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Athens Transformed 404 262 BC

Athens Transformed  404   262 BC Author Phillip Harding
ISBN-10 9781317435457
Release 2015-04-24
Pages 186
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During the heady, democratic days of the fifth and fourth centuries, the poorer members of Athenian society, the lower two classes of zeugitai and thetes, enjoyed an unprecedented dominance in both domestic and foreign politics. At home, the participatory nature of the constitution required their presence not only in the lawcourts and assembly, but also in most of the minor magistracies; abroad, they were the driving force of the navy, which ensured Athens’ control of the Aegean and the Black seas. Their participation at all levels was made possible by state pay (for jury duty, attendance in the assembly, public office and military service). In the fifth century state pay was financed largely through the tribute paid by members of the empire, supplemented by the liturgical contributions of the rich and, beginning during the war, a property tax (the eisphora). In the fourth century, almost the whole burden was shouldered by taxation upon the wealthy, especially those who owned property. In this book, author Phillip Harding traces the major changes that occurred in the administration of the state that eventually deprived the lower classes of their supremacy and transferred power into the hands of the wealthy land-owners. Things changed radically after Athens’ defeat in the Lamian (or Hellenic) War in 322BC. Over the next several decades, restriction of the franchise, elimination of pay for some public offices, the loss of the navy, the increased dependence upon local grain from the larger estates in Attika, the removal of the tax burden from the rich by the ending of such major liturgies as the trierarchia and the choregia and the abandoning of the eisphora all contributed to this transformation.



From the End of the Peloponnesian War to the Battle of Ipsus

From the End of the Peloponnesian War to the Battle of Ipsus Author
ISBN-10 9781316582220
Release 1985-02-21
Pages
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The second volume of Translated Documents of Greece and Rome is a collection of English translations with commentary and bibliography, ancient and modern, of the major inscriptions and historical fragments relating to the history of Greece in the fourth century BC. The book is designed to supplement existing translations of the extant historical works of the period, so that the student who knows neither Greek nor Latin can study the fourth century in greater depth than has previously been possible. The period covered by this collection includes the restoration of the democracy at Athens in 403/2, the creation of the Second Athenian Naval League, the Theban hegemony, the Sacred and Social Wars, the rise of Philip of Macedon, the career of his son Alexander, the Lamian War and, finally, the first rounds of the battle for the succession. There are documents from places as far apart as Priene and Tegea, but the majority come from Athens. This collection includes such material as alliances and peace treaties, honorific decrees, catalogues of temple deposits and naval equipment, laws, accounts, dedications, legal decisions, royal correspondence, constitutions and some important fragments of narrative histories. This book will be welcomed by teachers and students of ancient history.



The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought C 350 c 1450

The Cambridge History of Medieval Political Thought C 350 c 1450 Author J. H. Burns
ISBN-10 0521423880
Release 1988
Pages 808
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This volume examines the history of a complex and varied body of ideas over a period of more than a thousand years.



A Companion to Ancient History

A Companion to Ancient History Author Andrew Erskine
ISBN-10 9781118581537
Release 2012-11-20
Pages 736
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This Companion provides a comprehensive introduction to key topics in the study of ancient history. Examines the forms of evidence, problems, approaches, and major themes in the study of ancient history Comprises more than 40 essays, written by leading international scholars Moves beyond the primary focus on Greece and Rome with coverage of the various cultures within the ancient Mediterranean Draws on the latest research in the field Provides an essential resource for any student of ancient history



