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Climate Change and its Effects on Water Resources

Climate Change and its Effects on Water Resources Author Alper Baba
ISBN-10 9789400711457
Release 2011-05-29
Pages 318
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National and global security can be assessed in many ways but one underlying factor for all humanity is access to reliable sources of water for drinking, sanitation, food production and manufacturing industry. In many parts of the world, population growth and an escalating demand for water already threaten the sustainable management of available water supplies. Global warming, climate change and rising sea level are expected to intensify the resource sustainability issue in many water-stressed regions of the world by reducing the annual supply of renewable fresh water and promoting the intrusion of saline water into aquifers along sea coasts, where 50% of the global population reside. Pro-active resource management decisions are required, but such efforts would be futile unless reliable predictions can be made about the impact of the changing global conditions on the water cycle and the quality and availability of critical water reserves. Addressing this wide spectrum of issues, a team of expert authors discusses here the impacts of climate change on the global water resources, the long-term resource management goals at global and local scales, the data requirements and the scientific and technical advances necessary to mitigate the associated impacts.



National Security and Human Health Implications of Climate Change

National Security and Human Health Implications of Climate Change Author H. J. S. Fernando
ISBN-10 9789400724297
Release 2012-01-06
Pages 369
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Climate change has been identified as one of the greatest threats to humanity of all times. In addition to producing adverse environmental conditions such as rising sea level, drought, crop failure, vector-borne diseases, extreme events, degradation of water/air quality and heat waves, climate change is also considered a threat multiplier that leads to local and international conflicts and armed interventions. Urban areas may bear the brunt of climate change, as they are the centers of human habitation, anthropogenic stressors and environmental degradation, and the ensuing health impacts are of grave societal concern. The papers in this volume span a suite of climate change repercussions, paying particular attention to national security and human health aspects. It is an outcome of a NATO Advanced Research Workshop held during April 28-30, 2011 in Dubrovnik, Croatia, sponsored by the NATO Science for Peace and Security Program. The contributions cut across the elements of modeling, natural, political and social sciences, engineering, politics, military intervention, urban planning, industrial activities, epidemiology and healthcare.



Threats to Global Water Security

Threats to Global Water Security Author J. Anthony Jones
ISBN-10 9789048123445
Release 2009-06-17
Pages 400
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The UN designated the decade 2005–2015 as the International Decade for Action – Water for Life. The move was initiated at the third World Water Forum in Kyoto, 2003, and it could prove the most significant and effective outcome of the triennial series of World Water For a yet. Its major aims are: (1) to promote efforts to fulfil recent international commitments, especially in the Millennium Goals, (2) to advance towards a truly integrated, int- national approach to sustainable water management, and (3) to put special emphasis on the role of women in these efforts. Even so, it faces tremendous and, as I write, increasing obstacles. The intense season of hurricanes and tropical storms in 2008 illustrated yet again not only the power of nature, but also the vulnerability of the poorer nations, like Haiti and Jamaica. New Orleans and Texas fared better, not because of the efforts of the International Decade for Natural Disasters (1990–2000) to increase preparedness, but more because the USA had learnt from its own experiences in Hurricane Katrina. The biggest obstacle of all is the burgeoning world population. It took off last century, but it is predicted to reach unimaginable heights this century: at least 10 billion by 2050, maybe 20 billion by 2100. Governments are powerless to halt it, even the Chinese. Achieving water security globally against this backdrop will be a Herculean task.



Climate

Climate Author Igor Linkov
ISBN-10 9789400717725
Release 2011-08-26
Pages 598
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Rising sea levels and altered weather patterns are expected to significantly alter coastal and inland environments for humans, infrastructure and ecosystems. Potential land-use changes and population increases, coupled with uncertain predictions for sea level rise and storm frequency/intensity represent a significant planning challenge. While efforts to mitigate climate change continue, plans must be made to adapt to the risks that climate change poses to humans, infrastructure, and ecosystems alike. This book addresses integrated environmental assessment and management as part of the nexus of climate change adaptation. Risk analysis has emerged as a useful approach to guide assessment, communication and management of security risks. However, with respect to climate change, an integrated, multi-criteria, multi-hazard, risk-informed decision framework is desirable for evaluating adaptation strategies. The papers in Part 1 summarize societal and political needs for climate change adaptation. Part 2 includes papers summarizing the state of the art in climate change adaptation. Three further parts cover: the process of change in coastal regions, in inland regions, and, finally, the potential challenges to homeland security for national governments. Each of these parts reviews achievements, identifies gaps in current knowledge, and suggests research priorities.



