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Cognition as Intuitive Statistics

Cognition as Intuitive Statistics Author Gerd Gigerenzer
ISBN-10 9781317362173
Release 2015-08-14
Pages 230
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Originally published in 1987, this title is about theory construction in psychology. Where theories come from, as opposed to how they become established, was almost a no-man’s land in the history and philosophy of science at the time. The authors argue that in the science of mind, theories are particularly likely to come from tools, and they are especially concerned with the emergence of the metaphor of the mind as an intuitive statistician. In the first chapter, the authors discuss the rise of the inference revolution, which institutionalized those statistical tools that later became theories of cognitive processes. In each of the four following chapters they treat one major topic of cognitive psychology and show to what degree statistical concepts transformed their understanding of those topics.



Adaptive Thinking

Adaptive Thinking Author Gerd Gigerenzer
ISBN-10 9780195153729
Release 2002-03-07
Pages 344
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Where do new ideas come from? What is social intelligence? Why do social scientists perform mindless statistical rituals? Most importantly, what counts as adaptive thinking as our minds try to cope with the world around us?



Thinking and Reasoning Psychology Revivals

Thinking and Reasoning  Psychology Revivals Author Jonathan St. B. T. Evans
ISBN-10 9781317820406
Release 2013-12-19
Pages 256
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The subject of thinking is the oldest in the whole science of psychology, going back to well before the separation of the disciplines of philosophy and psychology. Originally published in 1983, this collection of up-to-date critical essays about thinking – with particular emphasis on reasoning – is written from the perspective of psychologists who are themselves actively engaged in research into the nature of human thought. The editor’s introduction identifies the major issues which have traditionally concerned students of human thought, and provides an historical background. It describes how at first the subject was studied by introspection, and how this method fell into disrepute at the end of last century. A satisfactory alternative has not yet emerged, although much recent work is based on the information-processing model, which sees the brain as a sophisticated computer. Consequently the papers presented in this volume deal with a wide range of issues, and a number of different experimental tasks and paradigms. They cover most current approaches to the theory and methodology of cognitive psychology, including problem solving, the relationship between language and thought, and reasoning.



Simply Rational

Simply Rational Author Gerd Gigerenzer
ISBN-10 9780199390076
Release 2015
Pages 312
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Statistical illiteracy can have an enormously negative impact on decision making. This volume of collected papers brings together applied and theoretical research on risks and decision making across the fields of medicine, psychology, and economics. Collectively, the essays demonstrate why the frame in which statistics are communicated is essential for broader understanding and sound decision making, and that understanding risks and uncertainty has wide-reaching implications for daily life. Gerd Gigerenzer provides a lucid review and catalog of concrete instances of heuristics, or rules of thumb, that people and animals rely on to make decisions under uncertainty, explaining why these are very often more rational than probability models. After a critical look at behavioral theories that do not model actual psychological processes, the book concludes with a call for a "heuristic revolution" that will enable us to understand the ecological rationality of both statistics and heuristics, and bring a dose of sanity to the study of rationality.



Borderline Psychology Revivals

Borderline  Psychology Revivals Author Peter Chadwick
ISBN-10 9781317932420
Release 2013-12-16
Pages 182
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Originally published in 1992, Borderline presents a unique study of the disturbed mind. Professional psychologist Peter Chadwick draws upon his own personal experience of madness to provide a valuable exploration of the psychology of paranoia and schizophrenia. The book goes beyond a narrowly focused analytical approach to examine schizophrenia from as many perspectives as possible. Using participant observation, introspection, case study and experimental methods, Chadwick shows how paranoid and delusional thinking are only exaggerations of processes to be found in normal cognition. Impressed by the similarities between the thinking of mystics and psychotics, he argues that some forms of madness are closely related to profound mystical experience and intuition, but that these are expressed in a distorted form in the psychotic mind. He explores the many positive characteristics and capabilities of paranoid patients, providing a sympathetic account which balances the heavily negative constructions usually put on paranoia in the research literature. Borderline provides many novel insights into madness and raises important questions as to how psychosis and psychotics are to be evaluated. It will be essential reading for all practising professionals and students in clinical psychology and psychiatry, and for everyone involved in the treatment, understanding and management of schizophrenia.



