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Axiomatic Method and Category Theory

Axiomatic Method and Category Theory Author Andrei Rodin
ISBN-10 9783319004044
Release 2013-10-14
Pages 285
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This volume explores the many different meanings of the notion of the axiomatic method, offering an insightful historical and philosophical discussion about how these notions changed over the millennia. The author, a well-known philosopher and historian of mathematics, first examines Euclid, who is considered the father of the axiomatic method, before moving onto Hilbert and Lawvere. He then presents a deep textual analysis of each writer and describes how their ideas are different and even how their ideas progressed over time. Next, the book explores category theory and details how it has revolutionized the notion of the axiomatic method. It considers the question of identity/equality in mathematics as well as examines the received theories of mathematical structuralism. In the end, Rodin presents a hypothetical New Axiomatic Method, which establishes closer relationships between mathematics and physics. Lawvere's axiomatization of topos theory and Voevodsky's axiomatization of higher homotopy theory exemplify a new way of axiomatic theory building, which goes beyond the classical Hilbert-style Axiomatic Method. The new notion of Axiomatic Method that emerges in categorical logic opens new possibilities for using this method in physics and other natural sciences. This volume offers readers a coherent look at the past, present and anticipated future of the Axiomatic Method.



Berechenbarkeit der Welt

Berechenbarkeit der Welt Author Wolfgang Pietsch
ISBN-10 9783658121532
Release 2017-06-21
Pages 562
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Der Sammelband untersucht Entwicklungen in der Wissenschaft, die in den letzten Jahren durch moderne Informationstechnologien und die zunehmende Verfügbarkeit von Daten angestoßen wurden. Aufgrund dieser neuen Ansätze werden eine Reihe von Phänomenen zum Beispiel aus den Sozial- oder den Lebenswissenschaften berechenbar, die zuvor als zu komplex für eine wissenschaftliche Analyse galten. Der Band versammelt Texte aus einer Vielzahl unterschiedlicher Perspektiven, von der Physik über die Sozial- und Kulturwissenschaften bis hin zur Informatik. Neben Beiträgen, die die aktuellen Entwicklungen direkt thematisieren, untersuchen andere Aufsätze zentrale Begriffe in unmittelbarem Zusammenhang wie Komplexität oder Information.



Studies in the Methodology and Foundations of Science

Studies in the Methodology and Foundations of Science Author Patrick Suppes
ISBN-10 9789401731737
Release 2013-03-09
Pages 475
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The twenty-three papers collected in tbis volume represent an important part of my published work up to the date of this volume. I have not arranged the paper chronologically, but under four main headings. Part I contains five papers on methodology concerned with models and measurement in the sciences. This part also contains the first paper I published, 'A Set of Independent Axioms for Extensive Quantities', in Portugaliae Mathematica in 1951. Part 11 also is concerned with methodology and ineludes six papers on probability and utility. It is not always easy to separate papers on probability and utility from papers on measurement, because of the elose connection between the two subjects, but Artieles 6 and 8, even though they have elose relations to measurement, seem more properly to belong in Part 11, because they are concerned with substantive questions about probability and utility. The last two parts are concerned with the foundations of physics and the foundations of psychology. I have used the term foundations rather than philosophy, because the papers are mainly concerned with specific axiomatic formulations for particular parts of physics or of psychology, and it seems to me that the termfoundations more appropriately describes such constructive axiomatic ventures. Part 111 contains four papers on the foundations of physics. The first paper deals with foundations of special relativity and the last three with the role ofprobability in quantum mechanics.



The Logic of Scientific Discovery

The Logic of Scientific Discovery Author Karl Popper
ISBN-10 9781134470020
Release 2005-11-04
Pages 480
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Described by the philosopher A.J. Ayer as a work of 'great originality and power', this book revolutionized contemporary thinking on science and knowledge. Ideas such as the now legendary doctrine of 'falsificationism' electrified the scientific community, influencing even working scientists, as well as post-war philosophy. This astonishing work ranks alongside The Open Society and Its Enemies as one of Popper's most enduring books and contains insights and arguments that demand to be read to this day.



Rigor and Structure

Rigor and Structure Author John P. Burgess
ISBN-10 9780198722229
Release 2015
Pages 224
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John P. Burgess presents an illuminating study of the nature of mathematical rigour and of mathematical structure, and above all of the relation between them. He considers recent developments in the field including experimental mathematics and computerised formal proofs, and surveys many historical developments in mathematics, philosophy, and logic.



Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing

Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing Author Christopher D. Manning
ISBN-10 0262133601
Release 1999
Pages 680
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An introduction to statistical natural language processing (NLP). The text contains the theory and algorithms needed for building NLP tools. Topics covered include: mathematical and linguistic foundations; statistical methods; collocation finding; word sense disambiguation; and probalistic parsing.



