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Bacteria and Bayonets

Bacteria and Bayonets Author David Petriello
ISBN-10 9781612003429
Release 2015-02-01
Pages 264
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For hundreds of years men have fought and died to expand and protect the United States relying on martial skill and patriotism. Various powerful enemies, from the British to the Nazis, and legendary individuals including Tecumseh and Robert E. Lee have all fallen before the arms of the American soldier. Yet the deadliest enemy faced by the nation, one which killed more soldiers than all of its foes combined, has been both unrecognized and unseen. The war waged by the United States against disease, and by disease against the United States, has impacted the country more than any other conflict and continues to present a terrible threat to this day. Illness has been more than just a historical cause of casualties for the American military, in numerous wars it has helped to decide battles, drive campaigns, and determine strategy. In fact the Patriots owed pestilence as much for their victory in the Revolution as they did their own force of arms. Likewise disease helped to prevent the conquest of Canada in 1812, drove strategy in the Mexican War, handicapped Lee’s 1862 advance, and helped lead to World War II. Disease also provided an edge in the wars against Native Americans, yet just as soon turned on the US when unacclimated US troops were dispatched to the southern Pacific. This book not only traces the path of disease in American military history but also recounts numerous small episodes and interesting anecdotes related to the history of illness. Overall it presents a compelling story, one that has been overlooked and under appreciated. Yellow fever, malaria, tuberculosis, glanders, bubonic plague, smallpox, and numerous other bacteria and viruses all conspired to defeat America, and are enemies that need to be recognized.



Tide of War

Tide of War Author David R. Petriello
ISBN-10 9781510728219
Release 2018-01-16
Pages 224
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The first comprehensive look at nature’s role on military history. Halley’s Comet helped to announce the fall of the Shang Dynasty in China, a solar eclipse frightened the Macedonian army enough at Pydna in 168 BC to ensure victory for the Romans, a massive rain storm turned the field of Agincourt to mud in 1415 and gave Henry V his legendary victory, fog secured the throne of England for Edward IV at Barnet in 1471, wind and disease conspired to wreck the Spanish Armada, snow served to prevent the American capture of Quebec in 1775 and confined the Revolution to the Thirteen Colonies, and an earthquake helped to spark the Peloponnesian War. But this is only a small sampling of the many instances where nature has tipped the balance in combat. Over the past 4000 years, weather and nature have both hindered and helped various campaigns and battles, occasionally even altering the course of history in the process. Today elements of nature still affect the planning and waging of war, even as we have tried to mitigate its impact. The growing concern over climate change has only heightened the need to study and understand this subject. Tide of War is the first book to comprehensively tackle this topic and traces some of the most notable intersections between nature and war since ancient times.



Medicine and the American Revolution

Medicine and the American Revolution Author Oscar Reiss, M.D.
ISBN-10 9780786421602
Release 2004-01-01
Pages 286
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Nearly nine times as many died from diseases during the American Revolution as did from wounds. Poor diet, inadequate sanitation and sometimes a lack of basic medical care caused such diseases as dysentery, scurvy, typhus, smallpox and others to decimate the ranks. Scurvy was a major problem for both the British and American navies, while venereal diseases proved to be a particularly vexing problem in New York. Respiratory diseases, scabies and other illnesses left nearly 4,000 colonial troops unable to fight when George Washington's troops broke camp at Valley Forge in June 1778. From a physician's perspective, this is a unique history of the American Revolution and how diseases impacted the execution of the war effort. The medical histories of Washington and King George III are also provided.



The Blue Gray Almanac

The Blue   Gray Almanac Author Albert Nofi
ISBN-10 9781612005539
Release 2017-08-19
Pages 304
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Albert Nofi tells the story of the American War through a range of insightful essays, anecdotes, and facts. Did you know... • During the final days of the war, some Richmond citizens would throw “Starvation Parties,” at which elegantly attired guests would gather at soirees where the finest silver and crystal tableware was used, though there were usually no refreshments except water. • Union Rear-Admiral Goldsborough was nicknamed “Old Guts”, not so much for his combativeness as for his heft, weighing about 300 pounds, and was described as “. . . a huge mass of inert matter.” • 30.6 percent of the 425 Confederate generals, but only 21.6 percent of the 583 Union generals, had been lawyers before the war. • In 1861, J. P. Morgan made a huge profit by buying 5,000 condemned US Army carbines and selling them back to another arsenal, taking the Army to court when they tried to refuse to pay for the faulty weapons. • Major General Loring was reputed to have so rich a vocabulary than one of the men once remarked he could "curse a cannon up hill without horses." • Many militia units had a favorite drink, the Charleston Light Dragoons’ punch took around a week to make while the Chatham Artillery required 1 pound of green tea leaves be steeped overnight. • There were five living former presidents when the Civil War began, and seven veterans of the war (plus one draft dodger) went on to serve as President.



