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Cleaning with Solvents Science and Technology

Cleaning with Solvents  Science and Technology Author John Durkee
ISBN-10 9781455731619
Release 2013-11-29
Pages 780
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High-precision cleaning is required across a wide range of sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, etc. Cleaning parts and surfaces with solvents is simple, effective and low-cost. Although health and safety and environmental concerns come into play with the use of solvents, this book explores how safe and compliant solvent-based cleaning techniques can be implemented. A key to this is the selection of the right solvent. The author also examines a range of newer "green" solvent cleaning options. This book supplies scientific fundamentals and practical guidance supported by real-world examples. Durkee explains the three principal methods of solvent selection: matching of solubility parameters, reduction of potential for smog formation, and matching of physical properties. He also provides guidance on the safe use of aerosols, wipe-cleaning techniques, solvent stabilization, economics, and many other topics. A compendium of blend rules is included, covering the physical, chemical, and environmental properties of solvents. Three methods explained in detail for substitution of suitable solvents for those unsuitable for any reason: toxic solvents don't have to be tolerated; this volume explains how to do better Enables users to make informed judgments about their selection of cleaning solvents for specific applications, including solvent replacement decisions Explains how to plan and implement solvent cleaning systems that are effective, economical and compliant with regulations



Cleaning with Solvents Methods and Machinery

Cleaning with Solvents  Methods and Machinery Author John Durkee
ISBN-10 9780323226967
Release 2014-03-20
Pages 370
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High-precision cleaning is required across many sectors, including aerospace, defense, medical device manufacturing, pharmaceutical processing, semiconductor/electronics, and more. In this comprehensive reference work, solvent cleaning equipment is thoroughly covered with a focus on the engineering details of its operation and selection. Key data is provided alongside practical guidance, giving scientists and engineers in multiple sectors the information they need not only to choose the correct machine in the first place, but also how to operate it effectively and efficiently. Low emission open-top vapor degreasers, enclosed machines of the vacuum and pressurized type, cosolvent machines, and adsorption of "tailpipe emissions" are covered in detail and fully illustrated in color. This unique book covers material known by designers and manufacturers of solvent cleaning machines, but not collected and organized for the benefit of users. The comprehensive coverage provided by John Durkee makes this book relevant and timely not only for readers who wish to know more about how solvent cleaning equipment works but also those who are under pressure from environmental regulators or corporate management to find effective alternatives and those engaged in non-solvent cleaning operations who are unsatisfied with their cleaning results. Clear, straightforward explanations of how various types of cleaning solvents should be managed to clean parts Full-color, hand-drawn illustrations and photographs of the important internal sections of solvent cleaning machines Design calculations of operating parameters in solvent cleaning machines



Science and Technology of Building Seals Sealants Glazing and Waterproofing Second Volume

Science and Technology of Building Seals  Sealants  Glazing  and Waterproofing  Second Volume Author Jerome M. Klosowski
ISBN-10 0803118570
Release 1992
Pages 323
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Proceedings of an ASTM sponsored symposium held in Fort Lauderdale, Florida in February 1992. Topics of papers include extended lab testing for two structural glazing silicone sealants, usefulness of accelerated test methods for sealant weathering, climate driven durability tester, new tests for adh



Management of Industrial Cleaning Technology and Processes

Management of Industrial Cleaning Technology and Processes Author John Durkee
ISBN-10 0080464858
Release 2006-07-21
Pages 288
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More stringent quality standards and environmental/safety regulations as well as new process and chemical technology have changed industrial cleaning from a “wet and wipe application to a valued and demanding process operation. This book will help cleaning operatives, designers of equipment, metal finishers, industrial chemists and decontaminators understand the value and demands required within the industrial cleaning process and an environment of continuing change. * Covers all aspects of modern cleaning technologies, helping readers to understand basics of cleaning, equipment used, techniques and possible changes to come within the industry. * Includes environmental regulations and the basis for modern cleaning technologies, ensuring the reader is up to date on cleaning chemicals and their affects. * Covers testing for cleanliness, ensuring cleaning operatives, technicians and end users understand how to achieve the demands required within the industrial cleaning process and an environment of continuing change.



Treatise on Materials Science and Technology

Treatise on Materials Science and Technology Author Herbert Herman
ISBN-10 UVA:X001432842
Release 1988
Pages 480
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Treatise on Materials Science and Technology has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Treatise on Materials Science and Technology also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Treatise on Materials Science and Technology book for free.



