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Botanophilia in Eighteenth Century France

Botanophilia in Eighteenth Century France Author R.L. Williams
ISBN-10 9789401598491
Release 2013-03-09
Pages 197
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The book describes the innovations that enabled botany, in the Eighteenth century, to emerge as an independent science, independent from medicine and herbalism. This encompassed the development of a reliable system for plant classification and the invention of a nomenclature that could be universally applied and understood. The key that enabled Linnaeus to devise his classification system was the discovery of the sexuality of plants. The book, which is intended for the educated general reader, proceeds to illustrate how many aspects of French life were permeated by this revolution in botany between about 1760 to 1815, a botanophilia sometimes inflated into botanomania. The reader should emerge with a clearer understanding of what the Enlightenment actually was in contrast to some popular second-hand ideas today.

Modernity and the Final Aim of History

Modernity and the Final Aim of History Author F. Tomasoni
ISBN-10 1402015941
Release 2003-09-30
Pages 259
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This book is intended for scholars and students in humanities, history, Jewish studies, philosophy, Christian theology, and for those concerned with the roots of anti-Semitism and with the need for toleration and intercultural pluralism. The book combines the development of German philosophy from the Enlightenment to Idealism, and from Idealism to the revolutionary turning-point of the mid-nineteenth century with the Jewish question.

A Rosicrucian Utopia in Eighteenth Century Russia

A Rosicrucian Utopia in Eighteenth Century Russia Author Raffaella Faggionato
ISBN-10 1402034865
Release 2005-09-29
Pages 300
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The author undertakes an investigation into the history of Russian Freemasonry that has not been attempted previously. Her premise is that the Russian Enlightenment shows peculiar features, which prevent the application of the interpretative framework commonly used for the history of western thought. The author deals with the development of early Russian masonry, the formation of the Novikov circle in Moscow, the ‘programme’ of Rosicrucianism and the character of its Russian variant and, finally, the clash between the Rosicrucians and the State. The author concludes that the defenders of the Ancien Régime were not wrong. In fact the democratic behaviour, the critical attitude, the practice of participation, the freedom of thought, the tolerance for the diversity, the search for a direct communication with the divinity, in short all the attitudes and behaviours first practiced inside the eighteenth century Rosicrucian lodges constituted a cultural experience which spread throughout the entire society. Novikov’s imprisonment in 1792 and the war against the Rosicrucian literature were attempts to thwart a culture, based on the independence of thought that was taking root inside the very establishment, representing a menace to its stability.

Henry More 1614 1687

Henry More  1614 1687 Author R. Crocker
ISBN-10 140201502X
Release 2003-11-30
Pages 275
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Henry More (1614-1687), the Cambridge Platonist, is often presented as an elusive and contradictory figure. An early apologist for the new natural philosophy and its rational support for Christian doctrine, More also defended the existence of witchcraft and wrote extensively on the nature of the soul and the world of spirits. A vigorous and prolific controversialist against many varieties of contemporary `atheism' and `enthusiasm', More was himself a spiritual perfectionist and illuminist, believing that the goal of the religious life was a conscious union with God. Until now, most biographies of More have ignored these, his own, preoccupations, and have made of him a rather eccentric but important illustrative figure in one of several larger narratives dominated by canonical figures like Descartes, Boyle, Spinoza or Newton. This is the first modern biography to place his own religious and philosophical preoccupations centre-stage, and to provide a coherent interpretation of his work from a consideration of his own writings, their contexts and aims. It is also the first study of More to exploit the full range of his prolific writings and a number of unknown manuscripts relating to his life. In addition, it contains an annotated handlist of his extant correspondence.

The Suppl ment to the Encyclop die

The Suppl  ment to the Encyclop  die Author Kathleen Hardesty
ISBN-10 9024719658
Release 1977
Pages 177
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The Suppl ment to the Encyclop die has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from The Suppl ment to the Encyclop die also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full The Suppl ment to the Encyclop die book for free.