World Epidemics

World Epidemics Author Mary Ellen Snodgrass
ISBN-10 9781476631066
Release 2017-11-22
Pages 423
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 In its expanded second edition, this chronology examines the effects of epidemic illness and death on human culture from 2700 bce to 2017. Entries summarize incidents of contagion across the globe, including symptoms, treatment, prevention and demographics, as well as biographical information on notable people who identified and battled disease. Entries feature citations from personal and public documents along with maps, charts comparing types of infection, and estimated populations affected by each epidemic.



Alexander Hamilton s Revolution

Alexander Hamilton s Revolution Author Phillip Thomas Tucker
ISBN-10 9781510716605
Release 2017-08-22
Pages 376
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Despite his less-than-promising beginnings as the only key Founding Father not born and raised on American soil, Hamilton was one of the best and brightest of his generation. His notoriety has rested almost entirely on his role as Secretary of the Treasury in Washington's administration, yet few realize that Washington and Hamilton's bond was forged during the Revolutionary War. Alexander Hamilton's Revolution is the first book to explore Hamilton's critical role during the battle for independence. New information presents a little-known and underpublished aspect of Hamilton's life: that he was not only Washington's favorite staff officer, but also his right-hand man for most of the Revolution, serving as Chief of Staff from 1777 to early 1781. While he found this position rewarding, Hamilton continually asked Washington for a field command. Hamilton's wish was granted at the decisive battle of Yorktown, where his Infantry Battalion charged on the defensive bastion on Cornwallis's left flank. Hamilton's capture of this position, while French forced captured the adjacent position, sealed Cornwallis's fate and forced his surrender and ultimate colonial victory. The entire patriotic cause benefited immeasurably from the advice and strategies provided to Washington by his youngest staff officer, Alexander Hamilton. Now, those critical contributions are brought to light in Hamilton's Revolution.



Armies South Armies North

Armies South  Armies North Author Alan Axelrod
ISBN-10 9781493024070
Release 2017-05-01
Pages 320
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An argument settler--and starter--for Civil War buffs who want to know which side had the better soldiers: Armies South, Armies North definitively compares the military forces of both sides. Civil War buffs are always arguing over which side had the better soldiers. Armies South/Armies North by Alan Axelrod helps readers reconsider their understanding of America’s most harrowing war. Axelrod is the author of more than one hundred books with a passion for military history and leadership. Each chapter of his new book compares the military forces with both quantitative and qualitative measures. Axelrod analyzes the equipment, the leadership and strategies, and the men who fought in each army, with additional focus on lesser known flash points during the war.



Illinois in the War of 1812

Illinois in the War of 1812 Author Gillum Ferguson
ISBN-10 9780252094552
Release 2012-01-26
Pages 360
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Russell P. Strange "Book of the Year" Award from the Illinois State Historical Society, 2012. On the eve of the War of 1812, the Illinois Territory was a new land of bright promise. Split off from Indiana Territory in 1809, the new territory ran from the junction of the Ohio and Mississippi rivers north to the U.S. border with Canada, embracing the current states of Illinois, Wisconsin, and a part of Michigan. The extreme southern part of the region was rich in timber, but the dominant feature of the landscape was the vast tall grass prairie that stretched without major interruption from Lake Michigan for more than three hundred miles to the south. The territory was largely inhabited by Indians: Sauk, Potawatomi, Kickapoo, and others. By 1812, however, pioneer farmers had gathered in the wooded fringes around prime agricultural land, looking out over the prairies with longing and trepidation. Six years later, a populous Illinois was confident enough to seek and receive admission as a state in the Union. What had intervened was the War of 1812, in which white settlers faced both Indians resistant to their encroachments and British forces poised to seize control of the upper Mississippi and Great Lakes. The war ultimately broke the power and morale of the Indian tribes and deprived them of the support of their ally, Great Britain. Sometimes led by skillful tacticians, at other times by blundering looters who got lost in the tall grass, the combatants showed each other little mercy. Until and even after the war was concluded by the Treaty of Ghent in 1814, there were massacres by both sides, laying the groundwork for later betrayal of friendly and hostile tribes alike and for ultimate expulsion of the Indians from the new state of Illinois. In this engrossing new history, published upon the war's bicentennial, Gillum Ferguson underlines the crucial importance of the War of 1812 in the development of Illinois as a state. The history of Illinois in the War of 1812 has never before been told with so much attention to the personalities who fought it, the events that defined it, and its lasting consequences. Endorsed by the Illinois Society of the War of 1812 and the Illinois War of 1812 Bicentennial Commission.