International Encyclopedia of Human Geography

International Encyclopedia of Human Geography Author
ISBN-10 9780080449104
Release 2009-07-16
Pages 8250
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The International Encyclopedia of Human Geography provides an authoritative and comprehensive source of information on the discipline of human geography and its constituent, and related, subject areas. The encyclopedia includes over 1,000 detailed entries on philosophy and theory, key concepts, methods and practices, biographies of notable geographers, and geographical thought and praxis in different parts of the world. This groundbreaking project covers every field of human geography and the discipline’s relationships to other disciplines, and is global in scope, involving an international set of contributors. Given its broad, inclusive scope and unique online accessibility, it is anticipated that the International Encyclopedia of Human Geography will become the major reference work for the discipline over the coming decades. The Encyclopedia will be available in both limited edition print and online via ScienceDirect - featuring extensive browsing, searching, and internal cross-referencing between articles in the work, plus dynamic linking to journal articles and abstract databases, making navigation flexible and easy. For more information, pricing options and availability visit http://info.sciencedirect.com/content/books/ref_works/coming/ Available online on ScienceDirect and in limited edition print format Broad, interdisciplinary coverage across human geography: Philosophy, Methods, People, Social/Cultural, Political, Economic, Development, Health, Cartography, Urban, Historical, Regional Comprehensive and unique - the first of its kind in human geography



The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law

The Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law Author Michel Rosenfeld
ISBN-10 9780191640179
Release 2012-05-17
Pages 1416
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The field of comparative constitutional law has grown immensely over the past couple of decades. Once a minor and obscure adjunct to the field of domestic constitutional law, comparative constitutional law has now moved front and centre. Driven by the global spread of democratic government and the expansion of international human rights law, the prominence and visibility of the field, among judges, politicians, and scholars has grown exponentially. Even in the United States, where domestic constitutional exclusivism has traditionally held a firm grip, use of comparative constitutional materials has become the subject of a lively and much publicized controversy among various justices of the U.S. Supreme Court. The trend towards harmonization and international borrowing has been controversial. Whereas it seems fair to assume that there ought to be great convergence among industrialized democracies over the uses and functions of commercial contracts, that seems far from the case in constitutional law. Can a parliamentary democracy be compared to a presidential one? A federal republic to a unitary one? Moreover, what about differences in ideology or national identity? Can constitutional rights deployed in a libertarian context be profitably compared to those at work in a social welfare context? Is it perilous to compare minority rights in a multi-ethnic state to those in its ethnically homogeneous counterparts? These controversies form the background to the field of comparative constitutional law, challenging not only legal scholars, but also those in other fields, such as philosophy and political theory. Providing the first single-volume, comprehensive reference resource, the Oxford Handbook of Comparative Constitutional Law will be an essential road map to the field for all those working within it, or encountering it for the first time. Leading experts in the field examine the history and methodology of the discipline, the central concepts of constitutional law, constitutional processes, and institutions - from legislative reform to judicial interpretation, rights, and emerging trends.



The Palgrave Handbook of State Sponsored History After 1945

The Palgrave Handbook of State Sponsored History After 1945 Author Berber Bevernage
ISBN-10 9781349953066
Release 2018-02-03
Pages 877
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This handbook provides the first systematic integrated analysis of the role that states or state actors play in the construction of history and public memory after 1945. The book focuses on many different forms of state-sponsored history, including memory laws, monuments and memorials, state-archives, science policies, history in schools, truth commissions, historical expert commissions, the use of history in courts and tribunals etc. The handbook contributes to the study of history and public memory by combining elements of state-focused research in separate fields of study. By looking at the state’s memorialising capacities the book introduces an analytical perspective that is not often found in classical studies of the state. The handbook has a broad geographical focus and analyses cases from different regions around the world. The volume mainly tackles democratic contexts, although dictatorial regimes are not excluded.



