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Crystals

Crystals Author Ichiro Sunagawa
ISBN-10 1139444328
Release 2005-04-25
Pages
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How do crystals nucleate and grow? Why and how do crystals form such a wide variety of morphologies, from polyhedral to dendritic and spherulitic forms? These are questions that have been posed since the seventeenth century, and are still of vital importance today both for modern technology, and to understand the Earth's interior and the formation of minerals by living organisms. In this book, Ichiro Sunagawa sets out clearly the atomic processes behind crystal growth, and describes case studies of complex systems from diamond, calcite and pyrite, to crystals formed through biomineralization, such as the aragonite of shells, and apatite of teeth. Essential reading for advanced graduates and researchers in mineralogy and materials science.



Crystal Growth Technology

Crystal Growth Technology Author K. Byrappa
ISBN-10 3540003673
Release 2003-04-17
Pages 590
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Crystals are the unacknowledged pillars of modern technology. The modern technological developments depend greatly on the availability of suitable single crystals, whether it is for lasers, semiconductors, magnetic devices, optical devices, superconductors, telecommunication, etc. In spite of great technological advancements in the recent years, we are still in the early stage with respect to the growth of several important crystals such as diamond, silicon carbide, PZT, gallium nitride, and so on. Unless the science of growing these crystals is understood precisely, it is impossible to grow them as large single crystals to be applied in modern industry. This book deals with almost all the modern crystal growth techniques that have been adopted, including appropriate case studies. Since there has been no other book published to cover the subject after the Handbook of Crystal Growth, Eds. DTJ Hurle, published during 1993-1995, this book will fill the existing gap for its readers. The book begins with "Growth Histories of Mineral Crystals" by the most senior expert in this field, Professor Ichiro Sunagawa. The next chapter reviews recent developments in the theory of crystal growth, which is equally important before moving on to actual techniques. After the first two fundamental chapters, the book covers other topics like the recent progress in quartz growth, diamond growth, silicon carbide single crystals, PZT crystals, nonlinear optical crystals, solid state laser crystals, gemstones, high melting oxides like lithium niobates, hydroxyapatite, GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy, superconducting crystals, morphology control, and more. For the first time, the crystal growth modeling has been discussed in detail with reference to PZT and SiC crystals.



Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth

Springer Handbook of Crystal Growth Author Govindhan Dhanaraj
ISBN-10 3540747613
Release 2010-10-20
Pages 1818
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Over the years, many successful attempts have been chapters in this part describe the well-known processes made to describe the art and science of crystal growth, such as Czochralski, Kyropoulos, Bridgman, and o- and many review articles, monographs, symposium v- ing zone, and focus speci cally on recent advances in umes, and handbooks have been published to present improving these methodologies such as application of comprehensive reviews of the advances made in this magnetic elds, orientation of the growth axis, intro- eld. These publications are testament to the grow- duction of a pedestal, and shaped growth. They also ing interest in both bulk and thin- lm crystals because cover a wide range of materials from silicon and III–V of their electronic, optical, mechanical, microstructural, compounds to oxides and uorides. and other properties, and their diverse scienti c and The third part, Part C of the book, focuses on - technological applications. Indeed, most modern ad- lution growth. The various aspects of hydrothermal vances in semiconductor and optical devices would growth are discussed in two chapters, while three other not have been possible without the development of chapters present an overview of the nonlinear and laser many elemental, binary, ternary, and other compound crystals, KTP and KDP. The knowledge on the effect of crystals of varying properties and large sizes. The gravity on solution growth is presented through a c- literature devoted to basic understanding of growth parison of growth on Earth versus in a microgravity mechanisms, defect formation, and growth processes environment.



