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Constitutions and the Commons

Constitutions and the Commons Author Blake Hudson
ISBN-10 9781136661747
Release 2014-03-26
Pages 278
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Constitutions and the Commons looks at a critical but little examined issue of the degree to which the federal constitution of a nation contributes toward or limits the ability of the national government to manage its domestic natural resources. Furthermore it considers how far the constitution facilitates the binding of constituent states, provinces or subnational units to honor the conditions of international environmental treaties. While the main focus is on the US, there is also detailed coverage of other nations such as Australia, Brazil, India, and Russia. After introducing the role of constitutions in establishing the legal framework for environmental management in federal systems, the author presents a continuum of constitutionally driven natural resource management scenarios, from local to national, and then to global governance. These sections describe how subnational governance in federal systems may take on the characteristics of a commons – with all the attendant tragedies – in the absence of sufficient national constitutional authority. In turn, sufficient national constitutional authority over natural resources also allows these nations to more effectively engage in efforts to manage the global commons, as these nations would be unconstrained by subnational units of government during international negotiations. It is thus shown that national governments in federal systems are at the center of a constitutional 'nested governance commons,' with lower levels of government potentially acting as rational herders on the national commons and national governments potentially acting as rational herders on the global commons. National governments in federal systems are therefore crucial to establishing sustainable management of resources across scales. The book concludes by discussing how federal systems without sufficient national constitutional authority over resources may be strengthened by adopting the approach of federal constitutions that facilitate more robust national level inputs into natural resources management, facilitating national minimum standards as a form of "Fail-safe Federalism" that subnational governments may supplement with discretion to preserve important values of federalism.



Urban Forests Trees and Greenspace

Urban Forests  Trees  and Greenspace Author L. Anders Sandberg
ISBN-10 9781134687701
Release 2014-07-25
Pages 332
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Urban forests, trees and greenspace are critical in contemporary planning and development of the city. Their study is not only a question of the growth and conservation of green spaces, but also has social, cultural and psychological dimensions. This book brings a perspective of political ecology to the complexities of urban trees and forests through three themes: human agency in urban forests and greenspace; arboreal and greenspace agency in the urban landscape; and actions and interventions in the urban forest. Contributors include leading authorities from North America and Europe from a range of disciplines, including forestry, ecology, geography, landscape design, municipal planning, environmental policy and environmental history.



Forest Tenure Reform in Asia and Africa

Forest Tenure Reform in Asia and Africa Author Randall Bluffstone
ISBN-10 9781317591597
Release 2014-11-13
Pages 304
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Forest tenure reforms are occurring in many developing countries around the world. These reforms typically include devolution of forest lands to local people and communities, which has attracted a great deal of attention and interest. While the nature and level of devolution vary by country, all have potentially important implications for resource allocation, local ecosystem services, livelihoods and climate change. This book helps students, researchers and professionals to understand the importance and implications of these reforms for local environmental quality, climate change, and the livelihoods of villagers, who are often poor. It is shown that local forest management can often be more successful than top-down management of common pool forest resources. The relationship of local forest tenure reform to the important climate change initiative REDD+ is also considered. The work includes a number of generic chapters and also detailed case studies from China, Ethiopia, Kenya, Nepal, Tanzania and Uganda. Using specific examples and a wide variety of disciplinary perspectives, including quantitative and qualitative analytical methods, the book provides an authoritative and critical picture of local forest reforms in light of the key challenges humanity faces today.



Environmental Regulation and Compulsory Public Disclosure

Environmental Regulation and Compulsory Public Disclosure Author Shakeb Afsah
ISBN-10 9780415657655
Release 2013
Pages 135
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This book is a remarkable case study of an environmental policy initiative for a national environmental regulatory system in the information age. In 1995 the Indonesian Ministry of Environment took the bold step to launch an environmental disclosure initiative called the Program for Pollution Control, Evaluation and Rating (PROPER). Under PROPER, environmental performance of companies is mapped into a five-color grading scale - Gold for excellent, Green for very good, Blue for good, Red for non-compliance, and Black for causing environmental damage. These ratings are then publicly disclosed through a formal press conference and posted on the internet. Not only did this simple rating scheme create a major media buzz and enhanced environmental awareness of the general public, but it also unleashed a wide range of performance incentives that showed how markets with environmental information could function in a developing country setting. The authors provide a multidisciplinary analysis of how the PROPER program harnessed the power of public disclosure to abate the problem of industrial pollution. They describe how the program has successfully improved the average environmental compliance rate from close to thrity per cent in 1995 to as high as seventy per cent in 2011. This improvement was driven primarily by information disclosure, which avoided expensive and unpredictable legal enforcement through the court system of Indonesia. The combination of institutional history and detailed economic and analyses sheds light on the role of policy entrepreneurs who laid the foundation for disclosure and transparency, despite the constraints of the Suharto regime. The PROPER program is now internationally recognized and continues to serve as a model for many developing countries.