The Psychology and Education of Gifted Children Psychology Revivals

The Psychology and Education of Gifted Children  Psychology Revivals Author Philip E. Vernon
ISBN-10 9781317976301
Release 2013-12-16
Pages 226
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Originally published in 1977, this book looks at the problem of educating highly intelligent and gifted children, which it felt was of paramount importance to modern society. In the 1970s education increasingly focused on average pupils, and often made excellent provision for handicapped children, the authors felt it all the more important for teachers, parents and educationalists generally to be made aware of the special needs of the bright and talented, and how they could best be catered for. In this book Professor Vernon and his two co-authors discuss the provision of special facilities for the education of these children at the time, particularly with reference to the UK and Canada. The serious losses to society when the gifted and specially talented are ignored or repressed are pointed out and the merits and difficulties of alternative schemes are underlined. Detailed consideration is given to the psychological origins and nature of intelligence (both genetic and environmental) and of creativity and special talents (artistic and scientific), and also to available tests and other techniques for identifying exceptionally able children. The book was particularly intended to help teachers and educational administrators of the time, together with the parents of very bright children.



Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science

Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science Author Henri Cohen
ISBN-10 9780128097663
Release 2017-06-03
Pages 1276
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Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science, Second Edition presents the study of categories and the process of categorization as viewed through the lens of the founding disciplines of the cognitive sciences, and how the study of categorization has long been at the core of each of these disciplines. The literature on categorization reveals there is a plethora of definitions, theories, models and methods to apprehend this central object of study. The contributions in this handbook reflect this diversity. For example, the notion of category is not uniform across these contributions, and there are multiple definitions of the notion of concept. Furthermore, the study of category and categorization is approached differently within each discipline. For some authors, the categories themselves constitute the object of study, whereas for others, it is the process of categorization, and for others still, it is the technical manipulation of large chunks of information. Finally, yet another contrast has to do with the biological versus artificial nature of agents or categorizers. Defines notions of category and categorization Discusses the nature of categories: discrete, vague, or other Explores the modality effects on categories Bridges the category divide - calling attention to the bridges that have already been built, and avenues for further cross-fertilization between disciplines



How the Mind Works

How the Mind Works Author Steven Pinker
ISBN-10 9780393069730
Release 2009-06-22
Pages 672
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“A model of scientific writing: erudite, witty, and clear.” —New York Review of Books In this Pulitzer Prize finalist and national bestseller, one of the world's leading cognitive scientists tackles the workings of the human mind. What makes us rational—and why are we so often irrational? How do we see in three dimensions? What makes us happy, afraid, angry, disgusted, or sexually aroused? Why do we fall in love? And how do we grapple with the imponderables of morality, religion, and consciousness? ?How the Mind Works? synthesizes the most satisfying explanations of our mental life from cognitive science, evolutionary biology, and other fields to explain what the mind is, how it evolved, and how it allows us to see, think, feel, laugh, interact, enjoy the arts, and contemplate the mysteries of life. This new edition of Pinker's bold and buoyant classic is updated with a new foreword by the author.



Better Doctors Better Patients Better Decisions

Better Doctors  Better Patients  Better Decisions Author Gerd Gigerenzer
ISBN-10 0262298082
Release 2011-03-25
Pages 416
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Contrary to popular opinion, one of the main problems in providing uniformly excellent health care is not lack of money but lack of knowledge -- on the part of both doctors and patients. The studies in this book show that many doctors and most patients do not understand the available medical evidence. Both patients and doctors are "risk illiterate" -- frequently unable to tell the difference between actual risk and relative risk. Further, unwarranted disparity in treatment decisions is the rule rather than the exception in the United States and Europe. All of this contributes to much wasted spending in health care. The contributors to Better Doctors, Better Patients, Better Decisions investigate the roots of the problem, from the emphasis in medical research on technology and blockbuster drugs to the lack of education for both doctors and patients. They call for a new, more enlightened health care, with better medical education, journals that report study outcomes completely and transparently, and patients in control of their personal medical records, not afraid of statistics but able to use them to make informed decisions about their treatments.



Human Brain Function

Human Brain Function Author Karl J. Friston
ISBN-10 0080472958
Release 2004-01-26
Pages 1144
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This updated second edition provides the state of the art perspective of the theory, practice and application of modern non-invasive imaging methods employed in exploring the structural and functional architecture of the normal and diseased human brain. Like the successful first edition, it is written by members of the Functional Imaging Laboratory - the Wellcome Trust funded London lab that has contributed much to the development of brain imaging methods and their application in the last decade. This book should excite and intrigue anyone interested in the new facts about the brain gained from neuroimaging and also those who wish to participate in this area of brain science. * Represents an almost entirely new book from 1st edition, covering the rapid advances in methods and in understanding of how human brains are organized * Reviews major advances in cognition, perception, emotion and action * Introduces novel experimental designs and analytical techniques made possible with fMRI, including event-related designs and non-linear analysis



