06
Pages 146
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This SpringerBrief provides a general overview of the role of satellite applications for disaster mitigation, warning, planning, recovery and response. It covers both the overall role and perspective of the emergency management community as well as the various space applications that support their work. Key insights are provided as to how satellite telecommunications, remote sensing, navigation systems, GIS, and the emerging domain of social media are utilized in the context of emergency management needs and requirements. These systems are now critical in addressing major man-made and natural disasters. International policy and treaties are covered along with various case studies from around the world. These case studies indicate vital lessons that have been learned about how to use space systems more effectively in addressing the so-called “Disaster Cycle.” This book is appropriate for practicing emergency managers, Emergency Management (EM) courses, as well as for those involved in various space applications and developing new satellite technologies.



The Impact of Climate Change on Our Life

The Impact of Climate Change on Our Life Author Abdelnaser Omran
ISBN-10 9789811077487
Release 2018-02-23
Pages 250
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This book introduces the highly topical issue from many different angles, sensitizing readers to the various challenges to human life posed by climate change, identifying possible intentional and inadvertent anthropogenic factors and consequences, and seeking socially and environmentally viable solutions. The book begins by examining the impact of the climate change discussion on science, politics, economy and culture – from its historical origin in the first Club of Rome Report and its inclusion in the UN's SDGs to the Paris Agreement and beyond. Comprising 12 chapters, it analyses the factors which caused the catastrophic 2014 Kelantan flood in Malaysia, focusing on the Kuala Krai district and discusses mud architecture in Wadi Hadramout, Yemen and mitigating the expected effects of climate change on this unique architecture and cultural heritage. It also examines the economic costs of climate change on health and the increased burden on individual expenditures and national health systems. The role of climate change in the water-energy nexus and efforts to increase efficiency in energy and water end-use to increase Queensland’s agricultural sector’s resilience in Australia is addressed, as is water security and climate change issues in developing countries and the potential of partnership procurement strategies for managing sustainable urban water supply in Nigerian cities. It also includes a chapter offering a new approach to waste management, exploring to what extent waste can complicate our daily actions and influence environmental decay, and recommending that renewable materials be sorted and separated from other types of materials to avoid cross-contamination, to increase the value of the materials, and to ease the process of manufacturing. Subsequent chapters identify factors sustaining the municipal solid waste management and practices in Ajdabiya city in Libya, and look at accounting disclosure remedies by exploring areas in which sustainability reporting could expand beyond corporate environmental reporting to additional disclosures, curbing recklessness in pursuing merely economic goals. The book shows – from the perspective of agriculture – how human activities can increase the negative impacts of climate change on lifestyle in Malaysia, suggesting alternative lifestyles and encouraging international cooperative efforts. The last chapters evaluate the impacts of various environmental factors on the local tourism sector in Pakistan, and discuss strategies to tackle climate change, focusing on the opportunities and risks of climate engineering. Since these risks encompass inadvertent negative effects and targeted abuse for covert weather warfare and terrorism that violate the UN’s ENMOD convention, the author recommends viable alternatives to deal with climate change.



Aswan High Dam Resettlement of Egyptian Nubians

Aswan High Dam Resettlement of Egyptian Nubians Author Thayer Scudder
ISBN-10 9789811019357
Release 2016-09-02
Pages 55
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This book highlights the long-term resettlement process of the Egyptian Nubian people along the Aswan High Dam. Assessing the resettlement of 48,000 Egyptian Nubians in connection with the High Dam is especially important for three main reasons: firstly, this resettlement process is one of the rare cases in which research begun before the dam was built has continued for over forty years. Secondly, the resettlement of the Egyptian Nubian people is one of the few cases in which the living standards of the large majority improved because of the initial political will of the government, combined with Nubian initiatives. Thirdly, given the complexity of the resettlement process, weaknesses in government planning, implementation, and in the weakening of government political provide valuable lessons for future dam-induced resettlement efforts.



Evacuation Modeling Trends

Evacuation Modeling Trends Author Arturo Cuesta
ISBN-10 9783319207087
Release 2015-10-17
Pages 133
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This book presents an overview of modeling definitions and concepts, theory on human behavior and human performance data, available tools and simulation approaches, model development, and application and validation methods. It considers the data and research efforts needed to develop and incorporate functions for the different parameters into comprehensive escape and evacuation simulations, with a number of examples illustrating different aspects and approaches. After an overview of basic modeling approaches, the book discusses benefits and challenges of current techniques. The representation of evacuees is a central issue, including human behavior and the proper implementation of representational tools. Key topics include the nature and importance of the different parameters involved in ASET and RSET and the interactions between them. A review of the current literature on verification and validation methods is provided, with a set of recommended verification tests and examples of validation tests. The book concludes with future challenges: new scenarios and factors for future model developments, addresses the problem of using deterministic and/or stochastic approaches and proposes, and discusses the use of evacuation models for supporting timely decisions in real-time. Written by international experts, Evacuation Modeling Trends is designed for those involved in safety, from emergency and intervention personnel to students, engineers and researchers.