Teaching Ethics with Three Philosophical Novels

Teaching Ethics with Three Philosophical Novels Author Michael Boylan
ISBN-10 9783319557113
Release 2017-07-11
Pages 190
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This book offers a unique method for teaching ethics and social/political philosophy by combining primary texts and resource material along with three philosophical novels so that students can apply the abstract principles to real-life situations. Boylan provides a preface to introduce instructors in how to effectively put together a course in ethics using fiction. A sample syllabus and sample assignments are provided. Students often turn-off when confronted with abstract ethical principles, alone. This book allows interaction with philosophical novels that provide real-life situations that mirrors applying normative principles to lived experience. Students will be drawn into this realism and their engagement with the material will be significantly enhanced. This is an innovative textbook for teachers and students of general philosophy, ethics, business ethics, social and political philosophy, as well as students of literature and philosophy.



Induction Physics and Ethics

Induction  Physics and Ethics Author P. Weingartner
ISBN-10 902770158X
Release 1970-07-31
Pages 384
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Proceedings and Discussion of the 1968 Salzburg Colloquium in the Philosophy of Science.



Concise History of the Language Sciences

Concise History of the Language Sciences Author E.F.K. Koerner
ISBN-10 9781483297545
Release 2014-06-28
Pages 509
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This book presents in a single volume a comprehensive history of the language sciences, from ancient times through to the twentieth century. While there has been a concentration on those traditions that have the greatest international relevance, a particular effort has been made to go beyond traditional Eurocentric accounts, and to cover a broad geographical spread. For the twentieth century a section has been devoted to the various trends, schools, and theoretical framework developed in Europe, North America and Australasia over the past seventy years. There has also been a concentration on those approaches in linguistic theory which can be expected to have some direct relevance to work being done at the beginning of the twenty-first century or those of which a knowledge is needed for the full understanding of the history of linguistic sciences through the last half of this century. The last section of this book reviews the applications of some of these findings. Based on the foundation provided by the award winning Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics this volume provides an excellent focal point of reference for anyone interested in the history of the language sciences.



Language as Calculus vs Language as Universal Medium

Language as Calculus vs  Language as Universal Medium Author Maren Kusch
ISBN-10 9789400924178
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 362
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I first became interested in Husserl and Heidegger as long ago as 1980, when as an undergraduate at the Freie Universitat Berlin I studied the books by Professor Ernst Tugendhat. Tugendhat's at tempt to bring together analytical and continental philosophy has never ceased to fascinate me, and even though in more recent years other influences have perhaps been stronger, I should like to look upon the present study as still being indebted to Tugendhat's initial incentive. It was my good fortune that for personal reasons I had to con tinue my academic training from 1981 onwards in Finland. Even though Finland is a stronghold of analytical philosophy, it also has a tradition of combining continental and Anglosaxon philosophical thought. Since I had already admired this line of work in Tugendhat, it is hardly surprising that once in Finland I soon became impressed by Professor Jaakko Hintikka's studies on Husserl and intentionality, and by Professor Georg Henrik von Wright's analytical hermeneu tics. While the latter influence has-at least in part-led to a book on the history of hermeneutics, the former influence has led to the present work. My indebtedness to Professor Hintikka is enormous. Not only is the research reported here based on his suggestions, but Hintikka has also commented extensively on different versions of the manuscript, helped me to make important contacts, found a publisher for me, and-last but not least-was a never failing source of encouragement.



Explaining Games

Explaining Games Author Boudewijn de Bruin
ISBN-10 1402099061
Release 2010-08-18
Pages 178
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Does game theory - the mathematical theory of strategic interaction - provide genuine explanations of human behaviour? Can game theory be used in economic consultancy or other normative contexts? Explaining Games: The Epistemic Programme in Game Theory - the first monograph on the philosophy of game theory - is a bold attempt to combine insights from epistemic logic and the philosophy of science to investigate the applicability of game theory in such fields as economics, philosophy and strategic consultancy. De Bruin proves new mathematical theorems about the beliefs, desires and rationality principles of individual human beings, and he explores in detail the logical form of game theory as it is used in explanatory and normative contexts. He argues that game theory reduces to rational choice theory if used as an explanatory device, and that game theory is nonsensical if used as a normative device. A provocative account of the history of game theory reveals that this is not bad news for all of game theory, though. Two central research programmes in game theory tried to find the ultimate characterisation of strategic interaction between rational agents. Yet, while the Nash Equilibrium Refinement Programme has done badly thanks to such research habits as overmathematisation, model-tinkering and introversion, the Epistemic Programme, De Bruin argues, has been rather successful in achieving this aim.



Working with objects

Working with objects Author Trygve Reenskaug
ISBN-10 0134529308
Release 1995-06-01
Pages 366
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Working With Objects is the authoritative account of the highly successful OOram method for software analysis, design, development, maintenance and reuse. OOram has been fine-tuned over a decade on hundreds of projects by Trygve Reenskaug and his collaborators. It is supported by available CASE tools, training, and consulting. Book jacket.



