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Cultural Heritage and Aerobiology

Cultural Heritage and Aerobiology Author Paolo Mandrioli
ISBN-10 9789401701853
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 243
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Aerobiology is the science that studies the biological component of the atmosphere and its effects on living systems and on the environment. This term was used for the first time in 1935, but the attention of scientists to the biological component of the atmosphere goes back to 1769, when the Italian biologist Spallanzani carried out a series of experiments that disproved the concept of spontaneous generation of life and proved the presence of viable microorganisms in the air. Aerobiology has marked characteristics of interdisciplinarity: its application fields range from respiratory diseases to the airborne outbreak of animal and vegetal diseases and to the biodegradation of substances and materials. The latter is the subject of this book. The purpose of aerobiological research applied to the conservation of cultural heritage is to evaluate the risk of alteration by airborne microorganisms of materials forming artefacts of historical, artistic and archaeological interest. Airborne spores and vegetative structures may develop on different substrates and may be a cause of degradation, in relation to the types of materials, the microclimatic situation and the pollution of the conservation environments. The qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the biological component of air, performed by means of targeted analysis campaigns, and of the characteristics of materials and environments, supplies indispensable information for the evaluation of the actual risk and the planning of interventions. This book is divided into four main parts.



Environmental Mycology in Public Health

Environmental Mycology in Public Health Author Carla Viegas
ISBN-10 9780124115354
Release 2015-08-03
Pages 458
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Environmental Mycology in Public Health: Fungi and Mycotoxins Risk Assessment and Management provides the most updated information on fungi, an essential element in the survival of our global ecology that can also pose a significant threat to the health of occupants when they are present in buildings. As the exposure to fungi in homes is a significant risk factor for a number of respiratory symptoms, including allergies and hypersensitivity pneumonitis, this book presents information on fungi and their disease agents, important aspects of exposure assessment, and their impacts on health. This book answers the hard questions, including, "How does one detect and measure the presence of indoor fungi?" and "What is an acceptable level of indoor fungi?" It then examines how we relate this information to human health problems. Provides unique new insights on fungi and their metabolites detection in the environmental and occupational settings Presents new information that is enriched by significant cases studies Multi-contributed work, edited by a proficient team in medical and environmental mycology with different individual expertise Guides the readers in the implementation of preventive and protective measures regarding exposure to fungi



