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Assessment of Total Evacuation Systems for Tall Buildings

Assessment of Total Evacuation Systems for Tall Buildings Author Enrico Ronchi
ISBN-10 9781493910748
Release 2014-05-27
Pages 51
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This SpringerBrief focuses on the use of egress models to assess the optimal strategy for total evacuation in high-rise buildings. It investigates occupant relocation and evacuation strategies involving the exit stairs, elevators, sky bridges and combinations thereof. Chapters review existing information on this topic and describe case study simulations of a multi-component exit strategy. This review provides the architectural design, regulatory and research communities with a thorough understanding of the current and emerging evacuation procedures and possible future options. A model case study simulates seven possible strategies for the total evacuation of two identical twin towers linked with two sky-bridges at different heights. The authors present the layout of the building and the available egress components including both vertical and horizontal egress components, namely stairs, occupant evacuation elevators (OEEs), service elevators, transfer floors and sky-bridges. The evacuation strategies employ a continuous spatial representation evacuation model (Pathfinder) and are cross-validated by a fine network model (STEPS). Assessment of Total Evacuation Systems for Tall Buildings is intended for practitioners as a tool for analyzing evacuation methods and efficient exit strategies. Researchers working in architecture and fire safety will also find the book valuable.



Fire Hazards of Exterior Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components

Fire Hazards of Exterior Wall Assemblies Containing Combustible Components Author Nathan White
ISBN-10 9781493928989
Release 2015-07-20
Pages 166
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This SpringerBrief presents strategies for fire mitigation based on combustible assembly systems of exterior walls. Providing background information on common exterior wall systems, the mechanisms of fire spread, and case studies, it examines the difficulties in controlling a fire with several materials and assembly methods. The brief compiles information on typical fire scenarios which involve the exterior wall, along with further exploration into test methods, approval and regulatory requirements for the various assembly systems. Offering testing approaches for possible mitigation strategies, the brief takes into account that current commercial wall assembly systems are constructed to improve energy performance, reduce water and air infiltration, and allow for aesthetic design flexibility. Exterior Insulation Finish Systems, metal composite claddings, high-pressure laminates, and weather-resistive barrier systems all have components which directly impact the fire hazard. Recommendations for future exterior wall construction are based on identified knowledge gaps.



Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs

Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs Author Bryan L. Hoskins
ISBN-10 9781461439738
Release 2012-07-25
Pages 70
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The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs closely examines forty-three unique case studies on movement patterns down stairwells. These studies include observations made during evacuation drills, others made during normal usage, interviews with people after fire evacuations, recommendations made from compiled studies, and detailed results from laboratory studies. The methodology used in each study for calculating density and movement speed, when known, are also presented, and this book identifies an additional seventeen variables linked to altering movement speeds. The Study of Movement Speeds Down Stairs is intended for researchers as a reference guide for evaluating pedestrian evacuation dynamics down stairwells. Practitioners working in a related field may also find this book invaluable.



Space Systems for Disaster Warning Response and Recovery

Space Systems for Disaster Warning  Response  and Recovery Author Scott Madry
ISBN-10 9781493915132
Release 2014-09-06
Pages 146
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This SpringerBrief provides a general overview of the role of satellite applications for disaster mitigation, warning, planning, recovery and response. It covers both the overall role and perspective of the emergency management community as well as the various space applications that support their work. Key insights are provided as to how satellite telecommunications, remote sensing, navigation systems, GIS, and the emerging domain of social media are utilized in the context of emergency management needs and requirements. These systems are now critical in addressing major man-made and natural disasters. International policy and treaties are covered along with various case studies from around the world. These case studies indicate vital lessons that have been learned about how to use space systems more effectively in addressing the so-called “Disaster Cycle.” This book is appropriate for practicing emergency managers, Emergency Management (EM) courses, as well as for those involved in various space applications and developing new satellite technologies.