The Jordan River and Dead Sea Basin

The Jordan River and Dead Sea Basin Author Clive Lipchin
ISBN-10 9789048129881
Release 2009-10-09
Pages 316
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The 21st century will present unprecedented challenges. Already in its first decade we have seen the dramatic impact of two systemic risks, that of climate change and that of the financial crisis. The cause but also the solution to these crises lies in a deeper understanding of the underlying factors and int- dependencies. New ways must be found to overcome deep obstacles and find common solutions to seemingly intractable problems. The water crisis in the Middle East is a central challenge of the 21st century. The future of the people of the region depends on finding lasting solutions. Due to the exhaustion and pollution of available sources, compounded by climate change, demographic change and economic development, the pressures of water resource management will grow. New solutions must urgently be found as business as usual is not sustainable. This book provides vital new insights into possible elements of a sustainable future in one key area, that of the Jordan River and Dead Sea Basin. The future development of the Jordanian, Palestinian and Israeli people depends on finding a just and sustainable system of water resource management in this Basin. Given the potential for regional and other conflicts arising out of tensions over water, the ramifications are wider and even global in significance. This volume provides fresh regional and international perspectives which greatly assist in our understanding of the issues and their possible resolution.



Water Scarcity Land Degradation and Desertification in the Mediterranean Region

Water Scarcity  Land Degradation and Desertification in the Mediterranean Region Author Jose Rubio
ISBN-10 9789048125265
Release 2009-05-03
Pages 156
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Based on the suggestions made by the speakers of Plenary Session IV “Ch- lenges to the management of water resources and to countering deserti cation in the Mediterranean region” during the 15th Economic and Environmental Forum, the OCEEA proposed to organize a workshop on “Water Scarcity, Land Degra- tion and Deserti cation in the Mediterranean region – Environment and Security Aspects”. In order to build on common synergies, OSCE sought co-operation with c- leagues from NATO, in particular from the Science for Peace and Security P- gramme. NATO has a longstanding expertise on the issue and had organised in Valencia, in December 2003, a NATO scienti c workshop on “Deserti cation and Security in the Mediterranean Region”. The objective of the new proposed wo- shop would be to broaden its focus from the scienti c community to include also policy makers. 1 The workshop, aimed at government of cials from the Mediterranean Region, gathered representatives of Water management, Land degradation and Desert- cation Departments of Ministries of Environment and representatives from the Ministries of Foreign Affairs. In addition, policy makers, scientists and experts were also invited. The aim was to discuss how the OSCE, NATO and other c- petent organizations like the UNCCD, UNEP, MAP, and the EU could play a role in ensuring that environment and security linkages in terms of water scarcity, land degradation and deserti cation are addressed in the Mediterranean Region.



Novel Measurement and Assessment Tools for Monitoring and Management of Land and Water Resources in Agricultural Landscapes of Central Asia

Novel Measurement and Assessment Tools for Monitoring and Management of Land and Water Resources in Agricultural Landscapes of Central Asia Author Lothar Mueller
ISBN-10 9783319010175
Release 2013-10-04
Pages 716
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The book aims to initiate a sustainable use of land and water resources in Central Asia by the transfer of scientific methods. It deals with the most advanced methods worldwide for better monitoring and management of water and land resources. We offer an array of methods of measuring, assessing, forecasting, utilizing and controling processes in agricultural landscapes. These are laboratory and field measurement methods, methods of resource evaluation, functional mapping and risk assessment, and remote sensing methods for monitoring and modeling large areas. The book contains methods and results of data analysis and ecosystem modeling, of bioremediation of soil and water, field monitoring of soils, and methods and technologies for optimizing land use systems as well. The chapter authors are inventors and advocators of novel transferrable methods. The book starts with an analysis of the current state of water and land resources. Finally concrete proposals for the applicability of novel methods are given.



Environmental Security in South Eastern Europe

Environmental Security in South Eastern Europe Author Massimiliano Montini
ISBN-10 9789400702455
Release 2011-01-07
Pages 241
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Authored by international experts from academia, international organizations, governments and NGOs, this book highlights the main environmental security issues in the South-East European (SEE) countries, with a particular focus on climate change and water management. The common goal of the authors was to provide a reliable evaluation of whether existing legal regimes and correct implementation of applicable international treaties may contribute to reducing environmental security risks in the region. In-depth analyses and assessment of major challenges in compliance, serve as a firm ground which such evaluation is based on. This volume is recommended for public officials, legal practitioners and consultants. Its interest may also extend beyond the SEE countries, serving as a case-study of a broader and paradigmatic relevance of the analysis and management of environmental and security issues in a trans-boundary context.



