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Data Assimilation for Atmospheric Oceanic and Hydrologic Applications

Data Assimilation for Atmospheric  Oceanic and Hydrologic Applications Author Seon Ki Park
ISBN-10 9783319434155
Release 2016-12-26
Pages 553
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This book contains the most recent progress in data assimilation in meteorology, oceanography and hydrology including land surface. It spans both theoretical and applicative aspects with various methodologies such as variational, Kalman filter, ensemble, Monte Carlo and artificial intelligence methods. Besides data assimilation, other important topics are also covered including targeting observation, sensitivity analysis, and parameter estimation. The book will be useful to individual researchers as well as graduate students for a reference in the field of data assimilation.



Atmospheric Modeling Data Assimilation and Predictability

Atmospheric Modeling  Data Assimilation and Predictability Author Eugenia Kalnay
ISBN-10 0521796296
Release 2003
Pages 341
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This book, first published in 2002, is a graduate-level text on numerical weather prediction, including atmospheric modeling, data assimilation and predictability.



Data Assimilation for the Geosciences

Data Assimilation for the Geosciences Author Steven James Fletcher
ISBN-10 9780128044841
Release 2017-03-10
Pages 976
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Data Assimilation for the Geosciences: From Theory to Application brings together all of the mathematical,statistical, and probability background knowledge needed to formulate data assimilation systems in one place. It includes practical exercises for understanding theoretical formulation and presents some aspects of coding the theory with a toy problem. The book also demonstrates how data assimilation systems are implemented in larger scale fluid dynamical problems related to the atmosphere, oceans, as well as the land surface and other geophysical situations. It offers a comprehensive presentation of the subject, from basic principles to advanced methods, such as Particle Filters and Markov-Chain Monte-Carlo methods. Additionally, Data Assimilation for the Geosciences: From Theory to Application covers the applications of data assimilation techniques in various disciplines of the geosciences, making the book useful to students, teachers, and research scientists. Includes practical exercises, enabling readers to apply concepts in a theoretical formulation Offers explanations for how to code certain parts of the theory Presents a step-by-step guide on how, and why, data assimilation works and can be used



Advanced Numerical Modeling and Data Assimilation Techniques for Tropical Cyclone Predictions

Advanced Numerical Modeling and Data Assimilation Techniques for Tropical Cyclone Predictions Author U.C. Mohanty
ISBN-10 9789402408966
Release 2016-11-21
Pages 746
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This book deals primarily with monitoring, prediction and understanding of Tropical Cyclones (TCs). It was envisioned to serve as a teaching and reference resource at universities and academic institutions for researchers and post-graduate students. It has been designed to provide a broad outlook on recent advances in observations, assimilation and modeling of TCs with detailed and advanced information on genesis, intensification, movement and storm surge prediction. Specifically, it focuses on (i) state-of-the-art observations for advancing TC research, (ii) advances in numerical weather prediction for TCs, (iii) advanced assimilation and vortex initialization techniques, (iv) ocean coupling, (v) current capabilities to predict TCs, and (vi) advanced research in physical and dynamical processes in TCs. The chapters in the book are authored by leading international experts from academic, research and operational environments. The book is also expected to stimulate critical thinking for cyclone forecasters and researchers, managers, policy makers, and graduate and post-graduate students to carry out future research in the field of TCs.



Data Assimilation

Data Assimilation Author William Lahoz
ISBN-10 3540747036
Release 2010-07-23
Pages 718
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Data assimilation methods were largely developed for operational weather forecasting, but in recent years have been applied to an increasing range of earth science disciplines. This book will set out the theoretical basis of data assimilation with contributions by top international experts in the field. Various aspects of data assimilation are discussed including: theory; observations; models; numerical weather prediction; evaluation of observations and models; assessment of future satellite missions; application to components of the Earth System. References are made to recent developments in data assimilation theory (e.g. Ensemble Kalman filter), and to novel applications of the data assimilation method (e.g. ionosphere, Mars data assimilation).