Revolutionizing a World

Revolutionizing a World Author Mark Altaweel
ISBN-10 9781911576631
Release 2018-02-26
Pages 336
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This book investigates the long-term continuity of large-scale states and empires, and its effect on the Near East’s social fabric, including the fundamental changes that occurred to major social institutions. Its geographical coverage spans, from east to west, modern-day Libya and Egypt to Central Asia, and from north to south, Anatolia to southern Arabia, incorporating modern-day Oman and Yemen. Its temporal coverage spans from the late eighth century BCE to the seventh century CE during the rise of Islam and collapse of the Sasanian Empire. The authors argue that the persistence of large states and empires starting in the eighth/seventh centuries BCE, which continued for many centuries, led to new socio-political structures and institutions emerging in the Near East. The primary processes that enabled this emergence were large-scale and long-distance movements, or population migrations. These patterns of social developments are analysed under different aspects: settlement patterns, urban structure, material culture, trade, governance, language spread and religion, all pointing at movement as the main catalyst for social change. This book’s argument is framed within a larger theoretical framework termed as ‘universalism’, a theory that explains many of the social transformations that happened to societies in the Near East, starting from the Neo-Assyrian period and continuing for centuries. Among other influences, the effects of these transformations are today manifested in modern languages, concepts of government, universal religions and monetized and globalized economies.



The Archaeology of Imperial Landscapes

The Archaeology of Imperial Landscapes Author Bleda S. Düring
ISBN-10 9781107189706
Release 2018-04-30
Pages 410
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This book examines the poorly understood transformations in rural landscapes and societies that formed the backbone of ancient empires.



Combatting Homophobia

Combatting Homophobia Author Michael Groneberg
ISBN-10 9783643111463
Release 2011
Pages 264
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Discrimination based on sexual orientation and gender identity concerns everybody, but it is foremost lesbian and gay persons who have to deal with it, especially when confronting the discovery of their homosexuality as a child or adolescent. In this book, education practitioners working with youth and researchers - from social, political, and educational sciences, as well as theology and philosophy - raise awareness of the wide spectrum of homophobia and offer solutions to the suffering it engenders in youths. The book will be helpful for parents, teachers, and others who are responsible for youth and education. It reviews concrete knowledge, combines it with scientific approaches, and identifies the need for further research. (Series: Gender-Diskussion - Vol. 13)



Critical Perspectives on Veganism

Critical Perspectives on Veganism Author Jodey Castricano
ISBN-10 9783319334196
Release 2016-09-13
Pages 400
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This book examines the ethics, politics and aesthetics of veganism in contemporary culture and thought. Traditionally a lifestyle located on the margins of western culture, veganism has now been propelled into the mainstream, and as agribusiness grows animal issues are inextricably linked to environmental impact as well as to existing ethical concerns. This collection connects veganism to a range of topics including gender, sexuality, race, the law and popular culture. It explores how something as basic as one’s food choices continue to impact on the cultural, political, and philosophical discourse of the modern day, and asks whether the normalization of veganism strengthens or detracts from the radical impetus of its politics. With a Foreword by Melanie Joy and Jens Tuidor, this book analyzes the mounting prevalence of veganism as it appears in different cultural shifts and asks how veganism might be rethought and re-practised in the twenty-first century.



Sacred Worlds

Sacred Worlds Author Chris Park
ISBN-10 9781134877348
Release 2002-11-01
Pages 352
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This book, the first in the field for two decades, looks at the relationships between geography and religion. It represents a synthesis of research by geographers of many countries, mainly since the 1960s. No previous book has tackled this emerging field from such a broad, interdisciplinary perspective, and never before have such a variety of detailed case studies been pulled together in so comparative or illuminating a way. Examples and case studies have been drawn from all the major world religions and from all continents from both a historical and contemporary perspective. Major themes covered in the book include the distribution of religion and the processes by which religion and religious ideas spread through space and time. Some of the important links between religion and population are also explored. A great deal of attention is focused on the visible manifestations of religion on the cultural landscape, including landscapes of worship and of death, and the whole field of sacred space and religious pilgrimage.



TransAntiquity

TransAntiquity Author Domitilla Campanile
ISBN-10 9781317377382
Release 2017-02-03
Pages 262
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TransAntiquity explores transgender practices, in particular cross-dressing, and their literary and figurative representations in antiquity. It offers a ground-breaking study of cross-dressing, both the social practice and its conceptualization, and its interaction with normative prescriptions on gender and sexuality in the ancient Mediterranean world. Special attention is paid to the reactions of the societies of the time, the impact transgender practices had on individuals’ symbolic and social capital, as well as the reactions of institutionalized power and the juridical systems. The variety of subjects and approaches demonstrates just how complex and widespread "transgender dynamics" were in antiquity.



