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Cement Replacement Materials

Cement Replacement Materials Author Ali Akbar Ramezanianpour
ISBN-10 9783642367212
Release 2013-09-24
Pages 336
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The aim of this book is to present the latest findings in the properties and application of Supplementary Cementing Materials and blended cements currently used in the world in concrete. Sustainability is an important issue all over the world. Carbon dioxide emission has been a serious problem in the world due to the greenhouse effect. Today many countries agreed to reduce the emission of CO2. Many phases of cement and concrete technology can affect sustainability. Cement and concrete industry is responsible for the production of 7% carbon dioxide of the total world CO2 emission. The use of supplementary cementing materials (SCM), design of concrete mixtures with optimum content of cement and enhancement of concrete durability are the main issues towards sustainability in concrete industry.



Stone in Architecture

Stone in Architecture Author Siegfried Siegesmund
ISBN-10 9783642451553
Release 2014-07-08
Pages 550
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The weathering of historical buildings and, indeed, of monuments and sculptures of natural stone is a problem that has been encountered for hundreds of years. However a dramatic increase in deterioration in the structure of our built heritage has been observed during the past century. To understand the complex interaction that the stone in a building suffers with its near environment (the building) and the macro environment (the local climate and atmospheric conditions) requires an interdisciplinary approach and the application of many disciplines. Climate change over the next 100 years is likely to have a range of direct and indirect impacts on many natural and physical environments, including the built environment. The protection of our architectural heritage has both cultural and historical importance, as well as substantial economic and ecological value. Large sums of money are being spent world-wide on measures for the preservation of monuments and historical buildings. The past few decades has seen an unprecedented level of research activity in this area, the result of which is often difficult to access and are summarized in the new edition of STONE IN ARCHITECTURE. The 4th edition of Stone in Architecture: Properties, Durability, is a sophisticated and thorough exploration of stone – its properties, performance and conservation – in monumental contexts. The current editors, Siegfried Siegesmund and Rolf Snethlage, note the pioneering work of Erhard Winkler who wrote the first edition in 1973 when so little information could be found in the literature on the subject. This new edition, also published by Springer, nearly doubles the size of Winkler’s 1994 effort. If you are familiar with the field and need to know little more than this statement, you can put aside this review and go buy the book. George Wheeler, Department of Scientific Research, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.



Towards a Sustainable Bioeconomy Principles Challenges and Perspectives

Towards a Sustainable Bioeconomy  Principles  Challenges and Perspectives Author Walter Leal Filho
ISBN-10 9783319730288
Release 2018-01-19
Pages 575
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This book gathers contributions from scientists and industry representatives on achieving a sustainable bioeconomy. It also covers the social sciences, economics, business, education and the environmental sciences. There is an urgent need to optimise and maximise the use of biological resources, so that primary production and processing systems can generate more food, fibre and other bio-based products with less environmental impacts and lower greenhouse gas emissions. In other words, we need a “sustainable bioeconomy” – a term that encompasses the sustainable production of renewable resources from land, fisheries and aquaculture environments and their conversion into food, feed, fibre bio-based products and bio-energy, as well as related public goods. Despite the relevance of achieving a sustainable bioeconomy, there are very few publications in this field. Addressing that gap, this book illustrates how biological resources and ecosystems could be used in a more sustainable, efficient and integrated manner – in other words, how the principles of sustainable bioeconomy can be implemented in practice. Given its interdisciplinary nature, the field of sustainable bioeconomy offers a unique opportunity to address complex and interconnected challenges, while also promoting economic growth. It helps countries and societies to make a transition and to use resources more efficiently, and shows how to rely less on biological resources to satisfy industry demands and consumer needs. The papers are innovative, cross-cutting and include many practice-based lessons learned, some of which are reproducible elsewhere. In closing, the book, prepared by the Inter-University Sustainable Development Research Programme (IUSDRP) and the World Sustainable Development Research and Transfer Centre (WSD-RTC), reiterates the need to promote a sustainable bioeconomy today.