Beginner s Guide to Flux Crystal Growth

Beginner   s Guide to Flux Crystal Growth Author Makoto Tachibana
ISBN-10 9784431565871
Release 2017-10-26
Pages 130
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This book introduces the principles and techniques of crystal growth by the flux method, which is arguably the most useful way to obtain millimeter- to centimeter-sized single crystals for physical research. As it is possible to find an appropriate solvent (“flux”) for nearly all inorganic materials, the flux method can be applied to the growth of many crystals ranging from transition metal oxides to intermetallic compounds. Both important principles and experimental procedures are described in a clear and accessible manner. Practical advice on various aspects of the experiment, which is not readily available in the literature, will assist the beginning graduate students in setting up the lab and conducting successful crystal growth. The mechanisms of crystal growth at an elementary level are also provided to better understand the techniques and to help in assessing the quality of the crystals. The book also contains many photographs of beautiful crystals with important physical properties of current interest, such as high-temperature superconductors, strongly correlated electronic systems, topological insulators, relaxor ferroelectrics, low-dimensional quantum magnets, non-linear optical materials, and multiferroics.



Advances in Crystal Growth Research

Advances in Crystal Growth Research Author Y. Furukawa
ISBN-10 0080526128
Release 2001-07-12
Pages 436
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The aim of this book is to provide a timely collection that highlights advances in current research of crystal growth ranging from fundamental aspects to current applications involving a wide range of materials. This book is published on the basis of lecture texts of the 11th International Summer School on Crystal Growth (ISSCG-11) to be held at Doshisha Retreat Center in Shiga Prefecture Japan, on July 24-29, 2001. This school is always associated with the International Conference of Crystal Growth (ICCG) series that have been held every three years since 1973; thus this school continues the tradition of the past 10 schools of crystal growth.



Crystal Growth From Fundamentals to Technology

Crystal Growth   From Fundamentals to Technology Author Georg Müller
ISBN-10 0080473075
Release 2004-07-07
Pages 434
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The book contains 5 chapters with 19 contributions form internationally well acknowledged experts in various fields of crystal growth. The topics are ranging from fundamentals (thermodynamic of epitaxy growth, kinetics, morphology, modeling) to new crystal materials (carbon nanocrystals and nanotubes, biological crystals), to technology (Silicon Czochralski growth, oxide growth, III-IV epitaxy) and characterization (point defects, X-ray imaging, in-situ STM). It covers the treatment of bulk growth as well as epitaxy by anorganic and organic materials.



50 Years Progress in Crystal Growth

50 Years Progress in Crystal Growth Author Robert Feigelson
ISBN-10 0080489931
Release 2004-07-09
Pages 268
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There is no question that the field of solid state electronics, which essentially began with work at Bell laboratories just after World War II, has had a profound impact on today's Society. What is not nearly so widely known is that advances in the art and science of crystal growth underpin this technology. Single crystals, once valued only for their beauty, are now found, in one form or another in most electronic, optoelectronic and numerous optical devices. These devices, in turn, have permeated almost every home and village throughout the world. In fact it is hard to imagine what our electronics industry, much less our entire civilization, would have been like if crystal growth scientists and engineers were unable to produce the large, defect free crystals required by device designers. This book brings together two sets of related articles describing advances made in crystal growth science and technology since World War II. One set is from the proceedings of a Symposium held in August 2002 to celebrate 50 years of progress in the field of crystal growth. The second contains articles previously published in the newsletter of the American Association for Crystal Growth in a series called "Milestones in Crystal Growth". The first section of this book contains several articles which describe some of the early history of crystal growth prior to the electronics revolution, and upon which modern crystal growth science and technology is based. This is followed by a special article by Prof. Sunagawa which provides some insight into how the successful Japanese crystal growth industry developed. The next section deals with crystal growth fundamentals including concepts of solute distribution, interface kinetics, constitutional supercooling, morphological stability and the growth of dendrites. The following section describes the growth of crystals from melts and solutions, while the final part involves thin film growth by MBE and OMVPE. These articles were written by some of the most famous theorists and crystal growers working in the field. They will provide future research workers with valuable insight into how these pioneering discoveries were made, and show how their own research and future devices will be based upon these developments. · Articles written by some of the most famous theorists and crystal growers working in the field · Valuable insight into how pioneering discoveries were made. · Show how their own research and future devices will be based upon these developments