Tangible Modeling with Open Source GIS

Tangible Modeling with Open Source GIS Author Anna Petrasova
ISBN-10 9783319257754
Release 2015-12-11
Pages 135
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This book presents a new type of modeling environment where users interact with geospatial simulations using 3D physical models of studied landscapes. Multiple users can alter the physical model by hand during scanning, thereby providing input for simulation of geophysical processes in this setting. The authors have developed innovative techniques and software that couple this hardware with open source GRASS GIS, making the system instantly applicable to a wide range of modeling and design problems. Since no other literature on this topic is available, this Book fills a gap for this new technology that continues to grow. Tangible Modeling with Open Source GIS will appeal to advanced-level students studying geospatial science, computer science and earth science such as landscape architecture and natural resources. It will also benefit researchers and professionals working in geospatial modeling applications, computer graphics, hazard risk management, hydrology, solar energy, coastal and fluvial flooding, fire spread, landscape, park design and computer games.



Evacuation Modeling Trends

Evacuation Modeling Trends Author Arturo Cuesta
ISBN-10 9783319207087
Release 2015-10-17
Pages 133
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This book presents an overview of modeling definitions and concepts, theory on human behavior and human performance data, available tools and simulation approaches, model development, and application and validation methods. It considers the data and research efforts needed to develop and incorporate functions for the different parameters into comprehensive escape and evacuation simulations, with a number of examples illustrating different aspects and approaches. After an overview of basic modeling approaches, the book discusses benefits and challenges of current techniques. The representation of evacuees is a central issue, including human behavior and the proper implementation of representational tools. Key topics include the nature and importance of the different parameters involved in ASET and RSET and the interactions between them. A review of the current literature on verification and validation methods is provided, with a set of recommended verification tests and examples of validation tests. The book concludes with future challenges: new scenarios and factors for future model developments, addresses the problem of using deterministic and/or stochastic approaches and proposes, and discusses the use of evacuation models for supporting timely decisions in real-time. Written by international experts, Evacuation Modeling Trends is designed for those involved in safety, from emergency and intervention personnel to students, engineers and researchers.



Castle Ravenloft

Castle Ravenloft Author Bill Slavicsek
ISBN-10 0786955570
Release 2010
Pages 416
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Players are dinner guests of Count Strahd, a vampire, in Castle Ravenloft. Players must work as team, to succeed in overcoming events that unfold within the castle. Players all win together or lose together.



Snakes of Italy

Snakes of Italy Author Gabriele Achille
ISBN-10 9783319141060
Release 2015-01-20
Pages 180
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This book offers a comprehensive review of the biology of snakes, focusing on Italian species. The snakes of Italy belong to the two families Colubridae and Viperidae, and for each species the systematic classification and chorology including distribution maps are presented. Furthermore, readers will learn how to carry out field studies, how to handle snakes and how to photograph them. The book concludes with a chapter on the iconography of historical Italian snakes and their importance in popular science, and one on myths and legends. This SpringerBriefs volume will appeal to herpetologists and technical staff. The section on iconography may also be of interest to museum staff.



Community Based Disaster Risk Management in Azerbaijan

Community Based Disaster Risk Management in Azerbaijan Author Rovshan Abbasov
ISBN-10 9783319696539
Release 2017-10-31
Pages 74
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This book illustrates the main factors of vulnerability and gives a clear picture about the possible interventions to reduce disaster risks both in schools and communities in Azerbaijan. A new methodology for child centered vulnerability assessments both on school and community levels has been developed. This methodology can be used to assess the level of vulnerability of schools and communities. The book is a newly prepared training manual which will help practitioners conduct trainings for government and community organizations. While the book is focused on a specific region, the suggested approach is generic and can be used elsewhere.



Video Image Detection Systems Installation Performance Criteria

Video Image Detection Systems Installation Performance Criteria Author Daniel T. Gottuk
ISBN-10 9781461442028
Release 2012-06-02
Pages 56
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Computer processing and image analysis technologies have improved substantially over the course of the past decade. This rapidly advancing technology along with the emphasis on video surveillance since 911 has propelled the development of effective video image detection (VID) systems for ?re. Fire protection system designers initially employed these VID systems for use in large facilities, outdoor locations and tunnels. However, video-based detection is being used for a broadening range of applications [e. g. , 1]. For example, these systems are c- rently installed in electrical power plants, paper mills, document storage facilities, historic municipal buildings, nuclear research facilities, automotive plants, wa- house/distribution centers, and onshore and offshore oil platforms. The 2007 edition of NFPA 72, National Fire Alarm Code [2], recognized the use of VID systems for ?ame and smoke detection. Although recognized, there is limited prescriptive installation and use requirements and there is a general desire by many for the development of performance criteria that ultimately could be utilized for the design of systems or the creation of standards. Since the underlying VID technology and development of standard and network-based camera systems are in a period of fairly rapid advancement [3–5], it is not possible to de?ne a comprehensive set of stand-alone prescriptive requirements. The performance of VID systems depends on both the video hardware and the software algorithms; there is no basic underlying principle, such as there is for ionization or pho- electric detection for smoke detectors. Consequently, performance-based inst- lation and operation requirements are needed.