Federalism and Regionalism in Australia

Federalism and Regionalism in Australia Author A. J. Brown
ISBN-10 9781921313424
Release 2007-08-01
Pages 42
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Sections include: "Setting the scene: old questions or new?", "Drivers for change: new approaches to federalism and regionalism", and "New institutions? Approaching the challenge of reform."



Biodiversity Conservation in Latin America and the Caribbean

Biodiversity Conservation in Latin America and the Caribbean Author Allen Blackman
ISBN-10 9781317906858
Release 2014-05-23
Pages 180
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Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region is exceptionally biodiverse. It contains about half of the world’s remaining tropical forests, nearly one-fifth of its coastal habitats, and some of its most productive agricultural and marine areas. But agriculture, fishing and other human activities linked to rapid population and economic growth increasingly threaten that biodiversity. Moreover, poverty, weak regulatory capacity, and limited political will hamper conservation. Given this dilemma, it is critically important to design conservation strategies on the basis of the best available information about both biodiversity and the track records of the various policies that have been used to protect it. This rigorously researched book has three key aims. It describes the status of biodiversity in LAC, the main threats to this biodiversity, and the drivers of these threats. It identifies the main policies being used to conserve biodiversity and assesses their effectiveness and potential for further implementation. It proposes five specific lines of practical action for conserving LAC biodiversity, based on: green agriculture; strengthening terrestrial protected areas and co-management; improving environmental governance; strengthening coastal and marine resource management; and improving biodiversity data and policy evaluation.



El desarrollo sostenible una gu a sobre nuestro futuro com n

El desarrollo sostenible  una gu  a sobre nuestro futuro com  n Author World Commission on Environment and Development
ISBN-10 019282080X
Release 1987
Pages 383
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Discusses population growth, food production, energy, industry, and urban development, and suggests ways to promote economic growth while protecting the environment.



APAIS 1991 Australian public affairs information service

APAIS 1991  Australian public affairs information service Author
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APAIS 1991 Australian public affairs information service has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from APAIS 1991 Australian public affairs information service also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full APAIS 1991 Australian public affairs information service book for free.



The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values

The Measurement of Environmental and Resource Values Author A. Myrick Freeman
ISBN-10 1891853627
Release 2003
Pages 491
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The premise of this award-winning book is that estimates of the economic values of environmental and natural resource services are essential tools for effective policymaking. Freeman presents a comprehensive, rigorous treatment of benefit measurement, providing an introduction to the principal methods and techniques of resource and environmental valuation for professional economists and graduate students who are not directly engaged in the field. Features of the new edition include a reworking of the chapter on stated preference methods of valuation and new sections on topics in the valuation of effects on human health, the valuation of ecosystem functions and services, and benefits transfer. It targets several of the important advances since 1993 and integrates them within the basic framework of the first edition. Rick Freeman maintains the accessibility of the first edition while enhancing its relevance to current practice. Scholars and policymakers will welcome the work as an up-to-date reference on recent developments. Students and general readers will gain a better understanding of the contribution that economics as a discipline can make to decisions about pollution control and human health, the recreational use of rivers and forests, urban amenities, and other critical issues concerning the way we use and interact with environmental and natural resource systems.



Determining the Economic Value of Water

Determining the Economic Value of Water Author Robert A. Young
ISBN-10 9781135040529
Release 2014-07-23
Pages 358
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Water provides benefits as a commodity for agriculture, industry, and households, and as a public good such as fisheries habitat, water quality and recreational use. To aid in cost-benefit analysis under conditions where market determined price signals are usually unavailable, economists have developed a range of alternative valuation methods for measuring economic benefits. This volume provides the most comprehensive exposition to-date of the application of economic valuation methods to proposed water resources investments and policies. It provides a conceptual framework for valuation of both commodity and public good uses of water, addressing non-market valuation techniques appropriate to measuring public benefits - including water quality improvement, recreation, and fish habitat enhancement. The book describes the various measurement methods, illustrates how they are applied in practice, and discusses their strengths, limitations, and appropriate roles. In this second edition, all chapters have been thoroughly updated, and in particular the coverage of water markets and valuation of ecosystem services from water has been expanded. Robert Young, author of the 2005 edition, has been joined for this new edition by John Loomis, who brings additional expertise on ecosystem services and the environmental economics of water for recreational and other public good uses of water.



The Expanding Spaces of Law

The Expanding Spaces of Law Author Irus Braverman
ISBN-10 9780804791878
Release 2014-05-28
Pages 296
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The Expanding Spaces of Law presents readers with cutting-edge scholarship in legal geography. An invaluable resource for those new to this line of scholarship, the book also pushes the boundaries of legal geography, reinvigorating previous modes of inquiry and investigating new directions. It guides scholars interested in the law–space–power nexus to underexplored empirical sites and to novel theoretical and disciplinary resources. Finally, The Expanding Spaces of Law asks readers to think about the temporality and dynamism of legal spaces.