Cartesian Theodicy

Cartesian Theodicy Author Z. Janowski
ISBN-10 1402002572
Release 2001-11-30
Pages 192
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Almost all interpreters of Cartesian philosophy have hitherto focused on the epistemological aspect of Descartes' thought. In his Cartesian Theodicy, Janowski demonstrates that Descartes' epistemological problems are merely rearticulations of theological questions. For example, Descartes' attempt to define the role of God in man's cognitive fallibility is a reiteration of an old argument that points out the incongruity between the existence of God and evil, and his pivotal question `whence error?' is shown here to be a rephrasing of the question `whence evil?' The answer Descartes gives in the Meditations is actually a reformulation of the answer found in St. Augustine's De Libero Arbitrio and the Confessions. The influence of St. Augustine on Descartes can also be detected in the doctrine of eternal truths which, within the context of the 17th-century debates over the question of the nature of divine freedom, caused Descartes to ally himself with the Augustinian Oratorians against the Jesuits. Both in his Cartesian Theodicy as well as his Index Augustino-Cartesian, Textes et Commentaire Janowski shows that the entire Cartesian metaphysics can - and should - be read within the context of Augustinian thought.

The Life of Henry More

The Life of Henry More Author Richard Ward
ISBN-10 0792360974
Release 2000-01-01
Pages 408
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The Cambridge Platonist, Henry More (1614-1687), was a dominant figure on the seventeenth-century intellectual scene. His life spanned both the political revolutions of the English Civil War and its aftermath and the intellectual revolution in seventeenth-century science and philosophy. More was highly regarded in his own day as a metaphysician, although the combination of receptivity to the new (such as his admiration of Galileo, Descartes and Boyle) and defence of traditional thinking (notably his belief in witchcraft) makes him a difficult figure to assess today. The heterodoxy of his theological views notwithstanding, More was an important spokesman for moderation within the Anglican Church after the Restoration, and a key figure in the Latitudinarian movement. Richard Ward's Life of Henry More is the only biographical account of him by one of his contemporaries. Ward's almost hagiographical tone is ample testimony to the high regard in which More was held by his admirers. Ward's Life is an important document of intellectual and cultural history which testifies to the continuing impact of More's ideas in the Enlightenment. Among other topics, Ward's biography registers the impact of Quakerism in the late seventeenth century and includes important details about More's heroine pupil', Anne Conway. The present edition prints both the only modern edition of the printed part of Ward's Account first published in 1710, together with the manuscript Account of More's writings which is published here for the first time.

Mandeville Studies

Mandeville Studies Author I. Primer
ISBN-10 9024716861
Release 1975-10-31
Pages 225
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For centuries readers have admired the writer who wields his pen like a sword - an Aristophanes, a Rabelais, a Montaigne, a Swift. Using ribaldry, satire and irony in varying proportions, such writers pierce the thick, comfortable hide of society and uncover, predictably, the corruption and hypocrisy that characterize the life of man in commercial society. Though a lesser talent than any of these literary giants, Bernard Mande ville is nevertheless a member of their class. The crucial year in the emergence of his reputation was 1723, the year in which he added his controversial Essay on Charity and Charity-Schools to his Fable of the Bees. From that point on he became one of the most reviled targets of the public guardians of morality and religion; for some he appeared to be truly the Devil incarnate, Mandevil, as Fielding and others spelled it. This reputation was attached to his name well into the nineteenth centu ry. In a diary entry for June 1812 Henry Crabb Robinson recorded the following conversation with the elderly Mrs. Buller: "She received me with a smile, and allowed me to touch her hand. 'What are you reading, Mr. Robinson?' she said. 'The wickedest cleverest book in the English language, if you chance to know it. ' - 'I have known the "Fable of the Bees" more than fifty years. ' She was right in her guess.

