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Current Trends in Preparatory Proceedings

Current Trends in Preparatory Proceedings Author Laura Ervo
ISBN-10 9783319293257
Release 2016-04-18
Pages 250
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This book explores the regulations, goals and functioning of preparatory proceedings in four Nordic countries and eight former communist countries. The contributions discuss whether, and how the regulation and practice of preparatory proceedings enhance swift civil justice that is both inexpensive and has quality outcomes. A central question is whether the main hearing model of civil justice, in which preclusion of new evidence and claims occur at the end of the preparatory stage, results in greater efficiency, or whether the functioning of civil proceedings largely depends on other factors. It also examines regulation and use of court-connected mediation and judicial settlement efforts. This book offers comparative insights into the functioning of the preparatory civil proceedings in the countries covered. Preparatory proceedings are considered a key tool for achieving efficient civil proceedings. The claims and factual background of the case are clarified at an early stage, and the main hearing is focused. Judicial settlement efforts and court-connected mediation contribute to early resolution of cases, and are important elements of Nordic civil procedure The Nordic countries have used the main hearing model of civil proceedings for some decades, and recent reforms have further enhanced the role of the preparatory stage. Former communist countries are reforming their earlier piecemeal- format civil proceedings by introducing and strengthening written and oral preparation, as well as court-connected mediation.



Nordic Mediation Research

Nordic Mediation Research Author Anna Nylund
ISBN-10 9783319730196
Release 2018-04-03
Pages 269
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This open access book presents twelve unique studies on mediation from researchers in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, respectively. Each study highlights important aspects of mediation, including the role of children in family mediation, the evolution and ambivalent application of restorative justice in the Nordic countries, the confusion of roles in court-connected mediation, and the challenges in dispute systems. Over the past 20-30 years, mediation has gained in popularity in many countries around the world and is often heralded as a suitable and cost-effective mode of conflict resolution. However, as the studies in this volumes show, mediation also has a number of potential drawbacks. Parties’ self-determination may be jeopardized, affected third parties are involved in an inadequate way, and the legal regulations may be flawed. The publication can inspire research, help professionals and policymakers in the field and be used as a textbook.



Religious Complexity in the Public Sphere

Religious Complexity in the Public Sphere Author Inger Furseth
ISBN-10 9783319556789
Release 2017-10-26
Pages 341
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This book is an empirical comparative study of the complexity of religion in the public spheres of the five Nordic countries. The result of a five-year collaborative research project, the work examines how increasingly religiously diverse Nordic societies regulate, debate, and negotiate religion in the state, the polity, the media, and civil society. The project finds that there are seemingly contradictory religious trends at different social levels: a growing secularization at the individual level, and a deprivatization of religion in politics, the media, and civil society. It offers a critique of the current theories of secularization and the return of religion, introducing religious complexity as an alternative concept to understand these paradoxes. This book is for scholars, students, and readers with an interest in understanding the public role of religion in the West.



The Future of Civil Litigation

The Future of Civil Litigation Author Laura Ervo
ISBN-10 9783319044651
Release 2014-07-05
Pages 431
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This book offers an analysis of the current trends and developments in Nordic civil litigation and is divided into four main parts. In the first part a picture of the current civil litigation landscape is provided by focusing on whether there is a truly Nordic form of civil litigation, the current state of Nordic civil litigation, the recent major reforms of civil procedure legislation and the effects of Europeanization. In the second part, the way rules on court-connected mediation have been implemented and practiced in the Nordic countries is discussed. The authors offer their insights on why court-connected mediation has not been fully embraced by Nordic lawyers and the Nordic approach to this type of mediation is contrasted with the Austrian and German approaches. In the third part, recent developments affecting access to justice in the Nordic countries are discussed. Among the topics are changes in legal aid schemes, the impact of recent civil procedure law reforms, hindrances for larger companies to use litigation as a method of dispute resolution and differences in costs and delays. Additionally, Alternative Dispute Resolution and Class or Group Actions are explored as methods to enhance access to justice. The potential adverse effects of Alternative Dispute Resolution and Group Actions are also examined, both in a Nordic and European context. In the final part, conclusions are drawn from both historical and future-oriented perspectives.



Introducing Philosophy of Mathematics

Introducing Philosophy of Mathematics Author Michele Friend
ISBN-10 9781317493785
Release 2014-12-05
Pages 240
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What is mathematics about? Does the subject-matter of mathematics exist independently of the mind or are they mental constructions? How do we know mathematics? Is mathematical knowledge logical knowledge? And how is mathematics applied to the material world? In this introduction to the philosophy of mathematics, Michele Friend examines these and other ontological and epistemological problems raised by the content and practice of mathematics. Aimed at a readership with limited proficiency in mathematics but with some experience of formal logic it seeks to strike a balance between conceptual accessibility and correct representation of the issues. Friend examines the standard theories of mathematics - Platonism, realism, logicism, formalism, constructivism and structuralism - as well as some less standard theories such as psychologism, fictionalism and Meinongian philosophy of mathematics. In each case Friend explains what characterises the position and where the divisions between them lie, including some of the arguments in favour and against each. This book also explores particular questions that occupy present-day philosophers and mathematicians such as the problem of infinity, mathematical intuition and the relationship, if any, between the philosophy of mathematics and the practice of mathematics. Taking in the canonical ideas of Aristotle, Kant, Frege and Whitehead and Russell as well as the challenging and innovative work of recent philosophers like Benacerraf, Hellman, Maddy and Shapiro, Friend provides a balanced and accessible introduction suitable for upper-level undergraduate courses and the non-specialist.