A Pestilence on Pennsylvania Avenue

A Pestilence on Pennsylvania Avenue Author David R. Petriello
ISBN-10 1939995175
Release 2016-09-06
Pages 204
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"A Pestilence on Pennsylvania Avenue" explores the impact and influence of disease and illness on the American presidency, including the vice presidents and First Ladies, from the time of George Washington to Barack Obama. An intriguing and gripping read, especially in this presidential election year.



Death Disease and Life at War

Death  Disease  and Life at War Author Christopher E. Loperfido
ISBN-10 1611213592
Release 2018
Pages 168
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"Union surgeon James Dana Benton witnessed firsthand the suffering and death brought about by the ghastly wounds, infections, and diseases that wreaked havoc to both the Union and Confederate armies. A native of New York, Dr. Benton penned a series of letters throughout the war to his family relating his experiences with the 111th New York Infantry as an assistant surgeon, and later with the 98th New York as surgeon. His unique correspondence, together with insights from author Chris Loperfido, coalesce to produce Death and Disease in the Civil War: A Union Surgeon's Correspondence from Harpers Ferry to Richmond. Dr. Benton was present for some of the war's most gruesome and important battles, including Gettysburg, Cold Harbor, and the siege of Petersburg. He was also present at Harpers Ferry, Second Battle of Auburn, Battle of Morton's Ford, and Abraham Lincoln's second Inaugural address. His pen offers an insightful and honest look into what everyday life was like for the surgeons who tirelessly worked to save the men who risked their lives for the preservation of the nation. Loperfido's Death and Disease in the Civil War should be read by every student of the Civil War to better understand and come to grips with what awaited the wounded and the medical teams once the generals were finished with their work"--Provided by publisher.



Intimate Bonds

Intimate Bonds Author Jennifer L. Palmer
ISBN-10 9780812293067
Release 2016-07-28
Pages 280
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Following the stories of families who built their lives and fortunes across the Atlantic Ocean, Intimate Bonds explores how households anchored the French empire and shaped the meanings of race, slavery, and gender in the early modern period. As race-based slavery became entrenched in French laws, all household members in the French Atlantic world —regardless of their status, gender, or race—negotiated increasingly stratified legal understandings of race and gender. Through her focus on household relationships, Jennifer L. Palmer reveals how intimacy not only led to the seemingly immutable hierarchies of the plantation system but also caused these hierarchies to collapse even before the age of Atlantic revolutions. Placing families at the center of the French Atlantic world, Palmer uses the concept of intimacy to illustrate how race, gender, and the law intersected to form a new worldview. Through analysis of personal, mercantile, and legal relationships, Intimate Bonds demonstrates that even in an era of intensifying racial stratification, slave owners and slaves, whites and people of color, men and women all adapted creatively to growing barriers, thus challenging the emerging paradigm of the nuclear family. This engagingly written history reveals that personal choices and family strategies shaped larger cultural and legal shifts in the meanings of race, slavery, family, patriarchy, and colonialism itself.



Providing for the Casualties of War

Providing for the Casualties of War Author Bernard D. Rostker
ISBN-10 9780833078193
Release 2013-04-29
Pages 324
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War has always been a dangerous business, bringing injury, wounds, and death, and--until recently--often disease. What has changed over time, most dramatically in the last 150 or so years, is the care these casualties receive and who provides it. This book looks at the history of how humanity has cared for its war casualties and veterans, from ancient times through the aftermath of World War II.



Gendered Crossings

Gendered Crossings Author Allyson M. Poska
ISBN-10 9780826356444
Release 2016-02-15
Pages 296
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Between 1778 and 1784 the Spanish Crown transported more than 1,900 peasants, including 875 women and girls, from northern Spain to South America in an ill-fated scheme to colonize Patagonia. The story begins as the colonists trudge across northern Spain to volunteer for the project and follows them across the Atlantic to Montevideo. However, before the last ships reached the Americas, harsh weather, disease, and the prospect of mutiny on the Patagonian coast forced the Crown to abandon the project. Eventually, the peasant colonists were resettled in towns outside of Buenos Aires and Montevideo, where they raised families, bought slaves, and gradually integrated into colonial society. Gendered Crossings brings to life the diverse settings of the Iberian Atlantic and the transformations in the peasants’ gendered experiences as they moved around the Spanish Empire.