Copp d Hills Towards Heaven Shakespeare and the Classical Polity

Copp   d Hills Towards Heaven Shakespeare and the Classical Polity Author Howard B. White
ISBN-10 902470250X
Release 1970-07-31
Pages 156
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The departmentalism of American universities has doubtless much to recommend it. It indicates that exuberance is not a sufficient sub stitute for scholarship, that, for better or for worse, every scholar today must be something of a specialist. But when any great writer and great thinker reaches out and grasps the whole of human life, the study of his work transcends specialization. And while exuberance may not replace scholarship, it may accompany it. Most of my work has been done in the history of political philosophy. I have dared to overstep departmental boundaries, because I believe that Shakespeare has something to say to political philosophy. I am not the first to express this view. Whether I express it well or badly, I shall not be the last. I want to thank Leo Strauss, my teacher. He has read the manus cript and given me the benefit of his insight and judgment. I want to thank Richard Kennington, who has taken so much time from his own work to comment meticulously and constructively on this work as on other things I have written. His help has been generous, and my appreciation is deep. I must, in particular, thank my colleague, Adolph Lowe. He has perused this study, much of it in several versions. Through long walks in Manchester, Vermont, we have discussed my work and his comments. Usually his comments have been compelling. I can regret only that I am completely unqualified to reciprocate.

A Bibliography of George Berkeley

A Bibliography of George Berkeley Author T.E. Jessop
ISBN-10 9789024715770
Release 1973-07-31
Pages 180
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Since the first appearance of this bibliography (1934, Oxford Uni versity Press), which has long been out of print, so much attention has been paid to Berkeley that a mere reprint would be inept. Besides bringing it up to date I have added collations of those editions of Berkeley's writings that were published in his lifetime. In doing so I have used a form of description simple enough for anyone to follow yet sufficient to enable librarians to check their catalogues and to identify copies in which the titlepage is missing or mutilated. As before, I have marked with an asterisk throughout the bibliography every book, edition and article that has not been seen by me or, in a few cases, by a competent friend. My primary interest not being bibliographical in the present-day highly technical sense, but philosophical, I have aimed chiefly at (a) providing advanced students (and their hard-pressed advisers) of Berkeley, or of the subjects on which he wrote, with a guide to the materials for research, and (b) displaying the range in time and place, and the direction, of the attention which he has attracted. These two aims account for the classification of the entries under a few general subject-headings and of the philosophical entries under countries, and for the arranging of the entries in each section or subsection in chrono logical order, the alphabetical ordering of the authors' names being given in the Index. To facilitate reference and cross-reference each entry is numbered.

Of Elephants Roses

Of Elephants   Roses Author Sue Ann Prince
ISBN-10 0871692678
Release 2013
Pages 268
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"Of Elephants and Roses: Encounters with French Natural History, 1790–1830 explores natural history in post-revolutionary France. Two grand gardens serve as the exhibition’s point of departure—the Paris Muséum of Natural History with its Jardin des Plantes, and Malmaison, the private garden of Empress Josephine, Napoleon’s wife. These two sites acclimatized plants and animals from all around the world, produced new scientific knowledge, improved agricultural productivity and diversity, helped promote economic prosperity, and contributed to the glory of France, even during a tumultuous political period that lurched from bloody revolution to new republic, to empire, and ultimately back to monarchy."---

Livres Saisis a Paris Entre 1678 and 1701

Livres Saisis a Paris Entre 1678 and 1701 Author A. Sauvy
ISBN-10 9024713471
Release 1972
Pages 430
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Livres Saisis a Paris Entre 1678 and 1701 has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Livres Saisis a Paris Entre 1678 and 1701 also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Livres Saisis a Paris Entre 1678 and 1701 book for free.

Yearbook of International Organizations

Yearbook of International Organizations Author
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Yearbook of International Organizations has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Yearbook of International Organizations also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Yearbook of International Organizations book for free.

Bibliographic Volume

Bibliographic Volume Author Union of International Associations
ISBN-10 3110230348
Release 2010-09-14
Pages 694
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Yearbook of International Organizations is the most comprehensive reference resource and provides current details of international non-governmental (NGO) and intergovernmental organizations (IGO). Collected and documented by the Union of International Associations (UIA), detailed information on international organizations worldwide can be found here. Besides historical and organizational information, details on activities, events or publications, contact details, biographies of the leading individuals as well as the presentation of networks of organizations are included.