Communicating Politics

Communicating Politics Author Jesper Strömbäck
ISBN-10 9189471636
Release 2008
Pages 276
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This is followed by a chapter by Kersti Torbjørnsrud, entitled Organizing Audiovisual Campaign Coverage and Its Influence on Power Relation Between Media and Politics in Norway. In her chapter, the author discusses how audiovisual campaign coverage is organized in Norway, and then, based on a production study and interviews with editors and political actors, proceeds to analyze how the organization of this news coverage influences power relations between media and politics in Norway. In the final chapter, we summarize and analyze the findings from both the country chapters and the case studies, and make an assessment of the classification of the Nordic countries as forming part of the Democratic Corporatist Model of media and politics. As editors, we hope this will give the reader not only a number of chapters that are interesting in themselves, but also a better understanding of differences and similarities between the Nordic countries



The Company Legal Department

The Company Legal Department Author Walter Kolvenbach
ISBN-10 9789401744850
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 135
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This study attempts to describe the role of the company law department within the company, its relation to company management and the employees who use the services of the company lawyers. It, furthermore, tries to explain that the legal advice is only one part of the operation of a legal department in a business enterprise. Other important aspects are the legal costs, organiza tional questions and coordination problems within the department as well as the relationship of the company legal department with the other departments in the enterprise and, last but not least, the relationship between house counsel and outside counsel. The increasing volume of legislation and regulations in all industrialized -countries resulted in an increase in the number of company legal departments and company lawyers. All large companies now have their own company legal department. Therefore, it seems appropriate to attempt to describe some aspects relating to this part of the legal profession, which is relatively new, and which has developed differently from country to country. The position of the company counsel and his relationship with the company and its em ployees, his professional background and his relationship with the Bar are important subjects which require further study.



Childlessness in Europe Contexts Causes and Consequences

Childlessness in Europe  Contexts  Causes  and Consequences Author Michaela Kreyenfeld
ISBN-10 9783319446677
Release 2017-01-11
Pages 370
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This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This open access book provides an overview of childlessness throughout Europe. It offers a collection of papers written by leading demographers and sociologists that examine contexts, causes, and consequences of childlessness in countries throughout the region.The book features data from all over Europe. It specifically highlights patterns of childlessness in Germany, France, the United Kingdom, Finland, Sweden, Austria and Switzerland. An additional chapter on childlessness in the United States puts the European experience in perspective. The book offers readers such insights as the determinants of lifelong childlessness, whether governments can and should counteract increasing childlessness, how the phenomenon differs across social strata and the role economic uncertainties play. In addition, the book also examines life course dynamics and biographical patterns, assisted reproduction as well as the consequences of childlessness. Childlessness has been increasing rapidly in most European countries in recent decades. This book offers readers expert analysis into this issue from leading experts in the field of family behavior. From causes to consequences, it explores the many facets of childlessness throughout Europe to present a comprehensive portrait of this important demographic and sociological trend.



Ratio Legis

Ratio Legis Author Verena Klappstein
ISBN-10 9783319742717
Release 2018-05-02
Pages 205
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The book is dedicated to the theoretical problems concerning ratio legis. In the contexts of legal interpretation and legal reasoning, the two most important intellectual tools employed by lawyers, ratio legis would seem to offer an extremely powerful argument. Declaring the ratio legis of a statute can lead to a u-turn argumentation throughout the lifespan of the statute itself – in parliament, or in practice during court sessions, when it is tested against the constitution. Though the ratio legis argument is widely used, much about it warrants further investigation. On the general philosophical map there are many overlapping areas that concern different approaches to human rationality and to the problems of practical reasoning. Particular problems with ratio legis arise in connection with different perspectives on legal philosophy and theory, especially in terms of the methods that lawyers use for legal interpretation and argumentation. These problems can be further subdivided into particular aspects of activities undertaken by lawyers and officials who use the ratio legis in their work, and the underlying theories. In short, this book examines what ratio legis is, what it could be, and its practical implications.



