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Computer Design of Diffractive Optics

Computer Design of Diffractive Optics Author V A Soifer
ISBN-10 9780857093745
Release 2012-11-19
Pages 896
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Diffractive optics involves the manipulation of light using diffractive optical elements (DOEs). DOEs are being widely applied in such areas as telecommunications, electronics, laser technologies and biomedical engineering. Computer design of diffractive optics provides an authoritative guide to the principles and applications of computer-designed diffractive optics. The theoretical aspects underpinning diffractive optics are initially explored, including the main equations in diffraction theory and diffractive optical transformations. Application of electromagnetic field theory for calculating diffractive gratings and related methods in micro-optics are discussed, as is analysis of transverse modes of laser radiation and the formation of self-replicating multimode laser beams. Key applications of DOEs reviewed include geometrical optics approximation, scalar approximation and optical manipulation of micro objects, with additional consideration of multi-order DOEs and synthesis of DOEs on polycrystalline diamond films. With its distinguished editor and respected team of expert contributors, Computer design of diffractive optics is a comprehensive reference tool for professionals and academics working in the field of optical engineering and photonics. Explores the theoretical aspects underpinning diffractive optics Discusses key applications of diffractive optical elements A comprehensive reference for professionals and academics in optical engineering and photonics



Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Photonic Applications

Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene for Photonic Applications Author Shinji Yamashita
ISBN-10 9780857098627
Release 2013-08-31
Pages 416
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The optical properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene make them potentially suitable for a variety of photonic applications. Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications explores the properties of these exciting materials and their use across a variety of applications. Part one introduces the fundamental optical properties of carbon nanotubes and graphene before exploring how carbon nanotubes and graphene are synthesised. A further chapter focusses on nonlinearity enhancement and novel preparation approaches for carbon nanotube and graphene photonic devices. Chapters in part two discuss carbon nanotubes and graphene for laser applications and highlight optical gain and lasing in carbon nanotubes, carbon nanotube and graphene-based fiber lasers, carbon-nanotube-based bulk solid-state lasers, electromagnetic nonlinearities in graphene, and carbon nanotube-based nonlinear photonic devices. Finally, part three focusses on carbon-based optoelectronics and includes chapters on carbon nanotube solar cells, a carbon nanotube-based optical platform for biomolecular detection, hybrid carbon nanotube-liquid crystal nanophotonic devices, and quantum light sources based on individual carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications is a technical resource for materials scientists, electrical engineers working in the photonics and optoelectronics industry and academics and researchers interested in the field. Covers the properties and fabrication of carbon nanotubes and graphene for photonic applications Considers the uses of carbon nanotubes and graphene for laser applications Explores numerous carbon-based light emitters and detectors



Subsea Optics and Imaging

Subsea Optics and Imaging Author John Watson
ISBN-10 9780857093523
Release 2013-10-31
Pages 596
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The use of optical methodology, instrumentation and photonics devices for imaging, vision and optical sensing is of increasing importance in understanding our marine environment. Subsea optics can make an important contribution to the protection and sustainable management of ocean resources and contribute to monitoring the response of marine systems to climate change. This important book provides an authoritative review of key principles, technologies and their applications. The book is divided into three parts. The first part provides a general introduction to the key concepts in subsea optics and imaging, imaging technologies and the development of ocean optics and colour analysis. Part two reviews the use of subsea optics in environmental analysis. An introduction to the concepts of underwater light fields is followed by an overview of coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM) and an assessment of nutrients in the water column. This section concludes with discussions of the properties of subsea bioluminescence, harmful algal blooms and their impact and finally an outline of optical techniques for studying suspended sediments, turbulence and mixing in the marine environment. Part three reviews subsea optical systems technologies. A general overview of imaging and visualisation using conventional photography and video leads onto advanced techniques like digital holography, laser line-scanning and range-gated imaging as well as their use in controlled observation platforms or global observation networks. This section also outlines techniques like Raman spectroscopy, hyperspectral sensing and imaging, laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), optical fibre sensing and LIDAR systems. Finally, a chapter on fluorescence methodologies brings the volume to a close. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, Subsea optics and imaging is a standard reference for those researching, developing and using subsea optical technologies as well as environmental scientists and agencies concerned with monitoring the marine environment. Provides an authoritative review of key principles, technologies and their applications Outlines the key concepts in subsea optics and imaging, imaging technologies and the development of ocean optics and colour analysis Reviews the properties of subsea bioluminescence, harmful algal blooms and their impact



