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Better Than Conscious

Better Than Conscious Author Christoph Engel
ISBN-10 9780262195805
Release 2008
Pages 449
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Conscious control enables human decision makers to override routines, to exercise willpower, to find innovative solutions, to learn by instruction, to decide collectively, and to justify their choices. These and many more advantages, however, come at a price: the ability to process information consciously is severely limited and conscious decision makers are liable to hundreds of biases. Measured against the norms of rational choice theory, conscious decision makers perform poorly. But if people forego conscious control, in appropriate tasks, they perform surprisingly better: they handle vast amounts of information; they update prior information; they find appropriate solutions to ill-defined problems. This inaugural Strüngmann Forum Report explores the human ability to make decisions, consciously as well as without conscious control. It explores decision-making strategies, including deliberate and intuitive; explicit and implicit; processing information serially and in parallel, with a general-purpose apparatus, or with task-specific neural subsystems. The analysis is at four levels -- neural, psychological, evolutionary, and institutional -- and the discussion is extended to the definition of social problems and the design of better institutional interventions. The results presented differ greatly from what could be expected under standard rational choice theory and deviate even more from the alternate behavioral view of institutions. New challenges emerge (for example, the issue of free will) and some purported social problems almost disappear if one adopts a more adequate model of human decision making.



Better Doctors Better Patients Better Decisions

Better Doctors  Better Patients  Better Decisions Author Gerd Gigerenzer
ISBN-10 0262298082
Release 2011-03-25
Pages 416
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Contrary to popular opinion, one of the main problems in providing uniformly excellent health care is not lack of money but lack of knowledge -- on the part of both doctors and patients. The studies in this book show that many doctors and most patients do not understand the available medical evidence. Both patients and doctors are "risk illiterate" -- frequently unable to tell the difference between actual risk and relative risk. Further, unwarranted disparity in treatment decisions is the rule rather than the exception in the United States and Europe. All of this contributes to much wasted spending in health care. The contributors to Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions investigate the roots of the problem, from the emphasis in medical research on technology and blockbuster drugs to the lack of education for both doctors and patients. They call for a new, more enlightened health care, with better medical education, journals that report study outcomes completely and transparently, and patients in control of their personal medical records, not afraid of statistics but able to use them to make informed decisions about their treatments.



Language Music and the Brain

Language  Music  and the Brain Author Michael A. Arbib
ISBN-10 9780262018104
Release 2013-06-28
Pages 662
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A presentation of music and language within an integrative, embodied perspective of brain mechanisms for action, emotion, and social coordination.



Emergent Brain Dynamics

Emergent Brain Dynamics Author April A. Benasich
ISBN-10 9780262348607
Release 2018-07-06
Pages 344
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Experts explore the maturation of nonlinear brain dynamics from a developmental perspective and consider the relationship of neurodevelopmental disorders to early disruption in dynamic coordination.This volume in the Strüngmann Forum Reports series explores the complex mechanisms that accompany the dynamic processes by which the brain evolves and matures. Integrating perspectives from multiple disciplines, the book identifies knowledge gaps and proposes innovative ways forward for this emerging area of cross-disciplinary study. The contributors examine maturation of nonlinear brain dynamics across systems from a developmental perspective and relate these organizing networks to the establishment of normative cognition and pathology seen in many neurodevelopmental disorders. The book looks at key mechanistic questions, including: What role does dynamic coordination play in the establishment and maintenance of brain networks and structural and functional connectivity? How are local and global functional networks assembled and transformed over normative development? To what degree do oscillatory patterns vary across development? What is the impact of critical periods, and which factors initiate and terminate such periods? It also explores the potential of new technologies and techniques to enhance understanding of normative development and to enable early identification and remediation of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders that may result from early disruption in dynamic coordination.Contributors Sylvain Baillet, Yehezkel Ben-Ari, April A. Benasich, Olivier Bertrand, Gyorgy Buzsáki, Alain Chédotal, Sam M. Doesburg, Gordin Fishell, Adriana Galván, Jennifer N. Gelinas, Jay Giedd, Pierre Gressens, Ileana L. Hanganu-Opatz, Rowshanak Hashemiyoon, Takao K. Hensch, Suzana Herculano-Houzel, Mark Hübener, Mark, Matthias Kaschube, Michael S. Kobor, Bryan Kolb, Thorsten Kolling, Jean-Philippe Lachaux, Ulman Lindenberger, Heiko J. Luhmann, Hannah Monyer, Sarah R. Moore, Charles A. Nelson III, Tomáš Paus, Patrick L. Purdon, Pasko Rakic, Urs Ribary, Akira Sawa, Terrence J. Sejnowski, Wolf Singer, Cheryl L. Sisk, Nicholas C. Spitzer, Michael P. Stryker, Migranka Sur, Peter J. Uhlhaas



Computational Psychiatry

Computational Psychiatry Author A. David Redish
ISBN-10 9780262035422
Release 2016-12-09
Pages 424
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Psychiatrists and neuroscientists discuss the potential of computational approaches to address problems in psychiatry including diagnosis, treatment, and integration with neurobiology.