Reforming Water Law and Governance

Reforming Water Law and Governance Author Cameron Holley
ISBN-10 9789811089770
Release 2018-04-27
Pages 298
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This book identifies the most effective water policy tools and innovations, and the circumstances that foster their successful implementation by taking a comparative look at a world-leading ‘laboratory’ of water law and governance: Australia. In particular, the book analyses Australia’s 20-year experience implementing a hybrid governance system of markets, hierarchical regulation, and collaborative integrated water planning. Australia is acknowledged as a world leader in water governance reform, and an examination of its relatively mature water law and governance system has great significance for many international academics and jurisdictions. This book synthesises practical lessons and theoretical insights from Australia, as well as recommendations from comparative analysis with countries such as the United States to provide useful guidance for policymakers and scholars seeking to apply water instruments in a wide range of policy contexts. The book also advances our understanding of water and broader environmental governance theory and is a valuable reference for scholars, researchers and students working in law, regulation and governance studies – especially in the field of water and environmental law.



Trends in Learning Structures in Higher Education

Trends in Learning Structures in Higher Education Author Guy Haug
ISBN-10 8790470125
Release 1999
Pages 71
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Trends in Learning Structures in Higher Education has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Trends in Learning Structures in Higher Education also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Trends in Learning Structures in Higher Education book for free.



Democracy in a Russian Mirror

Democracy in a Russian Mirror Author Adam Przeworski
ISBN-10 9781107053397
Release 2015-05-21
Pages 354
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What can we learn about democracy from the experience of post-Soviet Russia? What can we learn about the prospects for democracy in Russia from the experience of 'really existing democracies'? Must some 'pre-requisites', cultural or material, be fulfilled for democracy to become possible? This book examines the current state of Russia and the prospects for democracy, posing several challenges to our understanding of democracy. Thirteen contributors expand the debate over these questions, offering a variety of insights, interpretations, and conclusions vital to understanding the conditions of emergence and survival of successful democracies.



The Nordic Countries and the European Security and Defence Policy

The Nordic Countries and the European Security and Defence Policy Author Alyson J. K. Bailes
ISBN-10 0199290849
Release 2006
Pages 427
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A special feature of Europe's Nordic region is that only one of its states has joined both the European Union and NATO. Nordic countries also share a certain distrust of approaches to security that rely too much on force or that may disrupt the logic and liberties of civil society. Impacting on this environment, the EU's decision in 1999 to develop its own military capacities for crisis management - taken together with other ongoing shifts in Western security agendas and US-Europe relations - has created complex challenges for Nordic policy establishments. This multi-author volume combines the techniques of reporting and analysis, debate and reduction, to illuminate the consequences for the five Nordic countries, Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. The views expressed in it by Nordic and non-Nordic, younger and more established analysts reflect the political and intellectual ferment triggered in the Nordic region by these developments: in the process shedding light on defence and security challenges that matter deeply for Europe as a whole.



The Arras Witch Treatises

The Arras Witch Treatises Author
ISBN-10 9780271077505
Release 2016-05-16
Pages 168
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This is the first complete and accessible English translation of two major source texts—Tinctor’s Invectives and the anonymous Recollectio—that arose from the notorious Arras witch hunts and trials in the mid-fifteenth century in France. These writings, by the “Anonymous of Arras” (believed to be the trial judge Jacques du Bois) and the intellectual Johannes Tinctor, offer valuable eyewitness perspectives on one of the very first mass trials and persecutions of alleged witches in European history. More importantly, they provide a window onto the early development of witchcraft theory and demonology in western Europe during the late medieval period—an entire generation before the infamous Witches’ Hammer appeared. Perfect for the classroom, The Arras Witch Treatises includes a reader-friendly introduction situating the treatises and trials in their historical and intellectual contexts. Scholars, students, and others interested in the occult will find these translations invaluable.



Psychology of Intelligence Analysis

Psychology of Intelligence Analysis Author Richards J. Heuer
ISBN-10 9780160590351
Release 1999
Pages 184
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Psychology of Intelligence Analysis has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Psychology of Intelligence Analysis also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Psychology of Intelligence Analysis book for free.



European Civil Procedure

European Civil Procedure Author Paolo Biavati
ISBN-10 9789041136343
Release 2011
Pages 214
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European Civil Procedure has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from European Civil Procedure also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full European Civil Procedure book for free.



Women in Parliament

Women in Parliament Author Julie Ballington
ISBN-10 9185391190
Release 2005
Pages 265
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DESCRIPTION FROM 1ST EDITION: Now that women have made some inroads into this political arena, how are they impacting on it? What obstacles impede women from impacting? By what means can women overcome these obstacles? What are the strategies women can and have used to change policies and the political process through parliament? What are some of the changes that have occurred now that women are entering this traditionally male world? This book takes a closer look at these issues. Following extensive consultation with former and present women MPs, this handbook was written with the input of parliamentarians, academics and activists. With a foreword by Frene Ginwala, Speaker of the National Assembly of South Africa, and case studies covering Costa Rica, Egypt, India, Jordan, Lebanon, Norway, Russia and South Africa the book gives a global perspective on women's political struggle to impact on parliamentary politics. Also gives a detailed account of ways that the rules of parliaments can be changed to better serve women and to promote issues of concern to women.