Metallic Films for Electronic Optical and Magnetic Applications

Metallic Films for Electronic  Optical and Magnetic Applications Author Katayun Barmak
ISBN-10 9780857096296
Release 2014-02-13
Pages 656
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Metallic films play an important role in modern technologies such as integrated circuits, information storage, displays, sensors, and coatings. Metallic Films for Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Applications reviews the structure, processing and properties of metallic films. Part one explores the structure of metallic films using characterization methods such as x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. This part also encompasses the processing of metallic films, including structure formation during deposition and post-deposition reactions and phase transformations. Chapters in part two focus on the properties of metallic films, including mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical, and thermal properties. Metallic Films for Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Applications is a technical resource for electronics components manufacturers, scientists, and engineers working in the semiconductor industry, product developers of sensors, displays, and other optoelectronic devices, and academics working in the field. Explores the structure of metallic films using characterization methods such as x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy Discusses processing of metallic films, including structure formation during deposition and post-deposition reactions and phase transformations Focuses on the properties of metallic films, including mechanical, electrical, magnetic, optical, and thermal properties



Robust Design of Microelectronics Assemblies Against Mechanical Shock Temperature and Moisture

Robust Design of Microelectronics Assemblies Against Mechanical Shock  Temperature and Moisture Author E-H Wong
ISBN-10 9780857099112
Release 2015-05-23
Pages 482
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Robust Design of Microelectronics Assemblies Against Mechanical Shock, Temperature and Moisture discusses how the reliability of packaging components is a prime concern to electronics manufacturers. The text presents a thorough review of this important field of research, providing users with a practical guide that discusses theoretical aspects, experimental results, and modeling techniques. The authors use their extensive experience to produce detailed chapters covering temperature, moisture, and mechanical shock induced failure, adhesive interconnects, and viscoelasticity. Useful program files and macros are also included. Discusses how the reliability of packaging components is a prime concern to electronics manufacturers Presents a thorough review of this important field of research, providing users with a practical guide that discusses theoretical aspects, experimental results, and modeling techniques Includes program files and macros for additional study



Modeling Characterization and Production of Nanomaterials

Modeling  Characterization and Production of Nanomaterials Author V Tewary
ISBN-10 9781782422358
Release 2015-03-17
Pages 554
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Nano-scale materials have unique electronic, optical, and chemical properties which make them attractive for a new generation of devices. Part one of Modeling, Characterization, and Production of Nanomaterials: Electronics, Photonics and Energy Applications covers modeling techniques incorporating quantum mechanical effects to simulate nanomaterials and devices, such as multiscale modeling and density functional theory. Part two describes the characterization of nanomaterials using diffraction techniques and Raman spectroscopy. Part three looks at the structure and properties of nanomaterials, including their optical properties and atomic behaviour. Part four explores nanofabrication and nanodevices, including the growth of graphene, GaN-based nanorod heterostructures and colloidal quantum dots for applications in nanophotonics and metallic nanoparticles for catalysis applications. Comprehensive coverage of the close connection between modeling and experimental methods for studying a wide range of nanomaterials and nanostructures Focus on practical applications and industry needs, supported by a solid outlining of theoretical background Draws on the expertise of leading researchers in the field of nanomaterials from around the world



