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Competing with the Soviets

Competing with the Soviets Author Audra J. Wolfe
ISBN-10 9781421407715
Release 2012-11-29
Pages 176
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For most of the second half of the twentieth century, the United States and its allies competed with a hostile Soviet Union in almost every way imaginable except open military engagement. The Cold War placed two opposite conceptions of the good society before the uncommitted world and history itself, and science figured prominently in the picture. Competing with the Soviets offers a short, accessible introduction to the special role that science and technology played in maintaining state power during the Cold War, from the atomic bomb to the Human Genome Project. The high-tech machinery of nuclear physics and the space race are at the center of this story, but Audra J. Wolfe also examines the surrogate battlefield of scientific achievement in such diverse fields as urban planning, biology, and economics; explains how defense-driven federal investments created vast laboratories and research programs; and shows how unfamiliar worries about national security and corrosive questions of loyalty crept into the supposedly objective scholarly enterprise. Based on the assumption that scientists are participants in the culture in which they live, Competing with the Soviets looks beyond the debate about whether military influence distorted science in the Cold War. Scientists’ choices and opportunities have always been shaped by the ideological assumptions, political mandates, and social mores of their times. The idea that American science ever operated in a free zone outside of politics is, Wolfe argues, itself a legacy of the ideological Cold War that held up American science, and scientists, as beacons of freedom in contrast to their peers in the Soviet Union. Arranged chronologically and thematically, the book highlights how ideas about the appropriate relationships among science, scientists, and the state changed over time. -- Michael D. Gordin, Princeton University

Science and Technology in World History

Science and Technology in World History Author James E. McClellan III
ISBN-10 9781421417769
Release 2015-11-26
Pages 552
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Science and Technology in World History has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Science and Technology in World History also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Science and Technology in World History book for free.

Sharing Knowledge Shaping Europe

Sharing Knowledge  Shaping Europe Author John Krige
ISBN-10 9780262034777
Release 2016-07-22
Pages 240
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How America used its technological leadership in the 1950s and the 1960s to foster European collaboration and curb nuclear proliferation, with varying degrees of success.

Science Studies during the Cold War and Beyond

Science Studies during the Cold War and Beyond Author Elena Aronova
ISBN-10 9781137559432
Release 2016-09-24
Pages 328
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This book examines the ways in which studies of science intertwined with Cold War politics, in both familiar and less familiar “battlefields” of the Cold War. Taken together, the essays highlight two primary roles for science studies as a new field of expertise institutionalized during the Cold War in different political regimes. Firstly, science studies played a political role in cultural Cold War in sustaining as well as destabilizing political ideologies in different political and national contexts. Secondly, it was an instrument of science policies in the early Cold War: the studies of science were promoted as the underpinning for the national policies framed with regard to both global geopolitics and local national priorities. As this book demonstrates, however, the wider we cast our net, extending our histories beyond the more researched developments in the Anglophone West, the more complex and ambivalent both the “science studies” and “the Cold War” become outside these more familiar spaces. The national stories collected in this book may appear incommensurable with what we know as science studies today, but these stories present a vantage point from which to pluralize some of the visions that were constitutive to the construction of “Cold War” as a juxtaposition of the liberal democracies in the “West” and the communist “East.”

Technology and the American Way of War Since 1945

Technology and the American Way of War Since 1945 Author Thomas G. Mahnken
ISBN-10 9780231517881
Release 2010-06-01
Pages 256
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No nation in recent history has placed greater emphasis on the role of technology in planning and waging war than the United States. In World War II the wholesale mobilization of American science and technology culminated in the detonation of the atomi

Sharing Knowledge Shaping Europe

Sharing Knowledge  Shaping Europe Author John Krige
ISBN-10 9780262034777
Release 2016-07-22
Pages 240
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How America used its technological leadership in the 1950s and the 1960s to foster European collaboration and curb nuclear proliferation, with varying degrees of success.