Science and Conservation for Museum Collection

Science and Conservation for Museum Collection Author Bruno Fabbri
ISBN-10 9788840442181
Release 2017-06-06
Pages 472
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The idea of the book “Science and Conservation for Museum Collections” was born as a result of the experience made by CNR-ISTEC (Faenza) in the implementation of a course for Syrian restorers at the National Museum in Damascus. The book takes into consideration archaeological artefacts made out of the most common materials, like stones (both natural and artificial), mosaics, ceramics, glass, metals, wood and textiles, together with less diffuse artefacts and materials, like clay tablets, goldsmith artefacts, icons, leather and skin objects, bones and ivory, coral and mother of pearl. Each type of material is treated from four different points of view: composition and processing technology; alteration and degradation causes and mechanisms; procedures for conservative intervention; case studies and/or examples of conservation and restoration. Due to the high number of materials and to the great difference between their conservation problems, all the subjects are treated in a schematic, but precise and complete way. The book is mainly addressed to students, young restorers, conservators and conservation scientists all around the world. But the book can be usefully read by expert professionals too, because nobody can know everything and the experts often need to learn something of the materials not included in their specific knowledge. Twenty- two experts in very different fields of activity contributed with their experience for obtaining a good product. All they are Italian experts, or working in Italy, so that the book can be seen as an exemplification on how the conservation problem of Cultural Heritage is received and tackled in Italy. —————————————————— SCIENCE AND CONSERVATION FOR MUSEUM COLLECTIONS INTRODUCTION 1 – PREVENTIVE CONSERVATION 1.1 Introduction 1.2 International standards and guidelines 1.3 Environment-material interaction 1.4 Microclimate and monitoring 1.5 Handling works of art 1.6 Exhibition criteria 1.7 MUSA project: intermuseum network for conservation of artistic heritage Bibliography Acknowledgements 2 – STONE ARTEFACTS 2.1 What conservation means 2.2 Natural Stones 2.3 Artificial stones 2.4 Deterioration of the stone 2.5 Cleaning of stone artefacts 2.6 Consolidation and Protection 2.7 Case studies Bibliography 3 – MOSAICS 3.1 Manufacturing techniques 3.2 History of the mosaic 3.3 Degradation of mosaic 3.4 Restoration of mosaics 3.5 Case study Bibliography 4 – CERAMICS 4.1 Ceramic technology 4.2 Technological classification of ceramics 4.3 Alteration and degradation processes 4.4 Ceramic conservation and restoration 4.5 Case studies 4.6 Examples of restoration Bibliography Acknowledgements 5 – CLAY TABLETS 5.1 Defnition 5.2 Deterioration 5.3 Conservative intervention 5.4 Case study: Syrian tablets Bibliography Acknowledgements 6 – GLASS 6.1 General information 6.2 Processing techniques 6.3 Glass deterioration 6.4 Glass conservation and restoration 6.5 Case studies Bibliography Acknowledgements 7 – METALS 7.1 Origin of metals 7.2 Manufacturing techniques 7.3 Conservation state of metals 7.4 Conservative intervention for metals 7.5 Case studies: Recovery of metallic artefacts from terracotta containers Bibliography Acknowledgements 8 – GOLDSMITH ARTEFACTS 8.1 Goldsmith’s metals 8.2 Enamels 8.3 Precious stones 8.4 Alteration and degradation 8.5 Conservative intervention 8.6 Case studies Bibliography 9 – WOOD ARTEFACTS 9.1 Characteristics of the wood 9.2 Working techniques 9.3 Degradation of wood 9.4 How to start restoring 9.5 Restoration of a small inlaid table 9.6 Restoration of a commemorating wooden tablet 9.7 The restoration of a seventeenth-century wooden crucifix Bibliography 10 – ICONS 10.1 The construction of icons 10.2 Degradation and damages of icons 10.3 Methods of conservation and restoration of icons 10.4 Examples of conservative interventions Bibliography 11 – TEXTILE FINDS 11.1 Morphology, characteristics and properties of textiles 11.2 Decay of textile fibres 11.3 Conservation treatments of archaeological textiles 11.4 Conservation practice: two case histories Bibliography Acknowledgements 12 – LEATHER AND ANIMAL SKIN OBJECTS 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Skin 12.3 The tanning process 12.4 Parchment 12.5 Leather degradation 12.6 Conservative intervention 12.7 Examples of conservative interventions Bibliography 13 – INORGANIC MATERIALS OF ORGANIC ORIGIN 13.1 The materials 13.2 The restoration operations 13.3 Cases of study Bibliography Acknowledgements 14 – ANALYTICAL TECHNIQUES 14.1 General information 14.2 Optical microscopy 14.3 Spectroscopic techniques 14.4 Radiochemical techniques 14.5 Chromatography 14.6 Electron microscopy 14.7 Thermal analyses 14.8 Open porosity measurements 14.9 Analysis of microbial colonization Bibliography Acknowledgements



Biotechnology and Conservation of Cultural Heritage

Biotechnology and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Author Franco Palla
ISBN-10 9783319461687
Release 2017-02-16
Pages 100
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This book provides detailed insights into the role of microorganisms and microbial products in biodeterioration, conservation and restoration of cultural heritage. Topics to be discussed are microbial colonization and their growth control on both artworks and aerosol of indoor environments such as libraries or museums, as well as human health hazard from exposure to microbial agents. In addition innovative biotechnological protocols and strategies for the removal of undesired layers on artwork surfaces are described in detail. Also the advances and perspectives in this emerging biotechnological field are discussed, supported by the latest original findings.



Cultural Heritage Microbiology

Cultural Heritage Microbiology Author Ralph Mitchell
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105215524021
Release 2010
Pages 326
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This book has as its objective the synthesis of the seminal scientific articles on microbial deterioration of cultural heritage materials and state–of–the–art methods of conservation and preservation of these materials against microbial deterioration. Each section of Microbial Deterioration and Conservation of Cultural Heritage Materials focuses on a specific material (e.g. paper, wood, or metal) and separate chapters describe the essential biodeterioration processes, while other chapters will describe the most important modern conservation methods used to diagnose, treat and prevent deterioration. This book describes both the scientific methods as well as the implications and applications for conservators.



Art and Archaeology of Afghanistan

Art and Archaeology of Afghanistan Author Juliette van Krieken-Pieters
ISBN-10 9004151826
Release 2006
Pages 412
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This volume adopts a multidisciplinary approach with contributions from archaeologists, linguists, an architect and lawyers to the many challenges This comprehensive volume on Afghanistan's cultural heritage with contributions from archaeologists, linguist and lawyers, dealing with the many issues involved in its protection, provides an insiders' reassessment of the situation and well-considered lessons for the future.