Nanolithography

Nanolithography Author M Feldman
ISBN-10 9780857098757
Release 2014-02-13
Pages 592
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Integrated circuits, and devices fabricated using the techniques developed for integrated circuits, have steadily gotten smaller, more complex, and more powerful. The rate of shrinking is astonishing – some components are now just a few dozen atoms wide. This book attempts to answer the questions, “What comes next? and “How do we get there? Nanolithography outlines the present state of the art in lithographic techniques, including optical projection in both deep and extreme ultraviolet, electron and ion beams, and imprinting. Special attention is paid to related issues, such as the resists used in lithography, the masks (or lack thereof), the metrology needed for nano-features, modeling, and the limitations caused by feature edge roughness. In addition emerging technologies are described, including the directed assembly of wafer features, nanostructures and devices, nano-photonics, and nano-fluidics. This book is intended as a guide to the researcher new to this field, reading related journals or facing the complexities of a technical conference. Its goal is to give enough background information to enable such a researcher to understand, and appreciate, new developments in nanolithography, and to go on to make advances of his/her own. Outlines the current state of the art in alternative nanolithography technologies in order to cope with the future reduction in size of semiconductor chips to nanoscale dimensions Covers lithographic techniques, including optical projection, extreme ultraviolet (EUV), nanoimprint, electron beam and ion beam lithography Describes the emerging applications of nanolithography in nanoelectronics, nanophotonics and microfluidics



Digital Image Processing

Digital Image Processing Author J M Blackledge
ISBN-10 9780857099464
Release 2005-11-30
Pages 824
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This authoritative text (the second part of a complete MSc course) provides mathematical methods required to describe images, image formation and different imaging systems, coupled with the principle techniques used for processing digital images. It is based on a course for postgraduates reading physics, electronic engineering, telecommunications engineering, information technology and computer science. This book relates the methods of processing and interpreting digital images to the ‘physics’ of imaging systems. Case studies reinforce the methods discussed, with examples of current research themes. Provides mathematical methods required to describe images, image formation and different imaging systems Outlines the principle techniques used for processing digital images Relates the methods of processing and interpreting digital images to the ‘physics’ of imaging systems



Optofluidics Sensors and Actuators in Microstructured Optical Fibres

Optofluidics  Sensors and Actuators in Microstructured Optical Fibres Author Stavros Pissadakis
ISBN-10 178242329X
Release 2015-05-20
Pages 312
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Combining the positive characteristics of microfluidics and optics, microstructured optical fibres (MOFs) have revolutionized the field of optoelectronics. Tailored guiding, diffractive structures and photonic band-gap effects are used to produce fibres with highly specialised, complex structures, facilitating the development of novel kinds of optical fibre sensors and actuators. Part One outlines the key materials and fabrication techniques used for microstructured optical fibres. Microfluidics and heat flows, MOF-based metamaterials, novel and liquid crystal infiltrated photonic crystal fibre (PCF) designs, MOFs filled with carbon nanotubes and melting of functional inorganic glasses inside PCFs are all reviewed. Part Two then goes on to investigate sensing and optofluidic applications, with the use of MOFs in structural sensing, sensing units and mechanical sensing explored in detail. PCF's for switching applications are then discussed before the book concludes by reviewing MOFs for specific nucleic acid detection and resonant bio- and chemical sensing. Provides users with the necessary knowledge to successfully design and implement microstructured optical fibres for a broad range of uses Outlines techniques for developing both traditional and novel types of optical fibre Highlights the adaptability of microstructured optical fibres achieved via the use of optofluidics, sensors and actuators, by presenting a diverse selection of applications



Materials Characterization Using Nondestructive Evaluation NDE Methods

Materials Characterization Using Nondestructive Evaluation  NDE  Methods Author Gerhard Huebschen
ISBN-10 9780081000571
Release 2016-03-23
Pages 320
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Materials Characterization Using Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Methods discusses NDT methods and how they are highly desirable for both long-term monitoring and short-term assessment of materials, providing crucial early warning that the fatigue life of a material has elapsed, thus helping to prevent service failures. Materials Characterization Using Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Methods gives an overview of established and new NDT techniques for the characterization of materials, with a focus on materials used in the automotive, aerospace, power plants, and infrastructure construction industries. Each chapter focuses on a different NDT technique and indicates the potential of the method by selected examples of applications. Methods covered include scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray microtomography and diffraction, ultrasonic, electromagnetic, microwave, and hybrid techniques. The authors review both the determination of microstructure properties, including phase content and grain size, and the determination of mechanical properties, such as hardness, toughness, yield strength, texture, and residual stress. Gives an overview of established and new NDT techniques, including scanning and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray microtomography and diffraction, ultrasonic, electromagnetic, microwave, and hybrid techniques Reviews the determination of microstructural and mechanical properties Focuses on materials used in the automotive, aerospace, power plants, and infrastructure construction industries Serves as a highly desirable resource for both long-term monitoring and short-term assessment of materials



