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CMOS Circuits for Electromagnetic Vibration Transducers

CMOS Circuits for Electromagnetic Vibration Transducers Author Dominic Maurath
ISBN-10 9789401792721
Release 2014-09-16
Pages 300
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Chip-integrated power management solutions are a must for ultra-low power systems. This enables not only the optimization of innovative sensor applications. It is also essential for integration and miniaturization of energy harvesting supply strategies of portable and autonomous monitoring systems. The book particularly addresses interfaces for energy harvesting, which are the key element to connect micro transducers to energy storage elements. Main features of the book are: - A comprehensive technology and application review, basics on transducer mechanics, fundamental circuit and control design, prototyping and testing, up to sensor system supply and applications. - Novel interfacing concepts - including active rectifiers, MPPT methods for efficient tracking of DC as well as AC sources, and a fully-integrated charge pump for efficient maximum AC power tracking at sub-100μW ultra-low power levels. The chips achieve one of widest presented operational voltage range in standard CMOS technology: 0.44V to over 4.1V. - Two special chapters on analog circuit design – it studies benefits and obstacles on implemented chip prototypes with three goals: ultra- low power, wide supply voltage range, and integration with standard technologies. Alternative design approaches are pursued using bulk-input transistor stages in forward-bias operation for amplifiers, modulators, and references. - Comprehensive Appendix – with additional fundamental analysis, design and scaling guidelines, circuit implementation tables and dimensions, schematics, source code listings, bill of material, etc. The discussed prototypes and given design guidelines are tested with real vibration transducer devices. The intended readership is graduate students in advanced courses, academics and lecturers, R&D engineers.



Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices

Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices Author Dirk Spreemann
ISBN-10 9789400729438
Release 2012-02-17
Pages 198
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Electromagnetic vibration transducers are seen as an effective way of harvesting ambient energy for the supply of sensor monitoring systems. Different electromagnetic coupling architectures have been employed but no comprehensive comparison with respect to their output performance has been carried out up to now. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices introduces an optimization approach which is applied to determine optimal dimensions of the components (magnet, coil and back iron). Eight different commonly applied coupling architectures are investigated. The results show that correct dimensions are of great significance for maximizing the efficiency of the energy conversion. A comparison yields the architectures with the best output performance capability which should be preferably employed in applications. A prototype development is used to demonstrate how the optimization calculations can be integrated into the design–flow. Electromagnetic Vibration Energy Harvesting Devices targets the designer of electromagnetic vibration transducers who wishes to have a greater in-depth understanding for maximizing the output performance.



Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics

Ultra Low Power Bioelectronics Author Rahul Sarpeshkar
ISBN-10 9781139485234
Release 2010-02-22
Pages
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This book provides, for the first time, a broad and deep treatment of the fields of both ultra low power electronics and bioelectronics. It discusses fundamental principles and circuits for ultra low power electronic design and their applications in biomedical systems. It also discusses how ultra energy efficient cellular and neural systems in biology can inspire revolutionary low power architectures in mixed-signal and RF electronics. The book presents a unique, unifying view of ultra low power analog and digital electronics and emphasizes the use of the ultra energy efficient subthreshold regime of transistor operation in both. Chapters on batteries, energy harvesting, and the future of energy provide an understanding of fundamental relationships between energy use and energy generation at small scales and at large scales. A wealth of insights and examples from brain implants, cochlear implants, bio-molecular sensing, cardiac devices, and bio-inspired systems make the book useful and engaging for students and practicing engineers.