Scientific Structuralism

Scientific Structuralism Author Alisa Bokulich
ISBN-10 9048195977
Release 2011-01-21
Pages 182
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Recently there has been a revival of interest in structuralist approaches to science. Taking their lead from scientific structuralists such as Henri Poincaré, Ernst Cassirer, and Bertrand Russell, some contemporary philosophers and scientists have argued that the most fruitful approach to solving many problems in the philosophy of science lies in focusing on the structural features of our scientific theories. Much of the work in scientific structuralism to date has been focused on the problem of scientific realism, where it has been argued that even in cases of radical theory change the most important structural features of predecessor theories are preserved. These structural realists argue that what our most successful theories get right about the world is these abstract structural features, rather than any particular ontological claims. More recently, philosophers of science have adopted structuralist approaches to many other issues in the philosophy of science, such as scientific explanation and intertheory relations. The nine articles collected in this volume, written by the leading researchers in scientific structuralism, represent some of the most important directions of research in this field. This book will be of particular interest to those philosophers, scientists, and mathematicians who are interested in the foundations of science.



Decisions with Multiple Objectives

Decisions with Multiple Objectives Author Ralph L. Keeney
ISBN-10 0521438837
Release 1993-07-01
Pages 569
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This book describes how a confused decision maker, who wishes to make a reasonable and responsible choice among alternatives, can systematically probe their thoughts and feelings in order to make the critically important trade-offs between incommensurable objectives.



Ontologies of Nature

Ontologies of Nature Author Gerard Kuperus
ISBN-10 9783319662367
Release 2017-10-04
Pages 264
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This volume contains essays that offer both historical and contemporary views of nature, as seen through a hermeneutic, deconstructive, and phenomenological lens. It reaches back to Ancient Greek conceptions of physis in Homer and Empedocles, encompasses 13th century Zen master Dōgen, and extends to include 21st Century Continental Thought. By providing ontologies of nature from the perspective of the history of philosophy and of contemporary philosophy alike, the book shows that such perspectives need to be seen in dialogue with each other in order to offer a deeper and more comprehensive philosophy of nature. The value of the historical accounts discussed lies in discerning the conceptual problems that contribute to the dominant thinking underpinning our ecological predicament, as well as in providing helpful resources for thinking innovatively through current problems, thus recasting the past to allow for a future yet to be imagined. The book also discusses contemporary continental thinkers who are more critically aware of the dominant anthropocentric and instrumental view of nature, and who provide substantial guidance for a sensible, innovative “ontology of nature” suited for an ecology of the future. Overall, the ontologies of nature discerned in this volume are not merely of theoretical interest, but strategically serve to suspend anthropocentrism and spark ethical and political reorientation in the context of our current ecological predicament.



Research Methods in Education

Research Methods in Education Author Louis Cohen
ISBN-10 9781315456515
Release 2017-10-12
Pages 916
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This thoroughly updated and extended eighth edition of the long-running bestseller Research Methods in Education covers the whole range of methods employed by educational research at all stages. Its five main parts cover: the context of educational research; research design; methodologies for educational research; methods of data collection; and data analysis and reporting. It continues to be the go-to text for students, academics and researchers who are undertaking, understanding and using educational research, and has been translated into several languages. It offers plentiful and rich practical advice, underpinned by clear theoretical foundations, research evidence and up-to-date references, and it raises key issues and questions for researchers planning, conducting, reporting and evaluating research. This edition contains new chapters on: Mixed methods research The role of theory in educational research Ethics in Internet research Research questions and hypotheses Internet surveys Virtual worlds, social network software and netography in educational research Using secondary data in educational research Statistical significance, effect size and statistical power Beyond mixed methods: using Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) to integrate cross-case and within-case analyses. Research Methods in Education is essential reading for both the professional researcher and anyone involved in educational and social research. The book is supported by a wealth of online materials, including PowerPoint slides, useful weblinks, practice data sets, downloadable tables and figures from the book, and a virtual, interactive, self-paced training programme in research methods. These resources can be found at: www.routledge.com/cw/cohen.



The Semantic Sphere 1

The Semantic Sphere 1 Author Pierre Lévy
ISBN-10 9781118601518
Release 2013-01-22
Pages 381
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The new digital media offers us an unprecedented memory capacity, an ubiquitous communication channel and a growing computing power. How can we exploit this medium to augment our personal and social cognitive processes at the service of human development? Combining a deep knowledge of humanities and social sciences as well as a real familiarity with computer science issues, this book explains the collaborative construction of a global hypercortex coordinated by a computable metalanguage. By recognizing fully the symbolic and social nature of human cognition, we could transform our current opaque global brain into a reflexive collective intelligence.