Materials Science for Structural Geology

Materials Science for Structural Geology Author Mervyn S. Paterson
ISBN-10 9789400755451
Release 2012-11-28
Pages 250
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This book sets out the basic materials science needed for understanding the plastic deformation of rocks and minerals. Although at atmospheric pressure or at relatively low environmental pressures, these materials tend to be brittle, that is, to fracture with little prior plastic deformation when non-hydrostatically stressed, they can undergo substantial permanent strain when stressed under environmental conditions of high confining pressure and high temperature, such as occur geologically in the Earth’s crust and upper mantle. Thus the plastic deformation of rocks and minerals is of fundamental interest in structural geology and geodynamics. In mountain-building processes and during convective stirring in the Earth’s mantle, rocks can undergo very large amounts of plastic flow, accompanied by substantial changes in microstructure. These changes in microstructure remain in the rocks as evidence of the past deformation history. There are a number of types of physical processes whereby rock and minerals can undergo deformation under geological conditions. The physics of these processes is set out in this book.



Metals and Society

Metals and Society Author Nicholas Arndt
ISBN-10 9783319172323
Release 2015-07-15
Pages 205
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This book is a comprehensive overview of economic geology for the general geologist and anyone else interested in the minerals industry and the global supply of raw materials. It includes some thought-provoking statements and questions for discussion on globalisation and current practices in the minerals industry. In the second edition, all chapters have been extensively revised, and a new author has been added to increase coverage of some mineral deposits and topics. The economic issues surrounding the exploitation of mineral resources is discussed in three of the six chapters of the book. It deals with issues that are commonly addressed in current science reporting – the rate of exploitation of natural resources, the question of when or if these resources will be exhausted, the pollution and social disturbance that accompanies mining, the compromises and challenges that arise from the explosion in demand from China, India and other rapidly developing countries, and the moral issues that surround mining of metals in lesser-developed countries for consumption in the “first-world” countries. The book will be useful both as an introductory text for students in the earth sciences and a reference volume for students, teachers and researchers of geography, economics and the social sciences.



Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete

Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete Author Karen Scrivener
ISBN-10 9789401799393
Release 2015-06-07
Pages 597
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This volume focuses on research and practical issues linked to Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete. The main subjects are geology of clays, hydration and performance of blended system with calcined clays, alkali activated binders, economic and environmental impacts of the use of calcined clays in cement based materials. Topics addressed in this book include the influence of processing on reactivity of calcined clays, influence of clay mineralogy on reactivity, geology of clay deposits, Portland-calcined clay systems, hydration, durability, performance, Portland-calcined clay-limestone systems, hydration, durability, performance, calcined clay-alkali systems, life cycle analysis, economics and environmental impact of use of calcined clays in cement and concrete and field applications. This book compiles the different contributions of the 1st International Conference on Calcined Clays for Sustainable Concrete, which took place in Lausanne, Switzerland, June, 23-25, 2015.The papers present the latest research in their field. It contains nearly 80 papers and abstracts. Overall, this work gives a broad view of research on calcined clays in the field of construction and will stimulate further research into calcined clays for sustainable concrete.



Nanotechnology in Construction

Nanotechnology in Construction Author Konstantin Sobolev
ISBN-10 9783319170886
Release 2015-05-07
Pages 509
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Nanotechnology has already demonstrated surprising potential for improving the performance of construction materials and many of these recent developments were facilitated by NICOM symposia. The NICOM5 proceedings will cover the emerging opportunities and future use of nanotechnology in construction and will illustrate the broad potential for application of nanotechnology to challenging problems involving materials and infrastructure.



Performance of Cement Based Materials in Aggressive Aqueous Environments

Performance of Cement Based Materials in Aggressive Aqueous Environments Author Mark Alexander
ISBN-10 9789400754133
Release 2012-12-18
Pages 464
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Concrete and cement-based materials must operate in increasingly aggressive aqueous environments, which may be either natural or industrial. These materials may suffer degradation in which ion addition and/or ion exchange reactions occur, leading to a breakdown of the matrix microstructure and consequent weakening. Sometimes this degradation can be extremely rapid and serious such as in acidic environments, while in other cases degradation occurs over long periods. Consequences of material failure are usually severe – adversely affecting the health and well-being of human communities and disturbing ecological balances. There are also large direct costs of maintaining and replacing deteriorated infrastructure and indirect costs from loss of production during maintenance work, which place a great burden on society. The focus of this book is on addressing issues concerning performance of cement-based materials in aggressive aqueous environments , by way of this State-of-the-Art Report. The book represents the work of many well-known and respected authors who contributed chapters or parts of chapters. Four main themes were addressed: I. Nature and kinetics of degradation and deterioration mechanisms of cement-based materials in aggressive aqueous environments, II. Modelling of deterioration in such environments, III. Test methods to assess performance of cement-based materials in such environments, and which can be used to characterise and rate relative performance and inform long term predictions, IV. Engineering implications and consequences of deterioration in aggressive aqueous environments, and engineering approaches to the problem.