Methodologies and Techniques for Advanced Maintenance

Methodologies and Techniques for Advanced Maintenance Author Lorenzo Fedele
ISBN-10 0857291033
Release 2011-01-06
Pages 222
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The management of technical plants for productivity and safety is generally a complex activity, particularly when many plants in one territory are affected, quality guarantees and cost results are required, and the technology involved is heterogeneous and innovative. To enable readers to manage technical plants efficiently, despite the above complications, Methodologies and Techniques for Advanced Maintenance presents theories, methodologies and practical tools for the realization of an intelligent maintenance management system for distant monitoring. It also covers the development and running of a remote control center. The so-called granted availability management system (GrAMS) was conceived to enable organizations involved in technical-industrial plant management to move towards “well known availability” and “zero failures” management. In particular, Methodologies and Techniques for Advanced Maintenance deals with the diagnostic aspects and safety levels of technical plants (such as elevators, thermo-technical plants, etc.). The author also discusses the usage of ad hoc designed software analysis tools based on neural networks and reliability indicators. Methodologies and Techniques for Advanced Maintenance is a useful text for practitioners and researchers in maintenance and facilities. Its application spans industrial, plant, technological, infrastructure and civil fields.



Urban Vulnerability and Climate Change in Africa

Urban Vulnerability and Climate Change in Africa Author Stephan Pauleit
ISBN-10 9783319039824
Release 2015-04-13
Pages 404
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Urbanisation and climate change are among the major challenges for sustainable development in Africa. The overall aim of this book is to present innovative approaches to vulnerability analysis and for enhancing the resilience of African cities against climate change-induced risks. Locally adapted IPCC climate change scenarios, which also consider possible changes in urban population, have been developed. Innovative strategies to land use and spatial planning are proposed that seek synergies between the adaptation to climate change and the need to solve social problems. Furthermore, the book explores the role of governance in successfully coping with climate-induced risks in urban areas. The book is unique in that it combines: a top-down perspective of climate change modeling with a bottom-up perspective of vulnerability assessment; quantitative approaches from engineering sciences and qualitative approaches of the social sciences; a novel multi-risk modeling methodology; and strategic approaches to urban and green infrastructure planning with neighborhood perspectives of adaptation.



Natural Disasters Foreign Trade and Agriculture in Mexico

Natural Disasters  Foreign Trade and Agriculture in Mexico Author Sergio O. Saldaña Zorrilla, PhD
ISBN-10 9783319173597
Release 2015-07-04
Pages 155
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This work responds to the increasing global need of measuring and analyzing impacts, vulnerabilities and coping capacity of countries, regions and communities regarding climate change, extreme weather conditions, natural disasters and institutional constraints. The case of Mexico, analyzed in this work, provides lessons for further developing countries to assess natural disasters vulnerability, for making informed adaptation decisions and to optimize resources for reducing country and community vulnerability. This book’s analyses contribute to the current debate of the long-term economic impact of natural disasters (hurricanes, earthquakes, etc.), as well as offer an integral methodology combining natural and social sciences for studies of country and community level vulnerability to climate change. The lessons derived from this analysis provide useful elements for the design and improvement of governmental policies concerning social and economic development as well. In addition, the desegregation of this analysis has the advantage of facilitating the design and evaluation of governmental projects at municipal, sub-national and national level, as well as provides conceptual-empirical elements for international cooperation in matters of disaster risk reduction, climate change adaptation, rural development and poverty reduction.