Smart Fibres Fabrics and Clothing

Smart Fibres  Fabrics and Clothing Author Xiaoming Tao
ISBN-10 9781855737600
Release 2001-10-04
Pages 336
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This important book provides a guide to the fundamentals and latest developments in smart technology for textiles and clothing. The contributors represent a distinguished international panel of experts and the book covers many aspects of cutting edge research and development. Smart fibres, fabrics and clothing starts with a review of the background to smart technology and goes on to cover a wide range of the material science and fibre science aspects of the technology including: Electrically active polymeric materials and the applications of nonionic polymer gel and elastomers for artificial muscles; Thermally sensitive fibres and fabrics; Cross-linked polyol fibrous substrates stimuli-responsive interpenetrating polymer network hydrogel; Permeation control through stimuli-responsive polymer membranes; optical fibre sensors, hollow fibre membranes for gas separation; integrating fibre-formed components into textile structures; Wearable electronic and photonic technologies; Adaptive and responsive textile structures (ARTS); Biomedical applications including the applications of scaffolds in tissue engineering It is essential reading for academics in textile and materials science departments, researchers, designers and engineers in the textiles and clothing product design field. Product managers and senior executives within textile and clothing manufacturing will also find the latest insights into technological developments in the field valuable and fascinating.



Plasma Technologies for Textiles

Plasma Technologies for Textiles Author Roshan Shishoo
ISBN-10 9781845692575
Release 2007-02-21
Pages 360
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Plasma technologies present an environmentally-friendly and versatile way of treating textile materials in order to enhance a variety of properties such as wettability, liquid repellency, dyeability and coating adhesion. Recent advances made in commercially viable plasma systems have greatly increased the potential of using plasma technology in industrial textile finishing. This pioneering book provides an essential guide to both the technology and science related to plasmas and its practical applications in the textile industry. The first part of the book discusses the science and technology behind plasmas. Chapters give detailed and comprehensive descriptions on the characteristics of plasmas and methods of control and treatment in the processing of textiles. Both low pressure cold plasma and atmospheric pressure cold plasma processes are described as well as the diagnosis and control of plasma parameters in plasma generating reactors. A chapter is devoted to the use of plasma technology to achieve nanoscale treatment of textile surfaces. The second part of the book concentrates on specific applications of plasma technologies. Chapters cover treatments for water and oil repellency of textiles, engineering of biomedical textiles and woollen finishing techniques through the use of plasma technologies. Further chapters cover the modification of fibres for use in composites and the potential use of plasma technologies for the finishing of fabrics made of man made fibres. The final chapter in the book gives a comprehensive analysis of the surface chemical and physical characterisation of plasma treated fabrics. Written by a distinguished international team of experts, Plasma technologies for textiles is an invaluable reference for researchers, scientists and technologists alike. Summarises both the science and technology of plasma processing, and its practical applications Discusses how plasma technology improves textile properties such as wettability and liquid repelling An invaluable reference for researchers, scientists and technologists



Methods for computer design of diffractive optical elements

Methods for computer design of diffractive optical elements Author Viktor Aleksandrovich Soĭfer
ISBN-10 0471095338
Release 2002
Pages 765
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The first inclusive book on the cutting-edge field of modern optics and its applications For the first time, all the major aspects of designing planar DOEs are covered in one book, comprised of original methods developed by experts at the Russian Academy of Sciences' Image Processing Systems Institute. The breadth of Methods for Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements covers DOE production, beginning from the design techniques and the software, to the fabrication technology, experimental studies, and testing of DOEs, including all major DOE application fields and DOE types. The contributors also detail the three key approaches to designing phase DOEs: a geometric optics (ray-tracing) method, the scalar diffraction (Kirchhoff) method, and the rigorous design based on electromagnetic theory. Methods for Computer Design of Diffractive Optical Elements is an estimable reference for experts in the aerospace industry, research and development institutes, the automobile industry, as well as students and university professors.