Mind Body World

Mind  Body  World Author Michael R. W. Dawson
ISBN-10 9781927356173
Release 2013-07-15
Pages 520
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Cognitive science arose in the 1950s when it became apparent that a number of disciplines, including psychology, computer science, linguistics, and philosophy, were fragmenting. Perhaps owing to the field's immediate origins in cybernetics, as well as to the foundational assumption that cognition is information processing, cognitive science initially seemed more unified than psychology. However, as a result of differing interpretations of the foundational assumption and dramatically divergent views of the meaning of the term information processing, three separate schools emerged: classical cognitive science, connectionist cognitive science, and embodied cognitive science. Examples, cases, and research findings taken from the wide range of phenomena studied by cognitive scientists effectively explain and explore the relationship among the three perspectives. Intended to introduce both graduate and senior undergraduate students to the foundations of cognitive science, Mind, Body, World addresses a number of questions currently being asked by those practicing in the field: What are the core assumptions of the three different schools? What are the relationships between these different sets of core assumptions? Is there only one cognitive science, or are there many different cognitive sciences? Giving the schools equal treatment and displaying a broad and deep understanding of the field, Dawson highlights the fundamental tensions and lines of fragmentation that exist among the schools and provides a refreshing and unifying framework for students of cognitive science.Michael R. W. Dawson is a professor of psychology at the University of Alberta. He is the author of numerous scientific papers as well as the books Understanding Cognitive Science (1998), Minds and Machines (2004), Connectionism: A Hands-on Approach (2005), and From Bricks to Brains: The Embodied Cognitive Science of LEGO Robots (2010).



The Myth of Mirror Neurons The Real Neuroscience of Communication and Cognition

The Myth of Mirror Neurons  The Real Neuroscience of Communication and Cognition Author Gregory Hickok
ISBN-10 9780393244168
Release 2014-08-18
Pages 288
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An essential reconsideration of one of the most far-reaching theories in modern neuroscience and psychology. In 1992, a group of neuroscientists from Parma, Italy, reported a new class of brain cells discovered in the motor cortex of the macaque monkey. These cells, later dubbed mirror neurons, responded equally well during the monkey’s own motor actions, such as grabbing an object, and while the monkey watched someone else perform similar motor actions. Researchers speculated that the neurons allowed the monkey to understand others by simulating their actions in its own brain. Mirror neurons soon jumped species and took human neuroscience and psychology by storm. In the late 1990s theorists showed how the cells provided an elegantly simple new way to explain the evolution of language, the development of human empathy, and the neural foundation of autism. In the years that followed, a stream of scientific studies implicated mirror neurons in everything from schizophrenia and drug abuse to sexual orientation and contagious yawning. In The Myth of Mirror Neurons, neuroscientist Gregory Hickok reexamines the mirror neuron story and finds that it is built on a tenuous foundation—a pair of codependent assumptions about mirror neuron activity and human understanding. Drawing on a broad range of observations from work on animal behavior, modern neuroimaging, neurological disorders, and more, Hickok argues that the foundational assumptions fall flat in light of the facts. He then explores alternative explanations of mirror neuron function while illuminating crucial questions about human cognition and brain function: Why do humans imitate so prodigiously? How different are the left and right hemispheres of the brain? Why do we have two visual systems? Do we need to be able to talk to understand speech? What’s going wrong in autism? Can humans read minds? The Myth of Mirror Neurons not only delivers an instructive tale about the course of scientific progress—from discovery to theory to revision—but also provides deep insights into the organization and function of the human brain and the nature of communication and cognition.



Cognitive Models of Psychological Time

Cognitive Models of Psychological Time Author Richard A. Block
ISBN-10 9781317784906
Release 2014-01-14
Pages 304
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This volume critically reviews cognitive models of psychological time in order to clarify and enrich what is known about the temporal aspects of cognitive processes. Concentrating on how adult humans experience, remember, and construct time, chapters survey recent work on such topics as mental representations of time, timing in movement sequences, time and timing in music, and the processing of temporal information. Also included are chapters with a broader perspective, such as the impacts of methodological choices, chronobiology and temporal experience, a comparative approach to time and order, and normal and abnormal temporal perspectives. The book makes current research and theories on the psychology of time more accessible to researchers in cognitive psychology.



An Integrative Model of Moral Deliberation

An Integrative Model of Moral Deliberation Author J. Jeffrey Tillman
ISBN-10 9781137490223
Release 2016-04-27
Pages 235
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An Integrative Model of Moral Deliberation maintains that current models of moral deliberation do not effectively deal with contemporary moral complexity because they are based on an inadequate theory of moral cognition. Drawing on research in neuroscience, evolutionary psychology, social theory, and dual process cognitive theory and on the work of William James, this book develops a theory of moral cognition which provides a major role for aesthetic sensibilities and upon this theory develops a robust model of moral deliberation. This model portrays moral deliberation as a back and forth movement between intuitive and analytic cognitions, which constructs narrative scenarios and then assesses and revises them according to aesthetic sensibilities.