Operational Oceanography in the 21st Century

Operational Oceanography in the 21st Century Author Andreas Schiller
ISBN-10 9400703325
Release 2011-04-11
Pages 745
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Over the past decade the significant advances in real-time ocean observing systems, ocean modelling, ocean data assimilation and super-computing has seen the development and implementation of operational ocean forecast systems of the global ocean. At the conclusion of the Global Ocean Data Assimilation Experiment (GODAE) in 2008 ocean analysis and forecasting services were being supported by 12 international centres. This book is about ocean forecasting - a maturing field which remains an active area of research, and includes such topics as ocean predictability, observing system design, high resolution ocean modelling and ocean data assimilation. It presents the introduction to ocean forecasting which provides a foundation for new opportunities in areas of coupled bio-geochemical forecasting and coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean forecasting. The book describes an updated account of research and development to improve forecast systems, determining how best to service the marine user community with forecast information as well as demonstrating impact to their applications. It also discusses operational centres that are now supporting a range of real-time ocean services including online graphical and data products for their user communities and their feedback on the quality of information. The contents of this book are aimed at early career scientists and professionals with an interest in operational oceanography and related ocean science. There are excellent opportunities for exciting careers in the emerging field of operational oceanography in order to address current and future challenges as well as provide the supporting services to a rapidly growing user community.



Data Assimilation

Data Assimilation Author Geir Evensen
ISBN-10 9783642037115
Release 2009-08-17
Pages 307
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This book reviews popular data-assimilation methods, such as weak and strong constraint variational methods, ensemble filters and smoothers. The author shows how different methods can be derived from a common theoretical basis, as well as how they differ or are related to each other, and which properties characterize them, using several examples. Readers will appreciate the included introductory material and detailed derivations in the text, and a supplemental web site.



Hydrometeorology

Hydrometeorology Author Kevin Sene
ISBN-10 9783319235462
Release 2015-12-09
Pages 427
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This second edition explores some of the latest techniques used to provide forecasts for a wide range of water-related applications in areas such as floods, droughts, water resources and environmental impacts. The practical uses can range from decisions on whether to issue a flood warning through to providing longer-term advice such as on when to plant and harvest crops or how to operate reservoirs for water supply and hydropower schemes. It provides an introduction to the topic for practitioners and researchers and useful background for courses in areas such as civil engineering, water resources, meteorology and hydrology. As in the first edition, the first section considers topics such as monitoring and forecasting techniques, demand forecasting and how forecasts are interpreted when issuing warnings or advice. Separate chapters are now included for meteorological and catchment monitoring techniques allowing a more in-depth discussion of topics such as weather radar and water quality observations. The chapters on meteorological and hydrological forecasting now include a greater emphasis on rainfall forecasting and ensemble and probabilistic techniques. Regarding the interpretation of forecasts, an updated chapter discusses topics such as approaches to issuing warnings and the use of decision support systems and risk-based techniques. Given the rapid pace of development in flash flood fore casting techniques, flash floods and slower responding riverine floods are now considered in separate chapters. This includes more detail on forecasting floods in large river basins and on methods for providing early warnings of debris flows, surface water flooding and ice jam and dam break floods. Later chapters now include more information on developing areas such as environmental modelling and seasonal flow forecasting. As before examples of operational systems are provided throughout and the extensive sets of references which were a feature of the first edition have been revised and updated. Key themes • floods • droughts • meteorological observations • catchment monitoring • meteorological forecasts • hydrological forecasts • demand forecasts • reservoirs • water resources • water quality • decision support • data assimilation • probabilistic forecasts Kevin Sene is a civil engineer and researcher with wide experience in flood risk management, water resources and hydrometeorology. He has previously published books on flood warning, forecasting and emergency response and flash floods (Springer 2008, 2013).



Dynamic Data Assimilation

Dynamic Data Assimilation Author John M. Lewis
ISBN-10 9780521851558
Release 2006-08-03
Pages 654
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Dynamic data assimilation is the assessment, combination and synthesis of observational data, scientific laws and mathematical models to determine the state of a complex physical system, for instance as a preliminary step in making predictions about the system's behaviour. The topic has assumed increasing importance in fields such as numerical weather prediction where conscientious efforts are being made to extend the term of reliable weather forecasts beyond the few days that are presently feasible. This book is designed to be a basic one-stop reference for graduate students and researchers. It is based on graduate courses taught over a decade to mathematicians, scientists, and engineers, and its modular structure accommodates the various audience requirements. Thus Part I is a broad introduction to the history, development and philosophy of data assimilation, illustrated by examples; Part II considers the classical, static approaches, both linear and nonlinear; and Part III describes computational techniques. Parts IV to VII are concerned with how statistical and dynamic ideas can be incorporated into the classical framework. Key themes covered here include estimation theory, stochastic and dynamic models, and sequential filtering. The final part addresses the predictability of dynamical systems. Chapters end with a section that provides pointers to the literature, and a set of exercises with instructive hints.



Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System CAWSES

Climate and Weather of the Sun Earth System  CAWSES Author Franz-Josef Lübken
ISBN-10 9789400743489
Release 2012-08-14
Pages 634
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CAWSES (Climate and Weather of the Sun-Earth System) is the most important scientific program of SCOSTEP (Scientific Committee on Solar-Terrestrial Physics). CAWSES has triggered a scientific priority program within the German Research Foundation for a period of 6 years. Approximately 30 scientific institutes and 120 scientists were involved in Germany with strong links to international partners. The priority program focuses on solar influence on climate, atmospheric coupling processes, and space climatology. This book summarizes the most important results from this program covering some important research topics from the Sun to climate. Solar related processes are studied including the evolution of solar radiation with relevance to climate. Results regarding the influence of the Sun on the terrestrial atmosphere from the troposphere to the thermosphere are presented including stratospheric ozone, mesospheric ice clouds, geomagnetic effects, and their relevance to climate. Several chapters highlight the importance of coupling mechanisms within the atmosphere, covering transport mechanisms of photochemically active species, dynamical processes such as gravity waves, tides, and planetary waves, and feedback mechanisms between the thermal and dynamical structure of the atmosphere. Special attention is paid to climate signals in the middle and upper atmosphere and their significance relative to natural variability.



Land Surface Observation Modeling and Data Assimilation

Land Surface Observation  Modeling and Data Assimilation Author Shunlin Liang
ISBN-10 9789814472623
Release 2013-09-23
Pages 492
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This book is unique in its ambitious and comprehensive coverage of earth system land surface characterization, from observation and modeling to data assimilation, including recent developments in theory and techniques, and novel application cases. The contributing authors are active research scientists, and many of them are internationally known leading experts in their areas, ensuring that the text is authoritative. This book comprises four parts that are logically connected from data, modeling, data assimilation integrating data and models to applications. Land data assimilation is the key focus of the book, which encompasses both theoretical and applied aspects with various novel methodologies and applications to the water cycle, carbon cycle, crop monitoring, and yield estimation. Readers can benefit from a state-of-the-art presentation of the latest tools and their usage for understanding earth system processes. Discussions in the book present and stimulate new challenges and questions facing today's earth science and modeling communities. Contents:Observation:Remote Sensing Data Products for Land Surface Data Assimilation System Application (Yunjun Yao, Shunlin Liang and Tongren Xu)Second-Generation Polar-Orbiting Meteorological Satellites of China: The Fengyun 3 Series and Its Applications in Global Monitoring (Peng Zhang)NASA Satellite and Model Land Data Services: Data Access Tutorial (Suhung Shen, Gregory Leptoukh and Hongliang Fang)Modeling:Land Surface Process Study and Modeling in Drylands and High-Elevation Regions (Yingying Chen and Kun Yang)Review of Parameterization and Parameter Estimation for Hydrologic Models (Soroosh Sorooshian and Wei Chu)Data Assimilation:Assimilating Remote Sensing Data into Land Surface Models: Theory and Methods (Xin Li and Yulong Bai)Estimating Model and Observation Error Covariance Information for Land Data Assimilation Systems (Wade T Crow)Inflation Adjustment on Error Covariance Matrices for Ensemble Kalman Filter Assimilation (Xiaogu Zheng, Guocan Wu, Xiao Liang and Shupeng Zhang)A Review of Error Estimation in Land Data Assimilation Systems (Yulong Bai, Xin Li and Qianlong Chai)An Introduction to Multi-scale Kalman Smoother-Based Framework and Its Application to Data Assimilation (Daniel E Salas and Xu Liang)Application:Overview of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) (Youlong Xia, Brian A Cosgrove, Michael B Ek, Justin Sheffield, Lifeng Luo, Eric F Wood, Kingtse Mo and the NLDAS team)Soil Moisture Data Assimilation for State Initialization of Seasonal Climate Prediction (Wenge Ni-Meister)Assimilation of Remote Sensing Data and Crop Simulation Models for Agricultural Study: Recent Advances and Future Directions (Hongliang Fang, Shunlin Liang and Gerrit Hoogenboom)Simultaneous State-Parameter Estimation for Hydrologic Modeling Using Ensemble Kalman Filter (Xianhong Xie) Readership: Graduate students and scientists in remote sensing, hydrology, ecology, environment and other earth sciences. Keywords:Data Assimilation;Uncertainties;Land Surface Processes;Satellite Data;Dynamic ModelsKey Features:The contribution authors are a group of leading experts international in those areasIt elaborates on the state-of-the-art land data assimilation, from theoretical derivations to current application problemsIt provides the latest development of satellite data and products, and presents novel applications of data assimilation for water cycle, crop monitoring and yield estimation