Archaic Eretria

Archaic Eretria Author Keith G. Walker
ISBN-10 9781134450978
Release 2004-01-09
Pages 368
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This book presents for the first time a history of Eretria during the Archaic Era, the city's most notable period of political importance and Keith Walker examines all the major elements of the city's success. One of the key factors explored is Eretria's role as a pioneer coloniser in both the Levant and the West - its early Aegaen 'island empire' anticipates that of Athens by more than a century, and Eretrian shipping and trade was similarly widespread. Eretria's major, indeed dominant, role in the events of central Greece in the last half of the sixth century, and in the events of the Ionian Revolt to 490 is clearly demonstrated, and the tyranny of Diagoras (c.538-509), perhaps the golden age of the city, is fully examined. Full documentation of literary, epigraphic and archaeological sources (most of which has previously been inaccessible to an English speaking-audience) is provided, creating a fascinating history and valuable resource for the Greek historian.



The Evolution of States an Introduction to English Politics

The Evolution of States an Introduction to English Politics Author J. M. Robertson
ISBN-10 1532822839
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 386
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This collection of literature attempts to compile many of the classic works that have stood the test of time and offer them at a reduced, affordable price, in an attractive volume so that everyone can enjoy them.



An Introduction to the Ancient World

An Introduction to the Ancient World Author Lukas De Blois
ISBN-10 9781134047918
Release 2008-10-24
Pages 352
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Integrating the results of scholarly work from the past decade, the authors of An Introduction to the Ancient World, Lukas de Blois and R.J. van der Spek, have fully-updated and revised all sixteen chapters of this best-selling introductory textbook. Covering the history and culture of the ancient Near East, Greece and Rome within the framework of a short narrative history of events, this book offers an easily readable, integrated overview for students of history, classics, archaeology and philosophy, whether at college, at undergraduate level or among the wider reading public. This revised second edition offers a new section on early Christianity and more specific information on the religions, economies, and societies of the ancient Near East. There is extended coverage of Greek, Macedonian and Near Eastern history of the fourth to second centuries BC and the history of the Late Roman Republic. The consequences of Julius Caesar’s violent death are covered in more detail, as are the history and society of Imperial Rome. This new edition is: comprehensive: covers 3,000 years of ancient history and provides the basis for a typical one-semester course lavishly illustrated: contains maps, line drawings and plates to support and supplement the text, with updated captions clearly and concisely written: two established and respected university teachers with thirty years' experience in the subject areas well-organized: traces the broad outline of political history but also concentrates on particular topics user-friendly: includes chapter menus, an extensive and expanded bibliography organized by subject area and three appendices, an improved introduction and the addition of an epilogue.



Life and Letters in the Ancient Greek World

Life and Letters in the Ancient Greek World Author John Muir
ISBN-10 9781134166008
Release 2008-11-19
Pages 256
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From the first ‘deadly signs’ scratched on a wooden tablet instructing the recipient to kill the one who delivered it, to the letters of St Paul to the early Church, this book examines the range of letter writing in the Ancient Greek world. Containing extensive translated examples from both life and fiction, it provides a glimpse into the lives of both ordinary people and political life. This comprehensive study looks at personal and private letters, letters used in administration and government, letters used as vehicles for the dissemination of philosophy and religion, and letters which played a part in the development of several literary genres. The way in which letters were written and with what materials, how they were delivered, and how it is that, for certain limited periods and locations, so many of them have survived and how they were re-discovered. By placing these letters in their social, political and intellectual contexts, Life and Letters in the Ancient Greek World draws attention to both familiar topics, such as young soldiers writing home from basic training and the choice of flowers for a wedding, and more alien events, such as getting rid of baby girls and offhand attitudes to bereavement. This first guide in English to provide commentary on such a broad range of letters, will be essential reading for anyone interested in the Ancient Greek World.