Beer

Beer Author Charles Bamforth
ISBN-10 0199756368
Release 2009-04-03
Pages 272
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Written by one of the world's leading authorities and hailed by American Brewer as "brilliant" and "by a wide margin the best reference now available," Beer offers an amusing and informative account of the art and science of brewing, examining the history of brewing and how the brewing process has evolved through the ages. The third edition features more information concerning the history of beer especially in the United States; British, Japanese, and Egyptian beer; beer in the context of health and nutrition; and the various styles of beer. Author Charles Bamforth has also added detailed sidebars on prohibition, Sierra Nevada, life as a maltster, hopgrowing in the Northwestern U.S., and how cans and bottle are made. Finally, the book includes new sections on beer in relation to food, contrasting attitudes towards beer in Europe and America, how beer is marketed, distributed, and retailed in the US, and modern ways of dealing with yeast.



Troubled Refuge

Troubled Refuge Author Chandra Manning
ISBN-10 9780307271204
Release 2016
Pages 396
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Even before shots were fired at Fort Sumter, slaves recognized that their bondage was at the root of the war, and they began running to the Union army. By the war's end, nearly half a million had taken refuge behind Union lines in improvised "contraband camps". These were crowded and dangerous places, with conditions approaching those of a humanitarian crisis, yet families and individuals took unimaginable risks to reach them, and they became the first places where many Northerners would come to know former slaves en masse. Drawing on records of the Union and Confederate armies, the letters and diaries of soldiers, transcribed testimonies of former slaves, and more, Manning sweeps us along, from the contraband camps, sharing insight and stories of individuals and armies on the move, to debates in the halls of Congress. The alliances between former slaves and Union soldiers which were warily begun in the contraband camps would forge a dramatically new but highly imperfect alliance between the government and the African Americans. That alliance would outlast the war, and help destroy slavery and ward off the very acute and surprisingly tenacious danger of re-enslavement. It also raised, for the first time, humanitarian questions about refugees in wartime and legal questions about civil and military authority with which we still wrestle, as well as redefined American citizenship, to the benefit but also to the lasting cost of African Americans. --



Colonial Caring

Colonial Caring Author Helen Sweet
ISBN-10 9780719099700
Release 2015-01-09
Pages 212
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The history of nursing presents a unique perspective from which to interrogate colonialism and post-colonialism, as nurses were often a key conduit between coloniser and colonised. Many colonising powers used nurses as a means of insinuating their own cultures into the lives of indigenous people, yet despite the valuable insights such an approach reveals, colonial history has never before been approached from this particular direction. Colonial caring brings together a collection of essays from an international group of historians who examine the relationship between colonialism, nursing and nurses. Gender, class and race permeate the book, as the complex relationships between nurses, their medical colleagues, governments and the populations they nurse are examined in detail, using case studies which draw on exciting new sources. Many of the chapters are based on first-hand accounts of nurses, producing a view of the colonial process from the ground, or use multiple sources to piece together a story which was never recorded in its entirety in official records. It offers insight into the colonial process as conducted by British, Dutch, American and Italian governments; and how nursing not only affected colonial societies but was itself changed by its experiences. This book will be of interest to a wide range of readers, be they gender, cultural or social historians, and of course to historians of nursing and colonialism.



The Company of Strangers

The Company of Strangers Author Paul Seabright
ISBN-10 1400834783
Release 2010-04-12
Pages 400
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The Company of Strangers shows us the remarkable strangeness, and fragility, of our everyday lives. This completely revised and updated edition includes a new chapter analyzing how the rise and fall of social trust explain the unsustainable boom in the global economy over the past decade and the financial crisis that succeeded it. Drawing on insights from biology, anthropology, history, psychology, and literature, Paul Seabright explores how our evolved ability of abstract reasoning has allowed institutions like money, markets, cities, and the banking system to provide the foundations of social trust that we need in our everyday lives. Even the simple acts of buying food and clothing depend on an astonishing web of interaction that spans the globe. How did humans develop the ability to trust total strangers with providing our most basic needs?