The Cold Spray Materials Deposition Process

The Cold Spray Materials Deposition Process Author V K Champagne
ISBN-10 9781845693787
Release 2007-09-21
Pages 376
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The cold spray process produces dense, low oxide coatings which can be used in such diverse applications as corrosion control and metals repair. It has emerged as an important alternative to thermal spray coating techniques in certain areas. This pioneering book reviews both the fundamentals of the process and how it can best be applied in practice. The first part of the book discusses the development of the process together with its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with thermal spray coating techniques. Part two reviews key process parameters such as powders, nozzle design, particle temperature and velocity, and particle/substrate interaction. It also describes portable and stationary cold spray systems. The final part of the book discusses how the cold spray process can be applied in such areas as improved wear, corrosion protection, electromagnetic interference shielding and repair of damaged components. The cold spray materials deposition process is a standard reference on this important process and its industrial applications. Examines the fundamentals of the cold spraying process Assesses how the technique can best be applied in practice Describes portable and stationary cold spray systems



Materials for Energy Conversion Devices

Materials for Energy Conversion Devices Author C. C. Sorrell
ISBN-10 1855739321
Release 2005
Pages 416
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This book opens with a detailed exploration of the fields of solar energy and thermoelectric conversion. Beginning with chapters on photoelectrochemical devices, properties and uses of photosensitive materials and solar cells, it then moves its focus on thermoelectricity, starting with an introduction to the subject and then explaining the field of thermoelectricity measurement. The book goes on to discuss the field of chemical and nuclear energy conversion and monitoring, including chapters on fast ionic conductors, oxygen ionic conductors and high-level radioactive waste and electrochemical gas sensors for emission control. This innovative new study is the first comprehensive survey of major new developments in energy conversion devices, with contributions from an international group of leading innovators.



Electrochemically Engineered Nanoporous Materials

Electrochemically Engineered Nanoporous Materials Author Dusan Losic
ISBN-10 9783319203461
Release 2015-07-18
Pages 364
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This book provides in-depth knowledge about the fabrications, structures, properties and applications of three outstanding electrochemically engineered nanoporous materials including porous silicon, nanoporous alumina and nanotubular titania. The book integrates three major themes describing these materials. The first theme is on porous silicon reviewing the methods for preparation by electrochemical etching, properties and methods for surface functionalization relevant for biosensing applications. Biomedical applications of porous silicon are major focus, described in several chapters reviewing recent developments on bioanalysis, emerging capture probes and drug delivery. The second theme on nanoporous alumina starts with describing the concept of self-organized electrochemical process used for synthesis nanopore and nanotube structures of valve metal oxides and reviewing recent development and progress on this field. The following chapters are focused mainly on optical properties and biosensing application of nanoporous alumina providing the reader with the depth of understanding of the structure controlled optical and photonic properties and design of optical biosensing devices using different detection principles such as photoluminescence, surface plasmon resonance, reflective spectrometry, wave guiding, Raman scattering etc. The third theme is focused on nanotubular titania reviewing three key applications including photocatalysis, solar cells and drug delivery. The book represents an important resource for academics, researchers, industry professionals, post-graduate and high-level undergraduate students providing them with both an overview of the current state-of-the-art on these materials and their future developments.



Low Dimensional and Nanostructured Materials and Devices

Low Dimensional and Nanostructured Materials and Devices Author Hilmi Ünlü
ISBN-10 9783319253404
Release 2015-12-01
Pages 674
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This book focuses on the fundamental phenomena at nanoscale. It covers synthesis, properties, characterization and computer modelling of nanomaterials, nanotechnologies, bionanotechnology, involving nanodevices. Further topics are imaging, measuring, modeling and manipulating of low dimensional matter at nanoscale. The topics covered in the book are of vital importance in a wide range of modern and emerging technologies employed or to be employed in most industries, communication, healthcare, energy, conservation , biology, medical science, food, environment, and education, and consequently have great impact on our society.