Seeking Meaning Seeking Justice in a Post Cold War World

Seeking Meaning  Seeking Justice in a Post Cold War World Author Judith Keene
ISBN-10 9789004361676
Release 2018-03-29
Pages 302
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Seeking Meaning, Seeking Justice in the Post-Cold War World, edited by Judith Keene and Elizabeth Rechniewski, addresses the diverse modes by which the Cold War is being re-assessed, with major focus on countries on the periphery of Cold War confrontation.

The Noble Hustle

The Noble Hustle Author Colson Whitehead
ISBN-10 9780345804334
Release 2015
Pages 234
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"In The Noble Hustle, Colson Whitehead does for participatory journalism what he did for zombie novels in Zone One: Take one literary genius, add $10,000 and a seat at the World Series of Poker, and stir. On one level, Colson Whitehead's The Noble Hustle is a familiar species of participatory journalism - a longtime neighborhood poker player, Colson was given a $10,000 stake and an assignment from the online ESPN offshoot Grantland to see how far he could get in the World Series of Poker. But since it stems from the astonishing mind of Colson Whitehead (MacArthur Award-endorsed!), the book is a brilliant, hilarious, weirdly profound and ultimately moving portrayal of - yes, it sounds overblown and ridiculous, but really! - the human condition"--

Engineers for Change

Engineers for Change Author Matthew Wisnioski
ISBN-10 9780262304269
Release 2012-10-19
Pages 304
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In the late 1960s an eclectic group of engineers joined the antiwar and civil rights activists of the time in agitating for change. The engineers were fighting to remake their profession, challenging their fellow engineers to embrace a more humane vision of technology. In Engineers for Change, Matthew Wisnioski offers an account of this conflict within engineering, linking it to deep-seated assumptions about technology and American life. The postwar period in America saw a near-utopian belief in technology's beneficence. Beginning in the mid-1960s, however, society--influenced by the antitechnology writings of such thinkers as Jacques Ellul and Lewis Mumford--began to view technology in a more negative light. Engineers themselves were seen as conformist organization men propping up the military-industrial complex. A dissident minority of engineers offered critiques of their profession that appropriated concepts from technology's critics. These dissidents were criticized in turn by conservatives who regarded them as countercultural Luddites. And yet, as Wisnioski shows, the radical minority spurred the professional elite to promote a new understanding of technology as a rapidly accelerating force that our institutions are ill-equipped to handle. The negative consequences of technology spring from its very nature--and not from engineering's failures. "Sociotechnologists" were recruited to help society adjust to its technology. Wisnioski argues that in responding to the challenges posed by critics within their profession, engineers in the 1960s helped shape our dominant contemporary understanding of technological change as the driver of history.

Mandarins of the Future

Mandarins of the Future Author Nils Gilman
ISBN-10 0801886333
Release 2007-02-15
Pages 344
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Because it provided the dominant framework for the "development" of poor, postcolonial countries, modernization theory ranks among the most important constructs of twentieth-century social science. In Mandarins of the Future, Nils Gilman offers the first intellectual history of a movement that has had far-reaching, and often unintended, consequences.

The Rightful Place of Science Politics

The Rightful Place of Science  Politics Author Michael Crow
ISBN-10 9780615886701
Release 2013-11-19
Pages 126
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The inaugural volume of The Rightful Place of Science book series gathers a collection of thinkers who insist there is much to gain from trying to comprehend the politics of technological change and, its close cousin, the practice of science and scientific research. The authors are part of an intellectual and ethical movement to view science and technology neither as objects of worship nor mere scholarly analysis. They wish to improve on the politics of science and to judge their reforms by a pragmatic measure: the quality of the outcomes of science and technology. To these authors, how we talk about technological change matters, because policies ultimately express deeper vernacular yearnings – for democracy, equity and of course utility. In these essays, hard questions get asked, new perspectives are presented, and contrarian understandings abound.

No One s World

No One s World Author Charles Kupchan
ISBN-10 9780199739394
Release 2012-03
Pages 258
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Argues that as China, India, Brazil and other emerging powers rise, the founding ideals of the West will not continue to spread, and that in the near future, Europe and the United States will need to fashion a new consensus with these powers on issues of legitimacy, sovereignty and governance.