Life

Life Author Paulo Coelho
ISBN-10 9780061374814
Release 2007-10-23
Pages 128
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This collection of selected quotes from Paulo Coelho's impressive body of work is a must–have item for fans of this celebrated and internationally bestselling author. A beautiful book with four–colour artwork by the renowned Norwegian artist Anne Kristin Hagesaether, it contains inspirational quotes from such beloved Coelho titles as Eleven Minutes, The Valkyries, The Devil And Miss Prym, The Zahir, and the mega bestseller The Alchemist. Whether read in one sitting or savoured gradually, this is a visually stunning and enlightening look into Coelho's extraordinary perspective on life –one that has won over millions of readers worldwide and made Coelho one of the top–selling authors in the world.



Principles of Synthetic Intelligence

Principles of Synthetic Intelligence Author Joscha Bach
ISBN-10 019970810X
Release 2009-04-06
Pages 400
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From the Foreword: "In this book Joscha Bach introduces Dietrich Dörner's PSI architecture and Joscha's implementation of the MicroPSI architecture. These architectures and their implementation have several lessons for other architectures and models. Most notably, the PSI architecture includes drives and thus directly addresses questions of emotional behavior. An architecture including drives helps clarify how emotions could arise. It also changes the way that the architecture works on a fundamental level, providing an architecture more suited for behaving autonomously in a simulated world. PSI includes three types of drives, physiological (e.g., hunger), social (i.e., affiliation needs), and cognitive (i.e., reduction of uncertainty and expression of competency). These drives routinely influence goal formation and knowledge selection and application. The resulting architecture generates new kinds of behaviors, including context dependent memories, socially motivated behavior, and internally motivated task switching. This architecture illustrates how emotions and physical drives can be included in an embodied cognitive architecture. The PSI architecture, while including perceptual, motor, learning, and cognitive processing components, also includes several novel knowledge representations: temporal structures, spatial memories, and several new information processing mechanisms and behaviors, including progress through types of knowledge sources when problem solving (the Rasmussen ladder), and knowledge-based hierarchical active vision. These mechanisms and representations suggest ways for making other architectures more realistic, more accurate, and easier to use. The architecture is demonstrated in the Island simulated environment. While it may look like a simple game, it was carefully designed to allow multiple tasks to be pursued and provides ways to satisfy the multiple drives. It would be useful in its own right for developing other architectures interested in multi-tasking, long-term learning, social interaction, embodied architectures, and related aspects of behavior that arise in a complex but tractable real-time environment. The resulting models are not presented as validated cognitive models, but as theoretical explorations in the space of architectures for generating behavior. The sweep of the architecture can thus be larger-it presents a new cognitive architecture attempting to provide a unified theory of cognition. It attempts to cover perhaps the largest number of phenomena to date. This is not a typical cognitive modeling work, but one that I believe that we can learn much from." --Frank E. Ritter, Series Editor Although computational models of cognition have become very popular, these models are relatively limited in their coverage of cognition-- they usually only emphasize problem solving and reasoning, or treat perception and motivation as isolated modules. The first architecture to cover cognition more broadly is PSI theory, developed by Dietrich Dorner. By integrating motivation and emotion with perception and reasoning, and including grounded neuro-symbolic representations, PSI contributes significantly to an integrated understanding of the mind. It provides a conceptual framework that highlights the relationships between perception and memory, language and mental representation, reasoning and motivation, emotion and cognition, autonomy and social behavior. It is, however, unfortunate that PSI's origin in psychology, its methodology, and its lack of documentation have limited its impact. The proposed book adapts Psi theory to cognitive science and artificial intelligence, by elucidating both its theoretical and technical frameworks, and clarifying its contribution to how we have come to understand cognition.



The Semantic Sphere 1

The Semantic Sphere 1 Author Pierre Lévy
ISBN-10 9781118601518
Release 2013-01-22
Pages 381
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The new digital media offers us an unprecedented memory capacity, an ubiquitous communication channel and a growing computing power. How can we exploit this medium to augment our personal and social cognitive processes at the service of human development? Combining a deep knowledge of humanities and social sciences as well as a real familiarity with computer science issues, this book explains the collaborative construction of a global hypercortex coordinated by a computable metalanguage. By recognizing fully the symbolic and social nature of human cognition, we could transform our current opaque global brain into a reflexive collective intelligence.