Guide to Cleaner Technologies

Guide to Cleaner Technologies Author Douglas Williams
ISBN-10 0788114514
Release 1994-12
Pages 38
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Identifies new approaches for pollution prevention in cleaning and degreasing processes to remove dirt, soil, and grease in various manufacturing industries . Addresses available technologies, emerging technologies, pollution prevention strategy and benefits, operating features, application, and limitations. List of information sources. Drawings, charts and figures.



Directory of Solvents

Directory of Solvents Author B.P. Whim
ISBN-10 9789400915497
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 612
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Organic solvents represent a class of compounds whose utility is central to industrial and academic chemistry. The impact of solvents in everyday products such as paints, surface coatings, adhesives, pharmaceuticals and cleaning products is enormous, and there is therefore much interest in their use. This volume is divided into two parts. Part 1 provides and authoritative review of the science and technology of solvents and related issues. The topics covered are solvency and its measurement, flammability, health and toxicology, environmental issues, legislative information, transport, storage, recovery and disposal, and a review of solvent applications. Part 2 provides reliable, up- to-date data, based on information provided by manufacturers and suppliers and is presented as a database of over 350 solvent products, subdivided by solvent group. The data are also presented in key parameter tables, covering boiling points, melting points, evaporation information, vapor pressure, flash points, solubility parameters, auto ignition temperatures, and names and addresses of manufacturers, with trade names. In recent years there has been increased interest in health and safety, environmental issues and aspects of the legislative control of chemicals, including solvents, and the choice of a given solvent has therefore become more complex. The Directory of Solvents aims to provide in one place a broad spread of physico-chemical data, together with transport, safety, environmental and classification information provided by major European and U.S. suppliers and manufacturers of industrial organic solvents.



Science and Technology of Building Seals Sealants Glazing and Waterproofing

Science and Technology of Building Seals  Sealants  Glazing  and Waterproofing Author James C. Myers
ISBN-10 UOM:39015030273695
Release 1993
Pages
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Science and Technology of Building Seals Sealants Glazing and Waterproofing has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Science and Technology of Building Seals Sealants Glazing and Waterproofing also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Science and Technology of Building Seals Sealants Glazing and Waterproofing book for free.



Surfactant Science and Technology

Surfactant Science and Technology Author Laurence S. Romsted
ISBN-10 9781439882962
Release 2014-05-05
Pages 593
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Surfactant research explores the forces responsible for surfactant assembly and the critical industrial, medical, and personal applications, including viscosity control, microelectronics, drug stabilization, drug delivery, cosmetics, enhanced oil recovery, and foods. Surfactant Science and Technology: Retrospects and Prospects, "a Festschrift in honor of Dr. Kash Mittal," provides a broad perspective with chapters contributed by leaders in the fields of surfactant-based physical, organic, and materials chemistries. Many of the authors participated in a special symposium in Melbourne, Australia, honoring Kash Mittal’s 100th edited book at the 18th Surfactants in Solution (SIS) meeting. Each chapter provides an overview of a specific research area, with discussions on past, present, and future directions. The book is divided into six parts. Part I reviews the evolution of theoretical models for surfactant self-assembly, and introduces a model for interpreting ion-specific effects on aggregate properties. Part II focuses on interactions of surfactant solutions with solid supports; uses contact angles to understand hydrophobic/hydrophilic changes in a lipid layer; uses surface tension to understand molecular arrangements at interfaces; reviews spreading phenomena; discusses pattern formation on solid surfaces; and applies tensiometry to probe flavor components of espresso. Part III discusses novel DNA-based materials, multifunctional poly(amino acid)s–based graft polymers for drug delivery, and polymeric surfactants for stabilizing suspensions and emulsions. Part IV introduces farm-based biosurfactants from natural products and "greener" biosurfactants from bacteria. Part V explores lyotropic liquid crystals and their applications in triggered drug release; microemulsion properties and controlled drug release; the role of hydrotopes in formulations and in enhancing solubilization in liquid crystals; the potential of ionic liquids to generate tunable and selective reaction media; and provides an overview of stimuli-responsive surfactants. Focusing on emulsions, Part VI reviews the design of emulsion properties for various commercial applications, the role of surfactants in the oil and gas industries, and surfactant mechanisms for soil removal via microemulsions and emulsification.



Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning Fundamentals and Applied Aspects

Developments in Surface Contamination and Cleaning   Fundamentals and Applied Aspects Author Rajiv Kohli
ISBN-10 9780815516859
Release 2008-01-10
Pages 1200
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Surface contamination is of cardinal importance in a host of technologies and industries, ranging from microelectronics to optics to automotive to biomedical. Thus, the need to understand the causes of surface contamination and their removal is very patent. Generally speaking, there are two broad categories of surface contaminants: film-type and particulates. In the world of shrinking dimensions, such as the ever-decreasing size of microelectronic devices, there is an intensified need to understand the behavior of nanoscale particles and to devise ways to remove them to an acceptable level. Particles which were functionally innocuous a few years ago are ôkiller defectsö today, with serious implications for yield and reliability of the components. This book addresses the sources, detection, characterization and removal of both kinds of contaminants, as well as ways to prevent surfaces from being contaminated. A number of techniques to monitor the level of cleanliness are also discussed. Special emphasis is placed on the behaviour of nanoscale particles. The book is amply referenced and profusely illustrated. • Excellent reference for a host of technologies and industries ranging from microelectronics to optics to automotive to biomedical. • A single source document addressing everything from the sources of contamination to their removal and prevention. • Amply referenced and profusely illustrated.



McGraw Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 1996

McGraw Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology  1996 Author
ISBN-10 007051772X
Release 1995-01-01
Pages 530
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McGraw Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 1996 has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from McGraw Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 1996 also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full McGraw Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology 1996 book for free.



Handbook for Cleaning for Semiconductor Manufacturing

Handbook for Cleaning for Semiconductor Manufacturing Author Karen A. Reinhardt
ISBN-10 1118099516
Release 2011-04-12
Pages 590
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This comprehensive volume provides an in-depth discussion of the fundamentals of cleaning and surface conditioning of semiconductor applications such as high-k/metal gate cleaning, copper/low-k cleaning, high dose implant stripping, and silicon and SiGe passivation. The theory and fundamental physics associated with wet etching and wet cleaning is reviewed, plus the surface and colloidal aspects of wet processing. Formulation development practices and methodology are presented along with the applications for preventing copper corrosion, cleaning aluminum lines, and other sensitive layers. This is a must-have reference for any engineer or manager associated with using or supplying cleaning and contamination free technologies for semiconductor manufacturing. From the Reviews... "This handbook will be a valuable resource for many academic libraries. Many engineering librarians who work with a variety of programs (including, but not limited to Materials Engineering) should include this work in their collection. My recommendation is to add this work to any collection that serves a campus with a materials/manufacturing/electrical/computer engineering programs and campuses with departments of physics and/or chemistry with large graduate-level enrollment." —Randy Wallace, Department Head, Discovery Park Library, University of North Texas



Mending the Ozone Hole

Mending the Ozone Hole Author Arjun Makhijani
ISBN-10 0262133083
Release 1995
Pages 355
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There is a widely held misconception that the problem of ozone depletion in the upper atmosphere has been solved. In fact, while CFC production has been reduced in many places, the ongoing emissions of chemicals and the production of other long-lived ozone-depleting substances mean a decade will pass before the levels of ozone-depleting chlorine in the earth's atmosphere being to decline. As a result, serious ozone depletion above the southern pole and elsewhere is expected to continue for decades, posing a severe threat to human health and to ecosystems.In this comprehensive overview, Makhijani and Gurney detail the most current knowledge about stratospheric ozone depletion. More than a review of the evolution of the ozone problem, Mending the Ozone Hole provides an objective and stimulating look at current debates surrounding the research, the technology development, and the policy-making aimed at eliminating ozone-depleting substances.The book begins by clearly delineating the current status of stratospheric ozone loss and its epidemiological and ecological consequences -- including DNA damage, effects on the human immune system, skin cancer, the human eye, plant and aquatic life, and potential impacts of persistent severe ozone depletion. It then takes up the many sources of emissions of ozone-depleting compounds and of the alternative technologies that might reasonably replace them. This is followed by an examination of national and international policy development and industry responses, projections on the levels of ozone-depleting chlorine, assessments of various ozone-protection measures, and a consideration of the context in which policy is made. Finally, the research findings are summarized and specific recommendations for protecting the ozone layer are offered