Scientists and the Development of Nuclear Weapons

Scientists and the Development of Nuclear Weapons Author Lawrence Badash
ISBN-10 1573925381
Release 1995-01-01
Pages 129
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Here the development of nuclear weapons is viewed from the perspective of the scientist. From the discovery of fission to the Manhattan Project, to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the arms race and early steps toward arms control, this book provides a context for developments in the period 1939-1963. Lawrence Badash traces the course of this tumultuous and apocalyptic period with scientific clarity and sympathetic understanding.

From Engineering Science to Big Science

From Engineering Science to Big Science Author Pamela Etter Mack
ISBN-10 UIUC:30112004821507
Release 1998
Pages 427
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Within a short time of the first flight of the Wright brothers in 1903, the United States government recognized the importance of fostering development in the new and critical field of aeronautics. NASA's predecessor, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), was chartered by Congress in 1915 specifically "to supervise and direct the scientific study of the problems of flight, with a view to their practical solution". This became an increasingly important government research and development (R & D) activity for the next half century. The results of the NACA's research appeared in more than 16 000 research reports of one type or another, and many are still being used today. Since the creation of NASA in 1958, this critical aerospace R & D function has continued. "From engineering science to big science" consists of essays on individual aerospace R & D projects throughout the history of both the NACA and NASA. These R & D projects are unified by the fact that each received the coveted Robert J. Collier Trophy for their numerous advances in the performance, efficiency, or safety of flying vehicles. Throughout the life of the NACA and NASA the agency or its personnel have received awards, i.e., the NACA Engine Cowling in 1929, in addition to four awards by 1954, and fourteen awards for R & D since the NASA establishment.

The Tragedy of Great Power Politics Updated Edition

The Tragedy of Great Power Politics  Updated Edition Author John J. Mearsheimer
ISBN-10 0393076245
Release 2003-01-17
Pages 576
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"A superb book.…Mearsheimer has made a significant contribution to our understanding of the behavior of great powers."—Barry R. Posen, The National Interest The updated edition of this classic treatise on the behavior of great powers takes a penetrating look at the question likely to dominate international relations in the twenty-first century: Can China rise peacefully? In clear, eloquent prose, John Mearsheimer explains why the answer is no: a rising China will seek to dominate Asia, while the United States, determined to remain the world's sole regional hegemon, will go to great lengths to prevent that from happening. The tragedy of great power politics is inescapable.

The United States and the Origins of the Cold War 1941 1947

The United States and the Origins of the Cold War  1941 1947 Author John Lewis Gaddis
ISBN-10 023112239X
Release 1972
Pages 396
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This book moves beyond the focus on economic considerations that was central to the work of New Left historians, examining the many other forces -- domestic politics, bureaucratic inertia, quirks of personality, and perceptions of Soviet intentions -- that influenced key decision makers in Washington.

Innovation A Very Short Introduction

Innovation  A Very Short Introduction Author Mark Dodgson
ISBN-10 9780191614255
Release 2010-03-25
Pages 168
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What is innovation? How is innovation used in business? How can we use it to succeed? Innovation - the ways ideas are made valuable - makes an important contribution to economic and social development, and is an increasingly topical issue. Not so long ago, there were no information technologies, commercial airlines, or television companies. Our parents were born into a world very different to today's, where television had yet to be invented, and there was no penicillin or frozen food. When our grandparents were born there were no internal combustion engines, aeroplanes, cinemas, or radios. In the last 150 years our world has been transformed - largely in part due to innovation. This Very Short Introduction looks at what innovation is and why it affects us so profoundly. It examines how it occurs, who stimulates it, how it is pursued, and what its outcomes are, both positive and negative. Innovation is hugely challenging and failure is common, yet it is essential to our social and economic progress. Mark Dodgson and David Gann consider the extent to which our understanding of innovation developed over the past century and how it might be used to interpret the global economy we all face in the future. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.