CMOS Circuits for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters

CMOS Circuits for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesters Author Thorsten Hehn
ISBN-10 9789401792882
Release 2014-07-30
Pages 204
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This book deals with the challenge of exploiting ambient vibrational energy which can be used to power small and low-power electronic devices, e.g. wireless sensor nodes. Generally, particularly for low voltage amplitudes, low-loss rectification is required to achieve high conversion efficiency. In the special case of piezoelectric energy harvesting, pulsed charge extraction has the potential to extract more power compared to a single rectifier. For this purpose, a fully autonomous CMOS integrated interface circuit for piezoelectric generators which fulfills these requirements is presented. Due to these key properties enabling universal usage, other CMOS designers working in the field of energy harvesting will be encouraged to use some of the shown structures for their own implementations. The book is unique in the sense that it highlights the design process from scratch to the final chip. Hence, it gives the designer a comprehensive guide of how to (i) setup an appropriate harvester model to get realistic simulation results, (ii) design the integrated circuits for low power operation, (iii) setup a laboratory measurement environment in order to extensively characterize the chip in combination with the real harvester and finally, (iv) interpret the simulation/measurement results in order to improve the chip performance. Since the dimensions of all devices (transistors, resistors etc.) are given, readers and other designers can easily re-use the presented circuit concepts.



Wearable Monitoring Systems

Wearable Monitoring Systems Author Annalisa Bonfiglio
ISBN-10 1441973842
Release 2010-12-17
Pages 296
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As diverse as tomorrow’s society constituent groups may be, they will share the common requirements that their life should become safer and healthier, offering higher levels of effectiveness, communication and personal freedom. The key common part to all potential solutions fulfilling these requirements is wearable embedded systems, with longer periods of autonomy, offering wider functionality, more communication possibilities and increased computational power. As electronic and information systems on the human body, their role is to collect relevant physiological information, and to interface between humans and local and/or global information systems. Within this context, there is an increasing need for applications in diverse fields, from health to rescue to sport and even remote activities in space, to have real-time access to vital signs and other behavioral parameters for personalized healthcare, rescue operation planning, etc. This book’s coverage will span all scientific and technological areas that define wearable monitoring systems, including sensors, signal processing, energy, system integration, communications, and user interfaces. Six case studies will be used to illustrate the principles and practices introduced.



Wearable Electronics Sensors

Wearable Electronics Sensors Author Subhas C. Mukhopadhyay
ISBN-10 9783319181912
Release 2015-06-02
Pages 333
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This edited book contains invited papers from renowned experts working in the field of Wearable Electronics Sensors. It includes 14 chapters describing recent advancements in the area of Wearable Sensors, Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks, Protocols, Topologies, Instrumentation architectures, Measurement techniques, Energy harvesting and scavenging, Signal processing, Design and Prototyping. The book will be useful for engineers, scientist and post-graduate students as a reference book for their research on wearable sensors, devices and technologies which is experiencing a period of rapid growth driven by new applications such as heart rate monitors, smart watches, tracking devices and smart glasses.



Internet of Things

Internet of Things Author Peter Friess
ISBN-10 9788792982735
Release 2013-06
Pages 364
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The book aims to provide a broad overview of various topics of the Internet of Things (IoT) from the research and development priorities to enabling technologies, architecture, security, privacy, interoperability and industrial applications. It is intended to be a stand-alone book in a series that covers the Internet of Things activities of the IERC - Internet of Things European Research Cluster - from technology to international cooperation and the global "state of play." The book builds on the ideas put forward by the European Research Cluster on the Internet of Things Strategic Research and Innovation Agenda and presents views and state of the art results on the challenges facing the research, development and deployment of IoT at the global level. Today we see the integration of Industrial, Business and Consumer Internet which is bringing together the Internet of People, Internet of Things, Internet of Energy, Internet of Vehicles, Internet of Media, Services and Enterprises in forming the backbone of the digital economy, the digital society and the foundation for the future knowledge and innovation based economy. These developments are supporting solutions for the emerging challenges of public health, aging population, environmental protection and climate change, the conservation of energy and scarce materials, enhancements to safety and security and the continuation and growth of economic prosperity. Penetration of smartphones and advances in nanoelectronics, cyber-physical systems, wireless communication, software, and Cloud computing technology will be the main drivers for IoT development. The IoT contribution is seen in the increased value of information created by the number of interconnections among things and the transformation of the processed information into knowledge shared into the Internet of Everything. The connected devices are part of ecosystems connecting people, processes, data, and things which are communicating in the Cloud using the increased storage and computing power while attempting to standardize communication and metadata. In this context, the next generation of Cloud computing technologies will need to be flexible enough to scale autonomously, adaptive enough to handle constantly changing connections and resilient enough to stand up to the huge flows of data that will occur. In 2025, analysts forecast that there will be six devices per human on the planet, which means around 50 billion more connected devices over the next 12 years. The Internet of Things market is connected to this anticipated device growth from industrial Machine to Machine (M2M) systems, smart meters and wireless sensors. Internet of Things technology will generate new services and new interfaces by creating smart environments and smart spaces with applications ranging from Smart Cities, Smart Transport, Buildings, Energy, Grid, to Smart Health and Life.



