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Competition and Variation in Natural Languages

Competition and Variation in Natural Languages Author Mengistu Amberber
ISBN-10 0080459773
Release 2005-06-30
Pages 374
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This volume combines different perspectives on case-marking: (1) typological and descriptive approaches of various types and instances of case-marking in the languages of the world as well as comparison with languages that express similar types of relations without morphological case-marking; (2) formal analyses in different theoretical frameworks of the syntactic, semantic, and morphological properties of case-marking; (3) a historical approach of case-marking; (4) a psycholinguistic approach of case-marking. Although there are a number of publications on case related issues, there is no volume such as the present one, which exclusively looks at case marking, competition and variation from a cross-linguistic perspective and within the context of different contemporary theoretical approaches to the study of language. In addition to chapters with broad conceptual orientation, the volume offers detailed empirical studies of case in a number of diverse languages including: Amharic, Basque, Dutch, Hindi, Japanese, Kuuk Thaayorre, Malagasy and Yurakaré. The volume will be of interest to researchers and advanced students in the cognitive sciences, general linguistics, typology, historical linguistics, formal linguistics, and psycholinguistics. The book will interest scholars working within the context of formal syntactic and semantic theories as it provides insight into the properties of case from a cross-linguistic perspective. The book also will be of interest to cognitive scientists interested in the relationship between meaning and grammar, in particular, and the human mind's capacity in the mapping of meaning onto grammar, in general.



Handbook of Cognitive Science

Handbook of Cognitive Science Author Paco Calvo
ISBN-10 9780080466163
Release 2008
Pages 476
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The Handbook of Cognitive Science provides an overview of recent developments in cognition research, relying upon non-classical approaches. Cognition is explained as the continuous interplay between brain, body, and environment, without relying on classical notions of computations and representation to explain cognition. The handbook serves as a valuable companion for readers interested in foundational aspects of cognitive science, and neuroscience and the philosophy of mind. The handbook begins with an introduction to embodied cognitive science, and then breaks up the chapters into separate sections on conceptual issues, formal approaches, embodiment in perception and action, embodiment from an artificial perspective, embodied meaning, and emotion and consciousness. Contributors to the book represent research overviews from around the globe including the US, UK, Spain, Germany, Switzerland, France, Sweden, and the Netherlands.



The Oxford Handbook of Ergativity

The Oxford Handbook of Ergativity Author Jessica Coon
ISBN-10 9780198739371
Release 2017-06-15
Pages 960
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This volume offers theoretical and descriptive perspectives on the issues pertaining to ergativity, a grammatical patterning whereby direct objects are in some way treated like intransitive subjects, to the exclusion of transitive subjects. This pattern differs markedly from nominative/accusative marking whereby transitive and intransitive subjects are treated as one grammatical class, to the exclusion of direct objects. While ergativity is sometimes referred to as a typological characteristic of languages, research on the phenomenon has shown that languages do not fall clearly into one category or the other and that ergative characteristics are not consistent across languages. Chapters in this volume look at approaches to ergativity within generative, typological, and functional paradigms, as well as approaches to the core morphosyntactic building blocks of an ergative construction; related constructions such as the anti-passive; related properties such as split ergativity and word order; and extensions and permutations of ergativity, including nominalizations and voice systems. The volume also includes results from experimental investigations of ergativity, a relatively new area of research. A wide variety of languages are represented, both in the theoretical chapters and in the 16 case studies that are more descriptive in nature, attesting to both the pervasiveness and diversity of ergative patterns.



Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics

Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105122458370
Release 2007
Pages 197
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Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Annual Review of South Asian Languages and Linguistics book for free.



Differential Subject Marking

Differential Subject Marking Author Helen de Hoop
ISBN-10 1402064977
Release 2007-12-04
Pages 312
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Not all sentences encode their subjects in the same way. Some languages overtly mark some subjects depending on certain features of the subject argument or the sentence in which the subject figures. This is known as Differential Subject Marking (DSM). Containing illuminating discussions of DSM from languages all over the world, this book shows that DSM is often the result of interactions between conflicting constraints on language use.



Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science

Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science Author Henri Cohen
ISBN-10 9780128097663
Release 2017-06-03
Pages 1276
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Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science, Second Edition presents the study of categories and the process of categorization as viewed through the lens of the founding disciplines of the cognitive sciences, and how the study of categorization has long been at the core of each of these disciplines. The literature on categorization reveals there is a plethora of definitions, theories, models and methods to apprehend this central object of study. The contributions in this handbook reflect this diversity. For example, the notion of category is not uniform across these contributions, and there are multiple definitions of the notion of concept. Furthermore, the study of category and categorization is approached differently within each discipline. For some authors, the categories themselves constitute the object of study, whereas for others, it is the process of categorization, and for others still, it is the technical manipulation of large chunks of information. Finally, yet another contrast has to do with the biological versus artificial nature of agents or categorizers. Defines notions of category and categorization Discusses the nature of categories: discrete, vague, or other Explores the modality effects on categories Bridges the category divide - calling attention to the bridges that have already been built, and avenues for further cross-fertilization between disciplines



The Selfish Gene

The Selfish Gene Author Richard Dawkins
ISBN-10 0192860925
Release 1989
Pages 352
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An ethologist shows man to be a gene machine whose world is one of savage competition and deceit



The Evolution of Case Grammar

The Evolution of Case Grammar Author Remi Van Trijp
ISBN-10 3944675851
Release 2016-06-10
Pages 252
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There are few linguistic phenomena that have seduced linguists so skillfully as grammatical case has done. Ever since Panini(4th Century BCE), case has claimed a central role in linguistic theory and continues to do so today. However, despite centuries worth of research, case has yet to reveal its most important secrets. This book offers breakthrough explanations for the understanding of case through agent-based experiments in cultural language evolution. The experiments demonstrate that case systems may emerge because they have a selective advantage for communication: they reduce the cognitive effort that listeners need for semantic interpretation, while at the same time limiting the cognitive resources required for doing so.



Language in Mind

Language in Mind Author Dedre Gentner
ISBN-10 0262571633
Release 2003
Pages 528
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Contemporary investigations of the Whorfian idea that language influences how we perceive and understand the world.



Bayesian Natural Language Semantics and Pragmatics

Bayesian Natural Language Semantics and Pragmatics Author Henk Zeevat
ISBN-10 9783319170640
Release 2015-06-19
Pages 246
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The contributions in this volume focus on the Bayesian interpretation of natural languages, which is widely used in areas of artificial intelligence, cognitive science, and computational linguistics. This is the first volume to take up topics in Bayesian Natural Language Interpretation and make proposals based on information theory, probability theory, and related fields. The methodologies offered here extend to the target semantic and pragmatic analyses of computational natural language interpretation. Bayesian approaches to natural language semantics and pragmatics are based on methods from signal processing and the causal Bayesian models pioneered by especially Pearl. In signal processing, the Bayesian method finds the most probable interpretation by finding the one that maximizes the product of the prior probability and the likelihood of the interpretation. It thus stresses the importance of a production model for interpretation as in Grice’s contributions to pragmatics or in interpretation by abduction.



The Origin of Concepts

The Origin of Concepts Author Susan Carey
ISBN-10 9780199710096
Release 2009-05-06
Pages 608
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New in paperback-- A transformative book on the way we think about the nature of concepts and the relations between language and thought.



Conflicts in Interpretation

Conflicts in Interpretation Author Petra Hendriks
ISBN-10 1845534379
Release 2010
Pages 227
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Conflicts in Interpretation applies novel methods of constraint interaction, derived from connectionist theories and implemented in linguistics within the framework of Optimality Theory, to core semantic and pragmatic issues such as polysemy, negation, (in) definiteness, focus, anaphora, and rhetorical structure. It explores the hypothesis that a natural language grammar is a set of potentially conflicting constraints on forms and meanings. Moreover, it hypothesizes that competent language users not only optimize from an input form to the optimal output meaning for this form, or vice versa, but also consider the opposite direction of optimization, thus taking into account the speaker as a hearer and taking into account the hearer as a speaker. The book aims to show that such a bidirectional constraint-based grammar sheds new light on the relation between form and meaning, within a sentence as well as across sentence boundaries, within a single language as well as across languages, and within competent adult language users as well as during language development. An important dimension of the book is the structured investigation of issues at the interface of semantics with syntax and pragmatics, such as the effects of distinguishing between speaker's perspective and hearer's perspective in comprehension and production, stable and instable patterns of form and meaning across languages, and the development of a coherent pattern of form and meaning in children. Conflicts in Interpretation will be of interest to any researcher or advanced student in linguistics, cognitive science, language typology, or psycholinguistics who is interested in the capacity of our human mind to map meaning onto form, and form onto meaning.



Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing

Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing Author Christopher D. Manning
ISBN-10 0262133601
Release 1999
Pages 680
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An introduction to statistical natural language processing (NLP). The text contains the theory and algorithms needed for building NLP tools. Topics covered include: mathematical and linguistic foundations; statistical methods; collocation finding; word sense disambiguation; and probalistic parsing.



Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science

Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science Author Keith Stenning
ISBN-10 9780262293532
Release 2012-01-13
Pages 422
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In Human Reasoning and Cognitive Science, Keith Stenning and Michiel van Lambalgen--a cognitive scientist and a logician--argue for the indispensability of modern mathematical logic to the study of human reasoning. Logic and cognition were once closely connected, they write, but were "divorced" in the past century; the psychology of deduction went from being central to the cognitive revolution to being the subject of widespread skepticism about whether human reasoning really happens outside the academy. Stenning and van Lambalgen argue that logic and reasoning have been separated because of a series of unwarranted assumptions about logic. Stenning and van Lambalgen contend that psychology cannot ignore processes of interpretation in which people, wittingly or unwittingly, frame problems for subsequent reasoning. The authors employ a neurally implementable defeasible logic for modeling part of this framing process, and show how it can be used to guide the design of experiments and interpret results.



Knowledge and Learning in Natural Language

Knowledge and Learning in Natural Language Author Charles D. Yang
ISBN-10 019925415X
Release 2002
Pages 173
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The model is makes quantitative and cross-linguistic predictions about child language. It may also be deployed as a predictive model of language change which, when the evidence is available, could explain why grammars change in a particular direction at a particular time.



Applied psycholinguistics

Applied psycholinguistics Author
ISBN-10 UCAL:B4927783
Release 2004
Pages
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Applied psycholinguistics has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Applied psycholinguistics also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Applied psycholinguistics book for free.



Radical Embodied Cognitive Science

Radical Embodied Cognitive Science Author Anthony Chemero
ISBN-10 9780262258081
Release 2011-08-19
Pages 272
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While philosophers of mind have been arguing over the status of mental representations in cognitive science, cognitive scientists have been quietly engaged in studying perception, action, and cognition without explaining them in terms of mental representation. In this book, Anthony Chemero describes this nonrepresentational approach (which he terms radical embodied cognitive science), puts it in historical and conceptual context, and applies it to traditional problems in the philosophy of mind. Radical embodied cognitive science is a direct descendant of the American naturalist psychology of William James and John Dewey, and follows them in viewing perception and cognition to be understandable only in terms of action in the environment. Chemero argues that cognition should be described in terms of agent-environment dynamics rather than in terms of computation and representation. After outlining this orientation to cognition, Chemero proposes a methodology: dynamical systems theory, which would explain things dynamically and without reference to representation. He also advances a background theory: Gibsonian ecological psychology, "shored up" and clarified. Chemero then looks at some traditional philosophical problems (reductionism, epistemological skepticism, metaphysical realism, consciousness) through the lens of radical embodied cognitive science and concludes that the comparative ease with which it resolves these problems, combined with its empirical promise, makes this approach to cognitive science a rewarding one. "Jerry Fodor is my favorite philosopher," Chemero writes in his preface, adding, "I think that Jerry Fodor is wrong about nearly everything." With this book, Chemero explains nonrepresentational, dynamical, ecological cognitive science as clearly and as rigorously as Jerry Fodor explained computational cognitive science in his classic work The Language of Thought.