Playable Cities

Playable Cities Author Anton Nijholt
ISBN-10 9789811019623
Release 2016-11-16
Pages 253
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This book addresses the topic of playable cities, which use the ‘smartness’ of digital cities to offer their citizens playful events and activities. The contributions presented here examine various aspects of playable cities, including developments in pervasive and urban games, the use of urban data to design games and playful applications, architecture design and playability, and mischief and humor in playable cities. The smartness of digital cities can be found in the sensors and actuators that are embedded in their environment. This smartness allows them to monitor, anticipate and support our activities and increases the efficiency of the cities and our activities. These urban smart technologies can offer citizens playful interactions with streets, buildings, street furniture, traffic, public art and entertainment, large public displays and public events.



Snakes of Italy

Snakes of Italy Author Gabriele Achille
ISBN-10 9783319141060
Release 2015-01-20
Pages 180
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This book offers a comprehensive review of the biology of snakes, focusing on Italian species. The snakes of Italy belong to the two families Colubridae and Viperidae, and for each species the systematic classification and chorology including distribution maps are presented. Furthermore, readers will learn how to carry out field studies, how to handle snakes and how to photograph them. The book concludes with a chapter on the iconography of historical Italian snakes and their importance in popular science, and one on myths and legends. This SpringerBriefs volume will appeal to herpetologists and technical staff. The section on iconography may also be of interest to museum staff.



Urban Vulnerability and Climate Change in Africa

Urban Vulnerability and Climate Change in Africa Author Stephan Pauleit
ISBN-10 9783319039824
Release 2015-04-13
Pages 404
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Urbanisation and climate change are among the major challenges for sustainable development in Africa. The overall aim of this book is to present innovative approaches to vulnerability analysis and for enhancing the resilience of African cities against climate change-induced risks. Locally adapted IPCC climate change scenarios, which also consider possible changes in urban population, have been developed. Innovative strategies to land use and spatial planning are proposed that seek synergies between the adaptation to climate change and the need to solve social problems. Furthermore, the book explores the role of governance in successfully coping with climate-induced risks in urban areas. The book is unique in that it combines: a top-down perspective of climate change modeling with a bottom-up perspective of vulnerability assessment; quantitative approaches from engineering sciences and qualitative approaches of the social sciences; a novel multi-risk modeling methodology; and strategic approaches to urban and green infrastructure planning with neighborhood perspectives of adaptation.



Methodologies and Techniques for Advanced Maintenance

Methodologies and Techniques for Advanced Maintenance Author Lorenzo Fedele
ISBN-10 0857291033
Release 2011-01-06
Pages 222
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The management of technical plants for productivity and safety is generally a complex activity, particularly when many plants in one territory are affected, quality guarantees and cost results are required, and the technology involved is heterogeneous and innovative. To enable readers to manage technical plants efficiently, despite the above complications, Methodologies and Techniques for Advanced Maintenance presents theories, methodologies and practical tools for the realization of an intelligent maintenance management system for distant monitoring. It also covers the development and running of a remote control center. The so-called granted availability management system (GrAMS) was conceived to enable organizations involved in technical-industrial plant management to move towards “well known availability” and “zero failures” management. In particular, Methodologies and Techniques for Advanced Maintenance deals with the diagnostic aspects and safety levels of technical plants (such as elevators, thermo-technical plants, etc.). The author also discusses the usage of ad hoc designed software analysis tools based on neural networks and reliability indicators. Methodologies and Techniques for Advanced Maintenance is a useful text for practitioners and researchers in maintenance and facilities. Its application spans industrial, plant, technological, infrastructure and civil fields.