Mine Wastes

Mine Wastes Author Bernd Lottermoser
ISBN-10 3642124194
Release 2010-07-09
Pages 400
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This book is not designed to be an exhaustive work on mine wastes. It aims to serve undergraduate students who wish to gain an overview and an understanding of wastes produced in the mineral industry. An introductory textbook addressing the science of such wastes is not available to students despite the importance of the mineral industry as a resource, wealth and job provider. Also, the growing imp- tance of the topics mine wastes, mine site pollution and mine site rehabilitation in universities, research organizations and industry requires a textbook suitable for undergraduate students. Until recently, undergraduate earth science courses tended to follow rather classical lines, focused on the teaching of palaeontology, cryst- lography, mineralogy, petrology, stratigraphy, sedimentology, structural geology, and ore deposit geology. However, today and in the future, earth science teachers and students also need to be familiar with other subject areas. In particular, earth science curriculums need to address land and water degradation as well as rehabili- tion issues. These topics are becoming more important to society, and an increasing number of earth science students are pursuing career paths in this sector. Mine site rehabilitation and mine waste science are examples of newly emerging disciplines. This book has arisen out of teaching mine waste science to undergraduate and graduate science students and the frustration at having no appropriate text which documents the scienti?c fundamentals of such wastes.



Waste Production and Utilization in the Metal Extraction Industry

Waste Production and Utilization in the Metal Extraction Industry Author Sehliselo Ndlovu
ISBN-10 9781498767309
Release 2017-06-27
Pages 530
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Increasingly stringent environmental regulations and industry adoption of waste minimization guidelines have thus, stimulated the need for the development of recycling and reuse options for metal related waste. This book, therefore, gives an overview of the waste generation, recycle and reuse along the mining, beneficiation, extraction, manufacturing and post-consumer value chain. This book reviews current status and future trends in the recycling and reuse of mineral and metal waste and also details the policy and legislation regarding the waste management, health and environmental impacts in the mining, beneficiation, metal extraction and manufacturing processes. This book is a useful reference for engineers and researchers in industry, policymakers and legislators in governance, and academics on the current status and future trends in the recycling and reuse of mineral and metal waste. Some of the key features of the book are as follows: Holistic approach to waste generation, recycling and reuse along the minerals and metals extraction. Detailed overview of metallurgical waste generation. Practical examples with complete flow sheets, techniques and interventions on waste management. Integrates the technical issues related to efficient resources utilization with the policy and regulatory framework. Novel approach to addressing future commodity shortages.



Fire Resistant Geopolymers

Fire Resistant Geopolymers Author Les Vickers
ISBN-10 9789812873118
Release 2014-12-05
Pages 129
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The book covers the topic of geopolymers, in particular it highlights the relationship between structural differences as a result of variations during the geopolymer synthesis and its physical and chemical properties. In particular, the book describes the optimization of the thermal properties of geopolymers by adding micro-structural modifiers such as fibres and/or fillers into the geopolymer matrix. The range of fibres and fillers used in geopolymers, their impact on the microstructure and thermal properties is described in great detail. The book content will appeal to researchers, scientists, or engineers who are interested in geopolymer science and technology and its industrial applications.



Pollutants in Buildings Water and Living Organisms

Pollutants in Buildings  Water and Living Organisms Author Eric Lichtfouse
ISBN-10 9783319192765
Release 2015-08-31
Pages 348
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This book presents advanced methods to analyse and clean pollutants, such as nanotechnology to treat water, techniques to remediate building materials, and bioindicators. It is very important that the understanding of these methods are brought to the attention of scientists, as cities and ecosystems are still polluted by toxic compounds despite efforts to clean the planet.



Supplementary Cementing Materials

Supplementary Cementing Materials Author Rafat Siddique
ISBN-10 3642178669
Release 2011-03-28
Pages 288
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This book is an attempt to consolidate the published research related to the use of Supplementary Cementing Materials in cement and concrete. It comprises of five chapters. Each chapter is devoted to a particular supplementing cementing material. It is based on the literature/research findings published in journals/conference proceeding, etc. Topics covered in the book are; coal fly ash, silica fume (SF), granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), metakaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA). Each chapter contains introduction, properties of the waste material/by-product, its potential usage, and its effect on the properties of fresh and hardened concrete and other cement based materials.