Sustainable Cities and Military Installations

Sustainable Cities and Military Installations Author Igor Linkov
ISBN-10 9789400771611
Release 2013-11-12
Pages 427
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Access to reliable and affordable energy, water, and services is an important determinant of the prosperity of cities along with effective mission sustainment at military installations. The idea for this book was conceived at the NATO Advanced Research Workshop (ARW) in June 2012 in Hella, Iceland. The workshop was attended by 50 scientists, engineers, and policymakers representing 15 different nations and multiple fields of expertise, reflecting the global and interdisciplinary nature of climate change and sustainability research. The focus of the workshop was on ways in which military installations and small cities can integrate energy, water, and infrastructure sustainability strategies into city and installation management plans that account for climate change uncertainties. The organization of the book reflects major topic sessions and discussions during the workshop.



Climate Change as a Security Risk

Climate Change as a Security Risk Author Hans Joachim Schellnhuber
ISBN-10 9781849775939
Release 2010-09-23
Pages 270
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Without resolute counteraction, climate change will overstretch many societies' adaptive capacities within the coming decades. This could result in destabilization and violence, jeopardizing national and international security to a new degree. However, climate change could also unite the international community. This is provided that we recognize climate change as a threat to humankind and so set the course for adopting a dynamic and globally coordinated climate policy. If we fail to do so, climate change will draw ever-deeper lines of division and conflict in international relations, triggering numerous conflicts between and within countries over the distribution of resources - especially water and land, and over the management of migration, or over compensation payments between the countries mainly responsible for climate change and those countries most affected by its destructive effects. With Climate Change as a Security Risk, WBGU has compiled a flagship report on an issue that quite rightly is rising rapidly up the international political agenda. The authors pull no punches on the likelihood of increasing tensions and conflicts in a climatically constrained world and spotlight places where possible conflicts may flare up in the 21st century unless climate change is checked. The report makes it clear that climate policy is preventative security policy.



Coping with Global Environmental Change Disasters and Security

Coping with Global Environmental Change  Disasters and Security Author Hans Günter Brauch
ISBN-10 364217776X
Release 2011-02-03
Pages 1815
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Coping with Global Environmental Change, Disasters and Security - Threats, Challenges, Vulnerabilities and Risks reviews conceptual debates and case studies focusing on disasters and security threats, challenges, vulnerabilities and risks in Europe, the Mediterranean and other regions. It discusses social science concepts of vulnerability and risks, global, regional and national security challenges, global warming, floods, desertification and drought as environmental security challenges, water and food security challenges and vulnerabilities, vulnerability mapping of environmental security challenges and risks, contributions of remote sensing to the recognition of security risks, mainstreaming early warning of conflicts and hazards and provides conceptual and policy conclusions.



Groundwater Management in the East of the European Union

Groundwater Management in the East of the European Union Author Tomasz Nalecz
ISBN-10 9789048195343
Release 2011-01-21
Pages 188
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This volume is the result of work carried out under the NATO SPS Study Pilot Project "Sustainable Use and Protection of Groundwater Resources - Transboundary Water Management." It contains basic information on hydrogeological conditions, groundwater management and monitoring in areas of the Belarus, Lithuanian, Polish and Ukrainian borders, simultaneously borders of the European Union with its eastern partners. In view of the importance of the rational utilization of groundwater reserves, which is essential for our future existence, the book presents recommendations for a united methodology of an integrated groundwater monitoring system in this transnational area. The contributions also cover environmental and surface water issues that have direct effects on groundwater resources. The financial dimension of resource mobilization for environmental projects in Eastern Europe also features as part of a complex project solution.



Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean

Environmental Security in the Arctic Ocean Author Paul Arthur Berkman
ISBN-10 9789400747135
Release 2012-11-29
Pages 459
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This seminal book results from a NATO Advanced Research Workshop at the University of Cambridge with Russian co-directorship, enabling the first formal dialogue between NATO and Russia about security issues in the Arctic Ocean. Involving interdisciplinary participation with experts from 17 nations, including all of the Arctic states, this workshop itself reflects progress in Arctic cooperation and collaboration. Interests now are awakening globally to take advantage of extensive energy, shipping, fishing and tourism opportunities in the Arctic Ocean as it is being transformed from a permanent sea-ice cap to a seasonally ice-free sea. This environmental state-change is introducing inherent risks of political, economic and cultural instabilities that are centralized among the Arctic states and indigenous peoples with repercussions globally. Responding with urgency, environmental security is presented as an "integrated approach for assessing and responding to the risks as well as the opportunities generated by an environmental state-change." In this book – diverse perspectives on environmental security in the Arctic Ocean are shared in chapters from high-level diplomats, parliamentarians and government officials of Arctic and non-Arctic states; leaders of Arctic indigenous peoples organizations; international law advisors from Arctic states as well as the United Nations; directors of inter-governmental organizations and non-governmental organizations; managers of multi-national corporations; political scientists, historians and economists; along with Earth system scientists and oceanographers. Building on the “common arctic issues” of “sustainable development and environmental protection” established by the Arctic Council – environmental security offers an holistic approach to assess opportunities and risks as well as develop infrastructure responses with law of the sea as the key “international legal framework” to “promote the peaceful uses” of the Arctic Ocean. With vision for future generations, environmental security is a path to balance national interests and common interests in the Arctic Ocean for the lasting benefit of all.



Advanced Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment A Road to Safer Society and Environment

Advanced Water Supply and Wastewater Treatment  A Road to Safer Society and Environment Author Petr Hlavinek
ISBN-10 9789400702790
Release 2011-01-07
Pages 353
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Stable, safe, secure and readily available water supply is one of the key factors in ensuring a good level of the public health and a stable society. Scientific assessments show that about 80 % of diseases and one-third of the total death toll in the developing countries are caused by the low quality of the drinking water. Other countries are also suffering from water shortages and insufficient quality of the drinking water. Many rivers in Europe and in other parts of the world are significantly polluted by insufficiently treated or untreated wastewater discharge. This book is based on the discussions and papers prepared for the NATO Advanced Research Workshop that took place in Lviv, Ukraine, and addressed recent advances in water supply and wastewater treatment as a prerequisite for a safer society and environment. The contributions critically assess the existing knowledge on urban water management and provide an overview of the current water management issues, especially in the countries in transition in Central and Eastern Europe and in the Mediterranean Dialogue countries.



Environmental and Food Safety and Security for South East Europe and Ukraine

Environmental and Food Safety and Security for South East Europe and Ukraine Author Ksenija Vitale
ISBN-10 9789400729520
Release 2012-02-09
Pages 272
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This book covers important aspects of the field of food security and safety, ranging from fundamental production, through advanced water treatment technologies and detection of novel pollutants, to management and policy making. The discussion strives to develop an integrated approach to solving the associated problems by simultaneously considering sociological, ecological and economic aspects. Special focus is on the environmental management systems that should be integrated in the processes of environmental risk assessment. Also addressed are other technologies applied in the service of detecting, preventing and monitoring possible threats to food security and safety. With its variety of subjects, this volume can serve both as a textbook for advanced studies and as a useful reference source for professionals.



Understanding and Managing Threats to the Environment in South Eastern Europe

Understanding and Managing Threats to the Environment in South Eastern Europe Author Gorazd Mesko
ISBN-10 9789400706118
Release 2011-02-08
Pages 393
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This volume presents reflections on a variety of environmental issues in South-Eastern Europe from diverse contemporary scientific disciplines. The contributions address many crucial issues including national environmental policies, economic instruments for preventing crimes against the environment, international waste trafficking, threats to air, water and soil due to mining, management of dump areas, environment protection and food safety from a perspective of public health. The book will be a useful resource for researchers, developers and decision makers interested in the stability and sustainable development of the South-Eastern European countries.



Water Supply in Emergency Situations

Water Supply in Emergency Situations Author Yair Sharan
ISBN-10 9781402063053
Release 2007-07-23
Pages 173
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This book reflects the outcome of a three day NATO Advanced Workshop entitled "Supply of Water to Cities in Emergency Situations." Some 35 experts from 14 countries from Europe, the Middle East and Asia assembled in Tel-Aviv for this event. It illuminates a broad spectrum of problems and concerns to the orderly water supply ranging from floods to a surprisingly low concern related to intentional terror-related threats.