Biodiversity of Fungi

Biodiversity of Fungi Author Sunil K. Deshmukh
ISBN-10 1578083680
Release 2005
Pages 460
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Fungi are the largest group among living organisms after insects. The total fungal species is estimated to be 1.5 million, of which 72,000 have been reported and ~1500 are added every year. Fungi are used in various biotechnological applications such as in the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries, in bioremediation, biological control, as natural scavengers, for recycling of elements, dyes, etc. This book attempts to cover the various aspects of fungi. This book will add substantially to the knowledge of fungal diversity and its applications in specific areas and bring the information under one umbrella.



Biodeterioration of Stone Surfaces

Biodeterioration of Stone Surfaces Author Larry St.Clair
ISBN-10 9781402028458
Release 2012-11-02
Pages 292
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This is a timely volume in view of the considerable interest currently shown in the preservation of our cultural heritage, and the extensive and growing literature on the subject. Unfortunately, the latter is to be found in a wide variety of published sources, some aimed at a very specific readership and therefore not all that accessible to those who need this resource. The present volume draws together a spectrum of biodeterioration work from across the world to provide an overview of the materials examined and the methodologies employed to elucidate the nature of the problems, as well as an extensive and current bibliographical resource on lichen biodeterioration. Biodeterioration of historical and culturally important stone substrata is a complex problem to be addressed. Easy, risk-free solutions are simply not available to be dealt with by other than a wide range of expertise. Successful resolution of this issue will inevitably require a multidisciplinary effort, where biologists work in close cooperation with ecologists, geologists, geochemists, crystallographers, cultural property conservators, archaeologists, anthropologists, and historians in order to recommend the most effective management scheme. The advantage of this approach is obvious: multidisciplinary management teams with good leadership can ask more appropriate questions while developing much more thoughtful and informed decisions.



The Air Spora

The Air Spora Author Maureen E. Lacey
ISBN-10 9780387302539
Release 2007-02-03
Pages 156
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This is an illustrated guide to trapping, identifying and quantifying airborne biological particles such as fungus, plant spores and pollen. Including a comprehensive review of what is in the air and detailing the historical development of theories leading to modern aerobiology, the book explains the fundamental processes behind airborne dispersal and techniques used to sample, identify and quantify biological particles. Includes photographs and 9 colour reproductions of paintings of airborne particles.



Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage

Science and Technology for the Conservation of Cultural Heritage Author Miguel Angel Rogerio-Candelera
ISBN-10 9780203508015
Release 2013-10-01
Pages 446
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From 2nd to 5th October 2012 an International Congress on Science and Technology for the conservation of Cultural Heritage was held in Santiago de Compostela, Spain, organized by the Universidade of Santiago de Compostela on behalf of TechnoHeritage Network. The congress was attended by some 160 participants from 10 countries, which presented a total of 145 contributions among plenary lectures, oral, and poster communications. The congress was dedicated to eight topics, namely (1) Environmental assessment and monitoring (pollution, climate change, natural events, etc.) of Cultural Heritage; (2) Agents and mechanisms of deterioration of Cultural Heritage (physical, chemical, biological), including deterioration of modern materials used in Contemporary Art and information storage; (3) Development of new instruments, non invasive technologies and innovative solutions for analysis, protection and conservation of Cultural Heritage; (4) New products and materials for conservation and maintenance of Cultural Heritage; (5) Preservation of industrial and rural heritage from the 19th and 20th centuries; (6) Security technologies, Remote sensing and Geographical Information Systems for protection and management of Cultural Heritage; (7) Significance and social value of Cultural Heritage; and (8) Policies for conservation of Cultural Heritage. This volume publishes a total of ninety-three contributions which reflect some of the most recent responses to the challenge of cultural assets conservation.



Monitoring with Lichens Monitoring Lichens

Monitoring with Lichens   Monitoring Lichens Author Pier Luigi Nimis
ISBN-10 9789401004237
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 408
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A comprehensive, up-to-date review of lichens as biomonitors of air pollution (bioindication, metal and radionuclide accumulation, biomarkers), and as monitors of environmental change (including global climate change and biodiversity loss) in a wide array of terrestrial habitats. Several methods for using lichens as biomonitors are described in a special section of the book.



Application Driven Terminology Engineering

Application Driven Terminology Engineering Author Fidelia Ibekwe-SanJuan
ISBN-10 9789027292995
Release 2007-03-14
Pages 203
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A common framework under which the various studies on terminology processing can be viewed is to consider not only the texts from which the terminological resources are built but particularly the applications targeted. The current book, first published as a Special Issue of Terminology 11:1 (2005), analyses the influence of applications on term definition and processing. Two types of applications have been identified: intermediary and terminal applications (involving end users). Intermediary applications concern the building of terminological knowledge resources such as domain-specific dictionaries, ontologies, thesaurus or taxonomies. These knowledge resources then form the inputs to terminal applications such as information extraction, information retrieval, science and technology watch or automated book index building. Most of the applications dealt with in the book fall into the first category. This book represents the first attempt, from a pluridisciplinary viewpoint, to take into account the role of applications in the processing of terminology.