In Situ Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent Plumes

In Situ Remediation of Chlorinated Solvent Plumes Author Hans F. Stroo
ISBN-10 1441914013
Release 2010-09-10
Pages 786
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In the late 1970s and early 1980s, our nation began to grapple with the legacy of past disposal practices for toxic chemicals. With the passage in 1980 of the Comprehensive Envir- mental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), commonly known as Sup- fund, it became the law of the land to remediate these sites. The U. S. Department of Defense (DoD), the nation’s largest industrial organization, also recognized that it too had a legacy of contaminated sites. Historic operations at Army, Navy, Air Force, and Marine Corps facilities, ranges, manufacturing sites, shipyards, and depots had resulted in widespread contamination of soil, groundwater, and sediment. While Superfund began in 1980 to focus on remediation of heavily contaminated sites largely abandoned or neglected by the private sector, the DoD had already initiated its Installation Restoration Program in the mid-1970s. In 1984, the DoD began the Defense Environmental Restoration Program (DERP) for contaminated site assessment and remediation. Two years later, the U. S. Congress codified the DERP and directed the Secretary of Defense to carry out a concurrent program of research, development, and demonstration of innovative remediation technologies. As chronicled in the 1994 National Research Council report, “Ranking Hazardous-Waste Sites for Remedial Action,” our early estimates on the cost and suitability of existing techn- ogies for cleaning up contaminated sites were wildly optimistic. Original estimates, in 1980, projected an average Superfund cleanup cost of a mere $3.



Chlorinated Solvent Source Zone Remediation

Chlorinated Solvent Source Zone Remediation Author Bernard H. Kueper
ISBN-10 9781461469223
Release 2014-04-22
Pages 713
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The purpose of this book is to help engineers and scientists better understand dense nonaqueous phase liquid (DNAPL) contamination of groundwater and the methods and technology used for characterization and remediation. Remediation of DNAPL source zones is very difficult and controversial and must be based on state-of-the-art knowledge of the behavior (transport and fate) of nonaqueous phase liquids in the subsurface and site specific geology, chemistry and hydrology. This volume is focused on the characterization and remediation of nonaqueous phase chlorinated solvents and it is hoped that mid-level engineers and scientists will find this book helpful in understanding the current state-of-practice of DNAPL source zone management and remediation.



Science Technology and Cultural Heritage

Science  Technology and Cultural Heritage Author M.A. Rogerio-Candelera
ISBN-10 9781315712420
Release 2014-12-01
Pages 514
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The Second International Congress on Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage was held in Seville, Spain, June 24-27, 2014, under the umbrella of the TechnoHeritage network. TechnoHeritage is an initiative funded by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitivity dedicated to the creation of a network which integrates CSIC and University groups, private companies and end users such as foundations, museums or institutions. The network’s purpose is to foster the creation of transdisciplinary (and not only multidisciplinary) initiatives focused on the study of all assets, movable or immovable, that make up Cultural Heritage. The congress was dedicated to six topics, namely (1) Environmental assessment and monitoring (pollution, climate change, natural events, etc.) of Cultural Heritage; (2) New products and materials for conservation and maintenance of Cultural Heritage; (3) Agents and mechanisms of deterioration of Cultural Heritage (physical, chemical, biological), including deterioration of modern materials used in Contemporary Art and information storage; (4) Development of new instruments, non invasive technologies and innovative solutions for analysis, protection and conservation of Cultural Heritage; (5) Security technologies, remote sensing and G.I.S. for the protection and management of Cultural Heritage; and (6) Significance, social value and policies for the conservation of Cultural Heritage. This volume publishes a total of seventy-two contributions which reflect some of the most recent responses to the challenge of cultural assets conservation and the application of different scientific approaches to the common goal of the conservation of Cultural Heritage.



Transport and Fate of Chemicals in the Environment

Transport and Fate of Chemicals in the Environment Author John S. Gulliver
ISBN-10 9781461457312
Release 2012-12-12
Pages 378
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What happens when a chemical is released into the environment? It diffuses, disperses, adsorbs, reacts, and/or changes state. To predict and analyze this process, the mathematics of diffusion is applied to lakes, rivers, groundwater, the atmosphere, the oceans, and transport between these media. A sustainable world requires a deep understanding of the transport of chemicals through the environment and how to address and harness this process. This volume presents a succinct and in-depth introduction to this critical topic. Featuring authoritative, peer-reviewed articles from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology, Transport and Fate of Chemicals in the Environment represents an essential one-stop reference for an audience of researchers, undergraduate and graduate students, and industry professionals.