Proceedings of the International Congress on Information and Communication Technology

Proceedings of the International Congress on Information and Communication Technology Author Suresh Chandra Satapathy
ISBN-10 9789811007552
Release 2016-06-08
Pages 655
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This volume contains 69 papers presented at ICICT 2015: International Congress on Information and Communication Technology. The conference was held during 9th and 10th October, 2015, Udaipur, India and organized by CSI Udaipur Chapter, Division IV, SIG-WNS, SIG-e-Agriculture in association with ACM Udaipur Professional Chapter, The Institution of Engineers (India), Udaipur Local Centre and Mining Engineers Association of India, Rajasthan Udaipur Chapter. This volume contains papers mainly focused on ICT for Managerial Applications, E-governance, IOT and e-Mining.



Low Power Design Essentials

Low Power Design Essentials Author Jan Rabaey
ISBN-10 0387717137
Release 2009-04-21
Pages 288
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This book contains all the topics of importance to the low power designer. It first lays the foundation and then goes on to detail the design process. The book also discusses such special topics as power management and modal design, ultra low power, and low power design methodology and flows. In addition, coverage includes projections of the future and case studies.



Advancement in Sensing Technology

Advancement in Sensing Technology Author Subhas Mukhopadhyay
ISBN-10 9783642321801
Release 2012-09-06
Pages 326
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The book presents the recent advancements in the area of sensors and sensing technology, specifically in environmental monitoring, structural health monitoring, dielectric, magnetic, electrochemical, ultrasonic, microfluidic, flow, surface acoustic wave, gas, cloud computing and bio-medical. This book will be useful to a variety of readers, namely, Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, working on sensors and sensing technology. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.



VLSI Memory Chip Design

VLSI Memory Chip Design Author Kiyoo Itoh
ISBN-10 9783662044780
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 495
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A systematic description of microelectronic device design. Topics range from the basics to low-power and ultralow-voltage designs, subthreshold current reduction, memory subsystem designs for modern DRAMs, and various on-chip supply-voltage conversion techniques. It also covers process and device issues as well as design issues relating to systems, circuits, devices and processes, such as signal-to-noise and redundancy.



Sub threshold Design for Ultra Low Power Systems

Sub threshold Design for Ultra Low Power Systems Author Alice Wang
ISBN-10 9780387345017
Release 2006-12-11
Pages 209
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Based on the work of MIT graduate students Alice Wang and Benton Calhoun, this book surveys the field of sub-threshold and low-voltage design and explores such aspects of sub-threshold circuit design as modeling, logic and memory circuit design. One important chapter of the book is dedicated to optimizing energy dissipation - a key metric for energy constrained designs. This book also includes invited chapters on the subject of analog sub-threshold circuits.