Sampling and Analysis of Indoor Microorganisms

Sampling and Analysis of Indoor Microorganisms Author Chin S. Yang
ISBN-10 9780470112427
Release 2007-04-20
Pages 320
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Investigation techniques and analytical methodologies for addressing microbial contamination indoors Microbial contamination indoors is a significant environmental and occupational health and safety problem. This book provides fundamental background information on fungal and bacterial growth indoors as well as in-depth, practical approaches to analyzing and remedying problems. The information helps investigators, laboratory managers, and environmental health professionals properly use state-of-the-science methods and correctly interpret the results. With chapters by expert microbiologists, mycologists, environmental professionals, and industrial hygienists, Sampling and Analysis of Indoor Microorganisms is a multidisciplinary, comprehensive reference on advanced approaches, covering: Microbiological problems in a water-damaged environment Indoor construction techniques and materials that impact environmental microbiology Microbial ecology indoors, airborne bacteria, genetic-based analytical methods, and statistical tools for microorganism analysis Microbiological sampling approaches Mold removal principles and methods, including specialized microbial remediation techniques for HVAC systems, legionellas and biofilms, and sewage contamination A forensic approach toward the assessment of fungal growth in the indoor environment A must-have guide for practicing professionals, including environmental health and safety personnel, public health officials, and building and construction engineers and architects, this is also a valuable reference for attorneys, home inspectors, water restoration personnel, mold remediation contractors, insurance adjusters, and others.



Access to Online Resources

Access to Online Resources Author Kristina Botyriute
ISBN-10 9783319739908
Release 2018-03-13
Pages 42
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This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 licence.The book offers a concise guide for librarians, helping them understand the challenges, processes and technologies involved in managing access to online resources. After an introduction the book presents cases of general authentication and authorisation. It helps readers understand web based authentication and provides the fundamentals of IP address recognition in an easy to understand manner. A special chapter is dedicated to Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), followed by an overview of the key concepts of OpenID Connect. The book concludes with basic troubleshooting guidelines and recommendations for further assistance. Librarians will benefit from this quick and easy read, which demystifies the technologies used, features real-life scenarios, and explains how to competently employ authentication and access management.



Happiness Across Cultures

Happiness Across Cultures Author Helaine Selin
ISBN-10 9789400727007
Release 2012-02-28
Pages 504
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Different cultures experience happiness differently. Traditionally, the West is considered materialistic, and happiness is said to come from achievement and acquisition. The East is said to be more people-oriented, where happiness is a result of deep personal interactions. Thus, poor people can be happier in the East than the West, because they are not so concerned with possession and more with society. This book considers happiness and quality of life in non-Western countries and cultures. Its coverage is diverse and spans the breadth of the non-Western world, revealing unique perspectives of happiness and life quality embedded in rich cultural traditions and histories.



The Printing Ink Manual

The Printing Ink Manual Author Robert Leach
ISBN-10 9789401170970
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 872
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The Printing Ink Manual was first published in 1961 under the auspices of the Society of British Printing Ink Manufacturers with the object of providing an authoritative work on printing ink technology. This, the fourth edition, continues that purpose and presents a comprehensive study of the current 'state of the art' in the ink industry. For those starting in the printing ink industry it is a textbook dealing with all aspects of the formulation and manufacture of printing ink. For the ink technician it is a practical manual and useful source of reference. For printers and users of printed material the manual supplies helpful information on the nature and behaviour of ink both on the printing press and as the finished print. Readers with a little scientific knowledge will have no difficulty in using the manual. but as in previous editions, sufficient chemistry and physics have been introduced to assist the advanced technician and research scientist.



Reversibility of Chronic Disease and Hypersensitivity Volume 4

Reversibility of Chronic Disease and Hypersensitivity  Volume 4 Author William J. Rea
ISBN-10 9781315357140
Release 2017-11-22
Pages 990
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Reversibility of Chronic Disease and Hypersensitivity, Volume 4: The Environmental Aspects of Chemical Sensitivity is the fourth of an encyclopedic five-volume set describing the basic physiology, chemical sensitivity, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic degenerative disease studied in a 5x less polluted controlled environment. This text focuses on treatment techniques, strategies, protocols, prescriptions, and technologies. Distinguishing itself from previous works on chemical sensitivity, it explains newly understood mechanisms of chronic disease and hypersensitivity, involving core molecular function. The authors discuss new information on ground regulation system, genetics, the autonomic nervous system, and immune and non-immune functions. The book also includes the latest technology and cutting-edge techniques, numerous figures, and supporting research.