The Cultural Nature of Attachment

The Cultural Nature of Attachment Author Heidi Keller
ISBN-10 9780262036900
Release 2017-10-20
Pages 448
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It is generally acknowledged that attachment relationships are important for infants and young children, but there is little clarity on what exactly constitutes such a relationship. Does it occur between two individuals (infant--mother or infant--father) or in an extended network? In the West, monotropic attachment appears to function as a secure foundation for infants, but is this true in other cultures? This volume offers perspectives from a range of disciplines on these questions. Contributors from psychology, biology, anthropology, evolution, social policy, neuroscience, information systems, and practice describe the latest research on the cultural and evolutionary foundations on children's attachment relationships as well as the implications for education, counseling, and policy. The contributors discuss such issues as the possible functions of attachment, including trust and biopsychological regulation; the evolutionary foundations, if any, of attachment; ways to model attachment using the tools of information science; the neural foundations of attachment; and the influence of cultural attitudes on attachment. Taking an integrative approach, the book embraces the wide cultural variations in attachment relationships in humans and their diversity across nonhuman primates. It proposes research methods for the culturally sensitive study of attachment networks that will lead to culturally sensitive assessments, practices, and social policies. ContributorsKim Bard, Marjorie Beeghly, Allyson J. Bennett, Yvonne Bohr, David L. Butler, Nandita Chaudhary, Stephen H. Chen, James B. Chisholm, Lynn A. Fairbanks, Ruth Feldman, Barbara L. Finlay, Suzanne Gaskins, Valeria Gazzola, Ariane Gernhardt, Jay Giedd, Alma Gottlieb, Kristen Hawkes, William D. Hopkins, Johannes Johow, Elfriede Kalcher-Sommersguter, Heidi Keller, Michael Lamb, Katja Liebal, Cindy H. Liu, Gilda A. Morelli, Marjorie Murray, Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi, Naomi Quinn, Mariano Rosabal-Coto, Dirk Scheele,Gabriel Scheidecker, Margaret A. Sheridan, Volker Sommer, Stephen J. Suomi, Akira Takada, Douglas M. Teti, Bernard Thierry, Ross A. Thompson, Akemi Tomoda, Nim Tottenham, Ed Tronick, Marga Vicedo, Leslie Wang, Thomas S. Weisner, Relindis D. Yovsi



Complexity and Evolution

Complexity and Evolution Author David S. Wilson
ISBN-10 9780262035385
Release 2016-08-19
Pages 408
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An exploration of how approaches that draw on evolutionary theory and complexity science can advance our understanding of economics.



Dynamic Coordination in the Brain

Dynamic Coordination in the Brain Author Christoph von der Malsburg
ISBN-10 9780262014717
Release 2010
Pages 352
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"Nervous systems do not live by the rate code alone. The ceaseless activities of groups of neurons are choregraphed into waves, oscillations, synchronized rhythms, and transient coalitions; it is these that underlie behavior, memory, and conscious perception. This exuberant manifesto masterfully summarizes and reflects upon the relevant evidence of these patterns from all manner of brains, small and large." --



Evolution and the Mechanisms of Decision Making

Evolution and the Mechanisms of Decision Making Author Peter Hammerstein
ISBN-10 9780262018081
Release 2012
Pages 434
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"Eleventh Ernst Streungmann Forum held June 19-24, 2011, Frankfurt am Main."



The Pragmatic Turn

The Pragmatic Turn Author Andreas K. Engel
ISBN-10 9780262034326
Release 2016-05-27
Pages 432
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Cognitive science is experiencing a pragmatic turn away from the traditional representation-centered framework toward a view that focuses on understanding cognition as "enactive." This enactive view holds that cognition does not produce models of the world but rather subserves action as it is grounded in sensorimotor skills. In this volume, experts from cognitive science, neuroscience, psychology, robotics, and philosophy of mind assess the foundations and implications of a novel action-oriented view of cognition. Their contributions and supporting experimental evidence show that an enactive approach to cognitive science enables strong conceptual advances, and the chapters explore key concepts for this new model of cognition. The contributors discuss the implications of an enactive approach for cognitive development; action-oriented models of cognitive processing; action-oriented understandings of consciousness and experience; and the accompanying paradigm shifts in the fields of philosophy, brain science, robotics, and psychology. ContributorsMoshe Bar, Lawrence W. Barsalov, Olaf Blanke, Jeannette Bohg, Martin V. Butz, Peter F. Dominey, Andreas K. Engel, Judith M. Ford, Karl J. Friston, Chris D. Frith, Shaun Gallagher, Antonia Hamilton, Tobias Heed, Cecilia Heyes, Elisabeth Hill, Matej Hoffmann, Jakob Hohwy, Bernhard Hommel, Atsushi Iriki, Pierre Jacob, Henrik Jörntell, Jürgen Jost, James Kilner, Günther Knoblich, Peter König, Danica Kragic, Miriam Kyselo, Alexander Maye, Marek McGann, Richard Menary, Thomas Metzinger, Ezequiel Morsella, Saskia Nagel, Kevin J. O'Regan, Pierre-Yves Oudeyer, Giovanni Pezzulo, Tony J. Prescott, Wolfgang Prinz, Friedemann Pulvermüller, Robert Rupert, Marti Sanchez-Fibla, Andrew Schwartz, Anil K. Seth, Vicky Southgate, Antonella Tramacere, John K. Tsotsos, Paul F. M. J. Verschure, Gabriella Vigliocco, Gottfried Vosgerau