Handbook of Crystal Growth

Handbook of Crystal Growth Author Tatau Nishinaga
ISBN-10 9780444593764
Release 2014-11-04
Pages 1214
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Volume IA Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Thermodynamics and Kinetics) Volume IA addresses the present status of crystal growth science, and provides scientific tools for the following volumes: Volume II (Bulk Crystal Growth) and III (Thin Film Growth and Epitaxy). Volume IA highlights thermodynamics and kinetics. After historical introduction of the crystal growth, phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics, stoichiometry, and shape of crystal and structure of melt are described. Then, the most fundamental and basic aspects of crystal growth are presented, along with the theories of nucleation and growth kinetics. In addition, the simulations of crystal growth by Monte Carlo, ab initio-based approach and colloidal assembly are thoroughly investigated. Volume IB Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition (Fundamentals: Transport and Stability) Volume IB discusses pattern formation, a typical problem in crystal growth. In addition, an introduction to morphological stability is given and the phase-field model is explained with comparison to experiments. The field of nanocrystal growth is rapidly expanding and here the growth from vapor is presented as an example. For the advancement of life science, the crystal growth of protein and other biological molecules is indispensable and biological crystallization in nature gives many hints for their crystal growth. Another subject discussed is pharmaceutical crystal growth. To understand the crystal growth, in situ observation is extremely powerful. The observation techniques are demonstrated. Volume IA Explores phase equilibria, defect thermodynamics of Si, stoichiometry of oxides and atomistic structure of melt and alloys Explains basic ideas to understand crystal growth, equilibrium shape of crystal, rough-smooth transition of step and surface, nucleation and growth mechanisms Focuses on simulation of crystal growth by classical Monte Carlo, ab-initio based quantum mechanical approach, kinetic Monte Carlo and phase field model. Controlled colloidal assembly is presented as an experimental model for crystal growth. Volume IIB Describes morphological stability theory and phase-field model and comparison to experiments of dendritic growth Presents nanocrystal growth in vapor as well as protein crystal growth and biological crystallization Interprets mass production of pharmaceutical crystals to be understood as ordinary crystal growth and explains crystallization of chiral molecules Demonstrates in situ observation of crystal growth in vapor, solution and melt on the ground and in space



Handbook of Crystal Growth

Handbook of Crystal Growth Author Peter Rudolph
ISBN-10 9780444633064
Release 2014-11-04
Pages 1418
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Vol 2A: Basic Technologies Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIA (Basic Technologies) presents basic growth technologies and modern crystal cutting methods. Particularly, the methodical fundamentals and development of technology in the field of bulk crystallization on both industrial and research scales are explored. After an introductory chapter on the formation of minerals, ruling historically the basic crystal formation parameters, advanced basic technologies from melt, solution, and vapour being applied for research and production of the today most important materials, like silicon, semiconductor compounds and oxides are presented in detail. The interdisciplinary and general importance of crystal growth for human live are illustrated. Vol 2B: Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics Handbook of Crystal Growth, 2nd Edition Volume IIB (Growth Mechanisms and Dynamics) deals with characteristic mechanisms and dynamics accompanying each bulk crystal growth method discussed in Volume IIA. Before the atoms or molecules pass over from a position in the fluid medium (gas, melt or solution) to their place in the crystalline face they must be transported in the fluid over macroscopic distances by diffusion, buoyancy-driven convection, surface-tension-driven convection, and forced convection (rotation, acceleration, vibration, magnetic mixing). Further, the heat of fusion and the part carried by the species on their way to the crystal by conductive and convective transport must be dissipated in the solid phase by well-organized thermal conduction and radiation to maintain a stable propagating interface. Additionally, segregation and capillary phenomena play a decisional role for chemical composition and crystal shaping, respectively. Today, the increase of high-quality crystal yield, its size enlargement and reproducibility are imperative conditions to match the strong economy. Volume 2A Presents the status and future of Czochralski and float zone growth of dislocation-free silicon Examines directional solidification of silicon ingots for photovoltaics, vertical gradient freeze of GaAs, CdTe for HF electronics and IR imaging as well as antiferromagnetic compounds and super alloys for turbine blades Focuses on growth of dielectric and conducting oxide crystals for lasers and non-linear optics Topics on hydrothermal, flux and vapour phase growth of III-nitrides, silicon carbide and diamond are explored Volume 2B Explores capillarity control of the crystal shape at the growth from the melt Highlights modeling of heat and mass transport dynamics Discusses control of convective melt processes by magnetic fields and vibration measures Includes imperative information on the segregation phenomenon and validation of compositional homogeneity Examines crystal defect generation mechanisms and their controllability Illustrates proper automation modes for ensuring constant crystal growth process Exhibits fundamentals of solution growth, gel growth of protein crystals, growth of superconductor materials and mass crystallization for food and pharmaceutical industries



Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition

Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition Author Theodore M. Besmann
ISBN-10 1566771552
Release 1996
Pages 892
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Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Proceedings of the Thirteenth International Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition book for free.



The Physics of Selenium and Tellurium

The Physics of Selenium and Tellurium Author W. Charles Cooper
ISBN-10 9781483157542
Release 2013-09-11
Pages 390
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The Physics of Selenium and Tellurium contains the proceedings of the International Symposium on the Physics of Selenium and Tellurium held in Montreal, Canada, on October 12-13, 1967 and sponsored by the Selenium-Tellurium Development Association, Inc. The papers explore the physics of selenium and tellurium, with emphasis on band structure, crystal growth and characterization, optical properties, and electrical properties. This book consists of 33 chapters and opens with a review of progress in the physics of selenium and tellurium, particularly with respect to the mechanical and thermal properties of trigonal selenium and tellurium and their lattice dynamics. The following chapters focus on calculations of the band structure of selenium and tellurium; magnetoabsorption in tellurium; trapping levels in hexagonal selenium; and coordination and thermal motion in crystalline selenium and tellurium. Infrared-active lattice vibrations in amorphous selenium and the contribution of lattice vibrations to the optical constants of tellurium are also discussed. This monograph will be a useful resource for physicists.



Crystal Growth

Crystal Growth Author Brian R. Pamplin
ISBN-10 9781483161464
Release 2013-09-11
Pages 628
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Crystal Growth, Second Edition deals with crystal growth methods and the relationships between them. The chemical physics of crystal growth is discussed, along with solid growth techniques such as annealing, sintering, and hot pressing; melt growth techniques such as normal freezing, cooled seed method, crystal pulling, and zone melting; solution growth methods; and vapor phase growth. This book is comprised of 15 chapters and opens with a bibliography of books and source material, highlighted by a classification of crystal growth techniques. The following chapters focus on the molecular state of a crystal when in equilibrium with respect to growth or dissolution; the fundamentals of classical and modern hydrodynamics as applied to crystal growth processes; creation, control, and measurement of the environment in which a crystal with desired properties can grow; and growth processes where transport occurs through the vapor phase. The reader is also introduced to crystal growth with molecular beam epitaxy; crystal pulling as a crystal growth method; and zone refining and its applications. This monograph will be of interest to physicists and crystallographers.



Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection

Macromolecular Crystallization and Crystal Perfection Author Naomi E Chayen
ISBN-10 9780199213252
Release 2010-03-25
Pages 240
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Structural biology is key to our understanding of the mechanisms of biological processes. This book describes current methods and future frontiers in crystal growth and use of X-ray and Neutron crystallography, in the context of the very successful current automation of crystallization and generation of synchrotron X-ray and neutron beams.



Handbook of Crystal Growth

Handbook of Crystal Growth Author Tatau Nishinaga
ISBN-10 0444633324
Release 2014
Pages 755
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Handbook of Crystal Growth has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Handbook of Crystal Growth also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Handbook of Crystal Growth book for free.