Wireless Sensor Networks and Ecological Monitoring

Wireless Sensor Networks and Ecological Monitoring Author Subhas C. Mukhopadhyay
ISBN-10 9783642363658
Release 2013-02-11
Pages 297
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This book presents the state of the art technologies and solutions to tackle the critical challenges faced by the building and development of the WSN and ecological monitoring system but also potential impact on society at social, medical and technological level. This book is dedicated to Sensing systems for Sensors, Wireless Sensor Networks and Ecological Monitoring. The book aims at Master and PhD degree students, researchers, practitioners, especially WSN engineers involved with ecological monitoring. The book will provide an opportunity of a dedicated and a deep approach in order to improve their knowledge in this specific field.



Progress in VLSI Design and Test

Progress in VLSI Design and Test Author Hafizur Rahaman
ISBN-10 9783642314940
Release 2012-06-26
Pages 408
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on VSLI Design and Test, VDAT 2012, held in Shibpur, India, in July 2012. The 30 revised regular papers presented together with 10 short papers and 13 poster sessions were carefully selected from 135 submissions. The papers are organized in topical sections on VLSI design, design and modeling of digital circuits and systems, testing and verification, design for testability, testing memories and regular logic arrays, embedded systems: hardware/software co-design and verification, emerging technology: nanoscale computing and nanotechnology.



Poly SiGe for MEMS above CMOS Sensors

Poly SiGe for MEMS above CMOS Sensors Author Pilar Gonzalez Ruiz
ISBN-10 9789400767997
Release 2013-07-17
Pages 199
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Polycrystalline SiGe has emerged as a promising MEMS (Microelectromechanical Systems) structural material since it provides the desired mechanical properties at lower temperatures compared to poly-Si, allowing the direct post-processing on top of CMOS. This CMOS-MEMS monolithic integration can lead to more compact MEMS with improved performance. The potential of poly-SiGe for MEMS above-aluminum-backend CMOS integration has already been demonstrated. However, aggressive interconnect scaling has led to the replacement of the traditional aluminum metallization by copper (Cu) metallization, due to its lower resistivity and improved reliability. Poly-SiGe for MEMS-above-CMOS sensors demonstrates the compatibility of poly-SiGe with post-processing above the advanced CMOS technology nodes through the successful fabrication of an integrated poly-SiGe piezoresistive pressure sensor, directly fabricated above 0.13 m Cu-backend CMOS. Furthermore, this book presents the first detailed investigation on the influence of deposition conditions, germanium content and doping concentration on the electrical and piezoresistive properties of boron-doped poly-SiGe. The development of a CMOS-compatible process flow, with special attention to the sealing method, is also described. Piezoresistive pressure sensors with different areas and piezoresistor designs were fabricated and tested. Together with the piezoresistive pressure sensors, also functional capacitive pressure sensors were successfully fabricated on the same wafer, proving the versatility of poly-SiGe for MEMS sensor applications. Finally, a detailed analysis of the MEMS processing impact on the underlying CMOS circuit is also presented.



Solutions on Embedded Systems

Solutions on Embedded Systems Author Massimo Conti
ISBN-10 9400706383
Release 2011-04-11
Pages 314
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Embedded systems have an increasing importance in our everyday lives. The growing complexity of embedded systems and the emerging trend to interconnections between them lead to new challenges. Intelligent solutions are necessary to overcome these challenges and to provide reliable and secure systems to the customer under a strict time and financial budget. Solutions on Embedded Systems documents results of several innovative approaches that provide intelligent solutions in embedded systems. The objective is to present mature approaches, to provide detailed information on the implementation and to discuss the results obtained.



VLSI Design and Test

VLSI Design and Test Author Singh Manoj Gaur
ISBN-10 9783642420245
Release 2013-12-13
Pages 388
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 17th International Symposium on VLSI Design and Test, VDAT 2013, held in Jaipur, India, in July 2013. The 44 papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 162 submissions. The papers discuss the frontiers of design and test of VLSI components, circuits and systems. They are organized in topical sections on VLSI design, testing and verification, embedded systems, emerging technology.