One of a Kind Production

One of a Kind Production Author Yiliu Tu
ISBN-10 1849965315
Release 2011-06-21
Pages 302
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Despite the numerous competitive advantages of one-of-a-kind production (OKP), the low efficiency and high costs associated with OKP companies threaten to push their business opportunities into the hands of cheaper overseas suppliers. One-of-a-Kind Production introduces a novel strategy and technology to help OKP companies to efficiently mass-produce customized products. In One-of-a-Kind Production, case studies from OKP companies are used to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the OKP strategy and technology. These case studies include: a structural steel construction company, a manufacturer of specifically ordered compressors and refrigeration systems, a customized high pressure vessel manufacturing company, and a custom window and door manufacturer. To help readers understand OKP strategy and technology, the authors offer a year’s free access to the OKP Management and Control Software System. This system is based on a new integrated production control and management concept, namely product production structure. It is a useful tool – and One-of-a-Kind Production is a valuable guide – for production engineers and managerial staff in manufacturing companies, as well as for university researchers and graduate students.



Mitigation of Dangers from Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards

Mitigation of Dangers from Natural and Anthropogenic Hazards Author Frederic R. Siegel
ISBN-10 9783319388755
Release 2016-07-25
Pages 127
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This book advances a three-step program for mitigation of natural and anthropogenic hazards, addressing mitigation economics and funding possibilities to meet the needs of at risk countries that lack the financial resources to invest in disaster reduction programs. Within the context of mitigation, this book covers prediction-prevention-preparedness for global warming/climate change as existing and progressive processes that create or abet slow developing or rapidly occurring hazards that endanger society such as sea level rise, extreme weather events, threats to food/water security, and the spread of infectious diseases.



Estimating Fatality Rates for Earthquake Loss Models

Estimating Fatality Rates for Earthquake Loss Models Author Emily So
ISBN-10 9783319268385
Release 2015-12-16
Pages 62
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This manuscript sets out a process for estimating fatalities in collapsed buildings due to ground shaking in an earthquake. The aim of this research is to supplement current earthquake loss estimation with fatality rates (percentage of occupants killed) for use in models which are based on recent empirical information on deaths from earthquakes. This document specifically explores the lethality potential to occupants of collapsed structures. Whilst earthquake casualty modeling has admittedly suffered from a lack of post-earthquake collection of data and rigour in assessing these data, recent earthquakes such as 2008 Wenchuan (China) and 2011 Christchurch (New Zealand) have brought to light some important findings. Under the auspices of US Geological Survey’s PAGER, empirical fatality data related to collapses of buildings from significant earthquakes in the past 40 years have been thoroughly examined. Through detailed investigations of fatal building collapses and the volume reductions within these buildings, important clues related to the lethality potential of different failure mechanisms of global modern and older construction types were found. The gathered evidence forms the basis of the derivation of a set of fatality rates for use in loss models. The set of judgment-based rates are for 31 global building types. This significant advancement in casualty modeling, the resolutions and quality of available data, the important assumptions made, and the final derivation of fatality rates are discussed here. This document contributes to global efforts to develop a way of estimating probable earthquake fatalities very rapidly after an earthquake has taken place. The fatality rates proposed here can be incorporated directly into earthquake loss estimation models where fatalities are derived from collapses of different types of buildings.



Evaluation of Fire Flow Methodologies

Evaluation of Fire Flow Methodologies Author Matthew E. Benfer
ISBN-10 9781493928897
Release 2015-08-08
Pages 50
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This SpringerBrief offers careful assessments of the appropriateness and effectiveness of currently available methodologies for fire flow. It explains the water supply requirements for firefighting including rate of flow, the residual pressure required at that flow, and the duration that is necessary to control a major fire in a specific structure. First reviewing existing fire flow calculation methodologies in the U.S. and globally, the authors determine the new information necessary to validate the existing fire flow calculation methodologies. After identifying 19 methods from the U.S., UK, France, Germany, the Netherlands, New England, and Canada, two types of methods are evaluated: those for building planning based on fire and building code requirements, and those for on-scene fire service use. Building planning methods are also examined, including an explanation of the range of building variables that determine fire flow. A survey form for fire departments is provided to help fire departments identify key predictive features based on construction and building parameters. Researchers and professionals in fire engineering will find the recommendations in Evaluation of Fire Flow Methodologies valuable.