Democratization in Africa

Democratization in Africa Author Sahr John Kpundeh
ISBN-10 NAP:02714
Release 1992-01-01
Pages 85
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The global movement toward democracy, spurred in part by the ending of the cold war, has created opportunities for democratization not only in Europe and the former Soviet Union, but also in Africa. This book is based on workshops held in Benin, Ethiopia, and Namibia to better understand the dynamics of contemporary democratic movements in Africa. Key issues in the democratization process range from its institutional and political requirements to specific problems such as ethnic conflict, corruption, and role of donors in promoting democracy. By focusing on the opinion and views of African intellectuals, academics, writers, and political activists and observers, the book provides a unique perspective regarding the dynamics and problems of democratization in Africa.



Mineral Economics and Policy

Mineral Economics and Policy Author John E. Tilton
ISBN-10 9781317558767
Release 2016-03-17
Pages 270
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This textbook provides an introduction to the field of mineral economics and its use in understanding the behaviour of mineral commodity markets and in assessing both public and corporate policies in this important economic sector. The focus is on metal and non-metallic commodities rather than oil, coal, and other energy commodities. The work draws on John Tilton's teaching experience over the last 30 years at the Colorado School of Mines and the Catholic University of Chile, as well as short courses for RioTinto and other mining companies. This is combined with the professional consulting and academic research of Juan Ignacio Guzmán over the past decade, in order to demonstrate the industry application of the economic principles described in the earlier chapters. The book should be an ideal text for graduate and undergraduate students in the fields of mining engineering and natural resource economics and policy. It should also be of interest to professionals and investors in mining and commodity markets, and those undertaking continuing education in the mineral sector.



The Politics of Decentralization

The Politics of Decentralization Author Carol J. Pierce Colfer
ISBN-10 9781849773218
Release 2005
Pages 322
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Decentralization is sweeping the world and having dramatic and far-reaching impacts on resource management and livelihoods, particularly in forestry. This book is the most up-to-date examination of the themes, experiences and lessons learned from decentralization worldwide. Drawing on research and support from all of the major international forestry and conservation organizations, the book provides a balanced account that covers the impact of decentralization on resource management worldwide, and provides comparative global insights with wide implications for policy, management, conservation and resource use and planning. Topics covered include forest governance in federal systems, democratic decentralization of forests and natural resources, paths and pitfalls in decentralization and biodiversity conservation in decentralized forests. The book provides in-depth case studies of decentralization from Bolivia, Ghana, Indonesia, Russia, Scotland, Switzerland, Uganda and the US, as well as highlights from federal countries including Australia, Brazil, Canada, India and Malaysia. It also addresses the critical links between the state, forests, communities and power relations in a range of regions and circumstances, and provides case examples of how decentralization has been viewed and experienced by communities in Guatemala, Philippines and Zimbabwe. The Politics of Decentralization is state-of-the-art coverage of decentralization and is essential for practitioners, academics and policy-makers across forestry and the full spectrum of natural resource management.



Administrative decentralization

Administrative decentralization Author John M. Cohen
ISBN-10 UOM:39015047492866
Release 1999-08
Pages 207
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* Examines administrative decentralization strategies in developing countries * Case studies include Ethiopia, Kenya, and Mexico * Written in cooperation with the United Nations Cohen and Peterson have created a practical and theoretically rich look at administrative decentralization from the past four decades, with a focus on the problems confronting developing countries since the 1990s. This groundbreaking work debates the role of administrative systems--including institutional monopolies and pluralistic states--in implementing decentralization strategies and reforms.



Local Governance in Developing Countries

Local Governance in Developing Countries Author Anwar Shah
ISBN-10 9780821365663
Release 2006
Pages 457
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This book provides a new institutional economics perspective on alternative models of local governance, offering a comprehensive view of local government organization and finance in the developing world. The experiences of ten developing/transition economies are reviewed to draw lessons of general interest in strengthening responsive, responsible, and accountable local governance. The book is written in simple user friendly language to facilitate a wider readership by policy makers and practitioners in addition to students and scholars of public finance, economics and politics.



Local Commons and Global Interdependence

Local Commons and Global Interdependence Author Robert O Keohane
ISBN-10 9781446265178
Release 1994-11-15
Pages 272
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This volume offers a synthesis of what is known about very large and very small common-pool resources. Individuals using commons at the global or local level may find themselves in a similar situation. At an international level, states cannot appeal to authoritative hierarchies to enforce agreements they make to cooperate with one another. In some small-scale settings, participants may be just as helpless in calling on distant public officials to monitor and enforce their agreements. Scholars have independently discovered self-organizing regimes which rely on implicit or explicit principles, norms, rules and procedures rather than the command and control of a central authority. The contributors discuss the possibilities and dangers of scaling up and scaling down. They explore the impact of the number of actors and the degree of heterogeneity among actors on the likelihood of cooperative behaviour.