Tangible Modeling with Open Source GIS

Tangible Modeling with Open Source GIS Author Anna Petrasova
ISBN-10 9783319257754
Release 2015-12-11
Pages 135
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This book presents a new type of modeling environment where users interact with geospatial simulations using 3D physical models of studied landscapes. Multiple users can alter the physical model by hand during scanning, thereby providing input for simulation of geophysical processes in this setting. The authors have developed innovative techniques and software that couple this hardware with open source GRASS GIS, making the system instantly applicable to a wide range of modeling and design problems. Since no other literature on this topic is available, this Book fills a gap for this new technology that continues to grow. Tangible Modeling with Open Source GIS will appeal to advanced-level students studying geospatial science, computer science and earth science such as landscape architecture and natural resources. It will also benefit researchers and professionals working in geospatial modeling applications, computer graphics, hazard risk management, hydrology, solar energy, coastal and fluvial flooding, fire spread, landscape, park design and computer games.



Mitigation of Dangers from Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards

Mitigation of Dangers from Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards Author Frederic R. Siegel
ISBN-10 9783319388755
Release 2016-07-25
Pages 127
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This book advances a three-step program for mitigation of natural and anthropogenic hazards, addressing mitigation economics and funding possibilities to meet the needs of at risk countries that lack the financial resources to invest in disaster reduction programs. Within the context of mitigation, this book covers prediction-prevention-preparedness for global warming/climate change as existing and progressive processes that create or abet slow developing or rapidly occurring hazards that endanger society such as sea level rise, extreme weather events, threats to food/water security, and the spread of infectious diseases.



Natural Disasters Foreign Trade and Agriculture in Mexico

Natural Disasters  Foreign Trade and Agriculture in Mexico Author Sergio O. Saldaña Zorrilla, PhD
ISBN-10 9783319173597
Release 2015-07-04
Pages 155
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This work responds to the increasing global need of measuring and analyzing impacts, vulnerabilities and coping capacity of countries, regions and communities regarding climate change, extreme weather conditions, natural disasters and institutional constraints. The case of Mexico, analyzed in this work, provides lessons for further developing countries to assess natural disasters vulnerability, for making informed adaptation decisions and to optimize resources for reducing country and community vulnerability. This book’s analyses contribute to the current debate of the long-term economic impact of natural disasters (hurricanes, earthquakes, etc.), as well as offer an integral methodology combining natural and social sciences for studies of country and community level vulnerability to climate change. The lessons derived from this analysis provide useful elements for the design and improvement of governmental policies concerning social and economic development as well. In addition, the desegregation of this analysis has the advantage of facilitating the design and evaluation of governmental projects at municipal, sub-national and national level, as well as provides conceptual-empirical elements for international cooperation in matters of disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, rural development and poverty reduction.



Community Based Disaster Risk Management in Azerbaijan

Community Based Disaster Risk Management in Azerbaijan Author Rovshan Abbasov
ISBN-10 9783319696539
Release 2017-10-31
Pages 74
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This book illustrates the main factors of vulnerability and gives a clear picture about the possible interventions to reduce disaster risks both in schools and communities in Azerbaijan. A new methodology for child centered vulnerability assessments both on school and community levels has been developed. This methodology can be used to assess the level of vulnerability of schools and communities. The book is a newly prepared training manual which will help practitioners conduct trainings for government and community organizations. While the book is focused on a specific region, the suggested approach is generic and can be used elsewhere.



Estimating Fatality Rates for Earthquake Loss Models

Estimating Fatality Rates for Earthquake Loss Models Author Emily So
ISBN-10 9783319268385
Release 2015-12-16
Pages 62
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This manuscript sets out a process for estimating fatalities in collapsed buildings due to ground shaking in an earthquake. The aim of this research is to supplement current earthquake loss estimation with fatality rates (percentage of occupants killed) for use in models which are based on recent empirical information on deaths from earthquakes. This document specifically explores the lethality potential to occupants of collapsed structures. Whilst earthquake casualty modeling has admittedly suffered from a lack of post-earthquake collection of data and rigour in assessing these data, recent earthquakes such as 2008 Wenchuan (China) and 2011 Christchurch (New Zealand) have brought to light some important findings. Under the auspices of US Geological Survey’s PAGER, empirical fatality data related to collapses of buildings from significant earthquakes in the past 40 years have been thoroughly examined. Through detailed investigations of fatal building collapses and the volume reductions within these buildings, important clues related to the lethality potential of different failure mechanisms of global modern and older construction types were found. The gathered evidence forms the basis of the derivation of a set of fatality rates for use in loss models. The set of judgment-based rates are for 31 global building types. This significant advancement in casualty modeling, the resolutions and quality of available data, the important assumptions made, and the final derivation of fatality rates are discussed here. This document contributes to global efforts to develop a way of estimating probable earthquake fatalities very rapidly after an earthquake has taken place. The fatality rates proposed here can be incorporated directly into earthquake loss estimation models where fatalities are derived from collapses of different types of buildings.