Animal Thinking

Animal Thinking Author Randolf Menzel
ISBN-10 9780262016636
Release 2011-11-04
Pages 342
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Experts from psychology, neuroscience, philosophy, ecology, and evolutionary biology assess the field of animal cognition.



Consciousness and the Brain

Consciousness and the Brain Author Stanislas Dehaene
ISBN-10 9780698151406
Release 2014-01-30
Pages 352
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WINNER OF THE 2014 BRAIN PRIZE From the acclaimed author of Reading in the Brain, a breathtaking look at the new science that can track consciousness deep in the brain How does our brain generate a conscious thought? And why does so much of our knowledge remain unconscious? Thanks to clever psychological and brain-imaging experiments, scientists are closer to cracking this mystery than ever before. In this lively book, Stanislas Dehaene describes the pioneering work his lab and the labs of other cognitive neuroscientists worldwide have accomplished in defining, testing, and explaining the brain events behind a conscious state. We can now pin down the neurons that fire when a person reports becoming aware of a piece of information and understand the crucial role unconscious computations play in how we make decisions. The emerging theory enables a test of consciousness in animals, babies, and those with severe brain injuries. A joyous exploration of the mind and its thrilling complexities, Consciousness and the Brain will excite anyone interested in cutting-edge science and technology and the vast philosophical, personal, and ethical implications of finally quantifying consciousness. From the Trade Paperback edition.



Linkages of Sustainability

Linkages of Sustainability Author T. E. Graedel
ISBN-10 UCSD:31822036435352
Release 2010
Pages 532
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Experts discuss the multiple components of sustainability, the constraints imposed bytheir linkages, and the necessity of taking a comprehensive view.



Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases

Trace Metals and Infectious Diseases Author Jerome O. Nriagu
ISBN-10 9780262029193
Release 2015-05-01
Pages 504
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Experts explore the influence of trace metals on the pathogenesis of infectious diseases.



Cognitive Search

Cognitive Search Author Peter M. Todd
ISBN-10 9780262305082
Release 2012-08-31
Pages 416
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Over a century ago, William James proposed that people search through memory much as they rummage through a house looking for lost keys. We scour our environments for territory, food, mates, and information. We search for items in visual scenes, for historical facts, and for the best deals on Internet sites; we search for new friends to add to our social networks, and for solutions to novel problems. What we find is always governed by how we search and by the structure of the environment. This book explores how we search for resources in our minds and in the world. The authors examine the evolution and adaptive functions of search; the neural underpinnings of goal-searching mechanisms across species; psychological models of search in memory, decision making, and visual scenes; and applications of search behavior in highly complex environments such as the Internet. As the range of information, social contacts, and goods continues to expand, how well we are able to search and successfully find what we seek becomes increasingly important. At the same time, search offers cross-disciplinary insights to the scientific study of human cognition and its evolution. Combining perspectives from researchers across numerous domains, this book furthers our understanding of the relationship between search and the human mind.



Pathways to Peace

Pathways to Peace Author James F. Leckman
ISBN-10 9780262027984
Release 2014-11-21
Pages 480
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Can more peaceful childhoods promote a culture of peace? Increasing evidence from a broad range of disciplines shows that how we raise our children affects the propensity for conflict and the potential for peace within a given community. In this book, experts from a range of disciplines examine the biological and social underpinnings of child development and the importance of strengthening families to build harmonious and equitable relations across generations. They explore the relevance to the pursuit of peace in the world, highlight directions for future research, and propose novel approaches to translate knowledge into concrete action.The contributors describe findings from research in biology, neuroscience, evolution, genetics, and psychology. They report empirical evidence on children living in violent conditions, resilience in youth, and successful interventions. Their contributions show that the creation of sustainable partnerships with government agencies, community leaders, policy makers, funders, and service providers is a key ingredient for success. Taken together, they suggest possible novel approaches to translate knowledge into concrete action.



Translational Neuroscience

Translational Neuroscience Author Karoly Nikolich
ISBN-10 9780262029865
Release 2015-08-21
Pages 320
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Experts from academia and industry discuss how to create a new, more effective translational neuroscience drawing on novel technology and recent discoveries.