Morphology of Crystals

Morphology of Crystals Author Ichiro Sunagawa
ISBN-10 0792335929
Release 1995-07-31
Pages 420
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The molecular mechanisms underlying the fact that a crystal can take a variety of external forms is something we have come to understand only in the last few decades. This is due to recent developments in theoretical and experimental investigations of crystal growth mechanisms. Morphology of Crystals is divided into three separately available volumes. Part A contains chapters on roughening transition; equilibrium form; step pattern theory; modern PBC; and surface microtopography. This part provides essentially theoretical treatments of the problem, particularly the solid-liquid interface. Part B contains chapters on ultra-fine particles; minerals; transition from polyhedral to dendrite; theory of dendrite; and snow crystals. All chapters are written by world leaders in their respective areas, and some can be seen as representing the essence of a life's work. This is the first English-language work which covers all aspects of the morphology of crystals - a topic which has attracted top scientific minds for centuries. As such, it is indispensable for anyone seeking an answer to a question relating to this fascinating problem: mineralogists, petrologists, crystallographers, materials scientists, workers in solid-state physics and chemistry, etc. In Parts A: Fundamentals and B: Fine Particles, Minerals and Snow equilibrium and kinetic properties of crystals are generally approached from an `atomistic' point of view. In contrast, Part C: The Geometry of Crystal Growth follows the alternative and complementary `geometrical' description, where bulk phases are considered as continuous media and their interfaces as mathematical surfaces with orientation-dependent properties. Equations of motion for a crystal surface are expressed in terms of vector and tensor operators working on surface free energy and growth rate, both expressed as functions of surface orientation and driving force, or `affinity' for growth. This approach emphasizes the interrelation between equilibrium and kinetic behavior. Part 1 establishes the theoretical framework. Part 2 gives a construction toolbox for explicit (analytic) functions. An extra chapter is devoted to experimental techniques for measuring such functions: a new approach to sphere growth experiments. The emphasis throughout is on principles and new concepts. Audience: Advanced readers familiar with traditional aspects of crystal growth theory. Can be used as the basis for an advanced course, provided supplementation is provided in the areas of atomistic models of the advancing surface, diffusion fields, etc.



Vapour Growth and Epitaxy

Vapour Growth and Epitaxy Author G.W. Cullen
ISBN-10 9781483223575
Release 2013-09-03
Pages 410
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Vapor Growth and Epitaxy covers the proceedings of the Third International Conference on Vapor Growth and Epitaxy, held in Amsterdam, The Netherlands on August 18-21, 1975. This conference highlights the crystal growth aspects of the preparation, characterization, and perfection of thin films of electronic interest. This book is organized into two sections encompassing 54 chapters. The first section considers the fundamental and applied crystal growth studies of silicon, III-V and II-VI compounds, and magnetic garnets. This section also describes the structure of autoepitaxial diamond films and the morphology of single crystals grown from the vapor phase. The second section deals with nucleation and crystal growth kinetic studies of whiskers and the fabrication of solar cells. This section further surveys the equilibrium, kinetics, and epitaxy in the chemical vapor deposition of silicon compounds.



Changes of State

Changes of State Author N. Hannay
ISBN-10 9781475711202
Release 2013-04-18
Pages 600
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The last quarter-century has been marked by the extremely rapid growth of the solid-state sciences. They include what is now the largest subfield of physics, and the materials engineering sciences have likewise flourished. And, playing an active role throughout this vast area of science and engineer ing have been very large numbers of chemists. Yet, even though the role of chemistry in the solid-state sciences has been a vital one and the solid-state sciences have, in turn, made enormous contributions to chemical thought, solid-state chemistry has not been recognized by the general body of chemists as a major subfield of chemistry. Solid-state chemistry is not even well defined as to content. Some, for example, would have it include only the quantum chemistry of solids and would reject thermodynamics and phase equilibria; this is nonsense. Solid-state chemistry has many facets, and one of the purposes of this Treatise is to help define the field. Perhaps the most general characteristic of solid-state chemistry, and one which helps differentiate it from solid-state physics, is its focus on the chemical composition and atomic configuration of real solids and on the relationship of composition and structure to the chemical and physical properties of the solid. Real solids are usually extremely complex and exhibit almost infinite variety in their compositional and structural features.