On a Sustainable Future of the Earth s Natural Resources

On a Sustainable Future of the Earth s Natural Resources Author Muthuvairavasamy Ramkumar
ISBN-10 9783642329173
Release 2013-03-21
Pages 554
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On a Sustainable Future of the Earth’s Natural Resources is divided into three sections, with individual chapters contributed by experts on diff erent facets of the earth sciences, natural resources management and related issues. The first section focuses on the status of Earth’s resources; land, water, biota and atmosphere. Reviews on the rate of exploitation and the need to conserve these resources for future sustenance are also covered in this section. Th e following section includes chapters elucidating environmental, ecological, climatological and anthropological pressures on sustained nourishment with the Earth’s resources. The last section describes management practices, issues and perspectives on sociological, legal, administrative, ICT and strategic efforts that need to be implemented in order to sustain our natural resources. This book covers a broad spectrum of the Earth’s resources and sustenance, offering a comprehensive perspective on their past, present and future.



REWAS 2016

REWAS 2016 Author Randolph Kirchain
ISBN-10 9783319487687
Release 2016-11-22
Pages 351
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Topics covered in this collection include the following: •Enabling & Understanding Sustainability - Ferrous & Non-ferrous Metals Processing •Understanding & Enabling Sustainability - (Rechargeable) Batteries •Enabling & Understanding Sustainability - Rare Earth Element Applications •Enabling & Understanding Sustainability - Building Materials & Slag Valorisation •Designing Materials and Systems for Sustainability •Understanding & Enabling Sustainability - Light Metals Recycling & Waste Valorisation •Understanding & Enabling Sustainability - Education Research Innovation I •Understanding & Enabling Sustainability - Education Research Innovation II + Electronic Equipment



Geopolymer Chemistry and Applications

Geopolymer Chemistry and Applications Author Joseph Davidovits
ISBN-10 9782951482012
Release 2008
Pages 585
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What can be done about the major concerns of our Global Economy on energy, global warming, sustainable development, user-friendly processes, and green chemistry? Here is an important contribution to the mastering of these phenomena today. Written by Joseph Davidovits, the inventor and founder of geopolymer science, it is an introduction to the subject for the newcomers, students, engineers and professionals. You will find science, chemistry, formulas and very practical information (including patents' excerpts) covering: - The mineral polymer concept: silicones and geopolymers, - Macromolecular structure of natural silicates and aluminosilicates, - Scientific Tools, X-rays, FTIR, NMR, - The synthesis of mineral geopolymers, Poly(siloxonate) and polysilicate, soluble silicate, Chemistry of (Na, K)oligo-sialates: hydrous alumino-silicate gels and zeolites, Kaolinite / Hydrosodalite-based geopolymer, Metakaolin MK-750-based geopolymer, Calcium-based geopolymer, Rock-based geopolymer, Silica-based geopolymer, Fly ash-based geopolymer, Phosphate-based geopolymer, Organic-mineral geopolymer, - Properties: physical, chemical and long-term durability, - Applications: Quality controls, Development of user-friendly systems, Castable geopolymer, industrial and decorative applications, Geopolymer / fiber composites, Foamed geopolymer, Geopolymers in ceramic processing, Manufacture of geopolymer cement, Geopolymer concrete, Geopolymers in toxic and radioactive waste management. It is a textbook, a reference book instead of being a collection of scientific papers. Each chapter is followed by a bibliography of the relevant published literature including 75 patents, 120 tables, 360 figures, 550references, 700 authors cited, representing the most up to date contributions of the scientific community. The industrial applications of geopolymers with engineering procedures and design of processes are also covered in this book.



Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering

Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering Author Fernando Pacheco Torgal
ISBN-10 9783319092874
Release 2014-08-16
Pages 437
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Putting forward an innovative approach to solving current technological problems faced by human society, this book encompasses a holistic way of perceiving the potential of natural systems. Nature has developed several materials and processes which both maintain an optimal performance and are also totally biodegradable, properties which can be used in civil engineering. Delivering the latest research findings to building industry professionals and other practitioners, as well as containing information useful to the public, ‘Biotechnologies and Biomimetics for Civil Engineering’ serves as an important tool to tackle the challenges of a more sustainable construction industry and the future of buildings.