One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare Research Deployment Consequences

One Hundred Years of Chemical Warfare  Research  Deployment  Consequences Author Bretislav Friedrich
ISBN-10 9783319516646
Release 2017-11-26
Pages 408
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This book is open access under a CC BY-NC 2.5 license. On April 22, 1915, the German military released 150 tons of chlorine gas at Ypres, Belgium. Carried by a long-awaited wind, the chlorine cloud passed within a few minutes through the British and French trenches, leaving behind at least 1,000 dead and 4,000 injured. This chemical attack, which amounted to the first use of a weapon of mass destruction, marks a turning point in world history. The preparation as well as the execution of the gas attack was orchestrated by Fritz Haber, the director of the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry in Berlin-Dahlem. During World War I, Haber transformed his research institute into a center for the development of chemical weapons (and of the means of protection against them). Bretislav Friedrich and Martin Wolf (Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, the successor institution of Haber’s institute) together with Dieter Hoffmann, Jürgen Renn, and Florian Schmaltz (Max Planck Institute for the History of Science) organized an international symposium to commemorate the centenary of the infamous chemical attack. The symposium examined crucial facets of chemical warfare from the first research on and deployment of chemical weapons in WWI to the development and use of chemical warfare during the century hence. The focus was on scientific, ethical, legal, and political issues of chemical weapons research and deployment — including the issue of dual use — as well as the ongoing effort to control the possession of chemical weapons and to ultimately achieve their elimination. The volume consists of papers presented at the symposium and supplemented by additional articles that together cover key aspects of chemical warfare from 22 April 1915 until the summer of 2015.

Encyclopaedia of Historical Metrology Weights and Measures

Encyclopaedia of Historical Metrology  Weights  and Measures Author Jan Gyllenbok
ISBN-10 9783319575988
Release 2018-04-11
Pages 677
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This first of three volumes starts with a short introduction to historical metrology as a scientific discipline and goes on with an anthology of acient and modern measurement systems of all kind, scientific measures, units of time, weights, currencies etc. It concludes with an exhaustive list of references. Units of measurement are of vital importance in every civilization through history. Since the early ages, man has through necessity devised various measures to assist him in everyday life. They have enabled and continue to enable us to trade in commonly and equitably understood amounts, and to investigate, understand, and control the chemical, physical, and biological processes of the natural world. The essence of the work is an alphabetically ordered, comprehensive list of measurement nomenclature, units and scales. It provides an understanding of almost all quantitative expressions observed in all imaginable situations, including spelling variants and the abbreviations and symbols for units, and various acronyms used in metrology. It will be of use not only to historians of science and technology, but also to economic and social historians and should be in every major academic and national library as standard reference work on the topic.

Building the General Relativity and Gravitation Community During the Cold War

Building the General Relativity and Gravitation Community During the Cold War Author Roberto Lalli
ISBN-10 9783319546544
Release 2017-09-27
Pages 168
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This monograph presents a new perspective on the history of general relativity. It outlines the attempts to establish an institutional framework for the promotion of the field during the Cold War. Readers will learn the difficulties that key figures experienced and overcame during this period of global conflict. The author analyzes the subtle interconnections between scientific and political factors. He shows how politics shaped the evolution of general relativity, even though it is a field with no military applications. He also details how different scientists held quite different views about what “political” meant in their efforts to pursue international cooperation. The narrative examines the specific epistemic features of general relativity that helped create the first official, international scientific society. It answers: Why did relativity bring about this unique result? Was it simply the product of specific actions of particular actors having an illuminated view of international relations in the specific context of the Cold War? Or, was there something in the nature of the field that inspired the actors to pioneer new ways of international cooperation? The book will be of interest to historians of modern science, historians of international relations, and historians of institutions. It will also appeal to physicists and interested general readers.