Land Surface Remote Sensing in Continental Hydrology

Land Surface Remote Sensing in Continental Hydrology Author Nicolas Baghdadi
ISBN-10 9780081011812
Release 2016-09-19
Pages 502
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The continental hydrological cycle is one of the least understood components of the climate system. The understanding of the different processes involved is important in the fields of hydrology and meteorology. In this volume the main applications for continental hydrology are presented, including the characterization of the states of continental surfaces (water state, snow cover, etc.) using active and passive remote sensing, monitoring the Antarctic ice sheet and land water surface heights using radar altimetry, the characterization of redistributions of water masses using the GRACE mission, the potential of GNSS-R technology in hydrology, and remote sensing data assimilation in hydrological models. This book, part of a set of six volumes, has been produced by scientists who are internationally renowned in their fields. It is addressed to students (engineers, Masters, PhD) , engineers and scientists, specialists in remote sensing applied to hydrology. Through this pedagogical work, the authors contribute to breaking down the barriers that hinder the use of Earth observation data. Provides clear and concise descriptions of modern remote sensing methods Explores the most current remote sensing techniques with physical aspects of the measurement (theory) and their applications Provides chapters on physical principles, measurement, and data processing for each technique described Describes optical remote sensing technology, including a description of acquisition systems and measurement corrections to be made



Atmospheric Research From Different Perspectives

Atmospheric Research From Different Perspectives Author Ralf Koppmann
ISBN-10 9783319064956
Release 2014-05-27
Pages 57
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The book, the first in a series arising from the research network The Reacting Atmosphere, explains and outlines the aims of this ambitious cross-disciplinary effort. The central topic is air quality and climate change, and the methods of atmospheric physics and chemistry, applied mathematics and socio-economic science are used to advance the understanding of the role of the atmosphere in global change.



Data Assimilation and its Applications

Data Assimilation and its Applications Author Maithili Sharan
ISBN-10 3034804415
Release 2012-05-19
Pages 286
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Data assimilation is a novel, versatile methodology for estimating atmospheric and oceanic variables. The estimation of a quantity of interest via data assimilation involves the combination of observational data with the underlying dynamical principles governing the system under observation. This volume contains many original findings in data assimilation and its applications related to atmospheric, oceanic and environmental systems. This covers various data assimilation techniques with in Bayesian and non-Bayesian framework ranging from Least-Square, nudging, three dimensional variational (3DVAR), four-dimensional variational (4DVAR), Local Ensemble Kalman filter, Genetic algorithm etc. This also covers the applications to extreme weather event, hurricane, Asian summer monsoon, structure of the barrier layer in the equatorial Pacific ocean and identification of emission sources. This volume will be useful as a reading material in graduate level courses dealing with data assimilation and its application to meteorology, ocean and air quality. The scientific community at large especially younger scientists will find this book a useful addition to their personal and institutional libraries.



Data Assimilation

Data Assimilation Author Pierre P. Brasseur
ISBN-10 9783642789397
Release 2013-06-29
Pages 253
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Data assimilation is considered a key component of numerical ocean model development and new data acquisition strategies. The basic concept of data assimilation is to combine real observations via estimation theory with dynamic models. Related methodologies exist in meteorology, geophysics and engineering. Of growing importance in physical oceanography, data assimilation can also be exploited in biological and chemical oceanography. Such techniques are now recognized as essential to understand the role of the ocean in a global change perspective. The book focuses on data processing algorithms for assimilation, current methods for the assimilation of biogeochemical data, strategy of model development, and the design of observational data for assimilation.



Weather Radar

Weather Radar Author Peter Meischner
ISBN-10 9783662052020
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 337
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With their images practically ubiquitious in the daily media, weather radar systems provide data not only for understanding weather systems and improving forecasts (especially critical for severe weather), but also for hydrological applications, flood warnings and climate research in which ground verification is needed for global precipitation measurements by satellites. This book offers an accessible overview of advanced methods, applications and modern research from the European perspective. An extensive introductory chapter summarizes the principles of weather radars and discusses the potential of modern radar systems, including Doppler and polarisation techniques, data processing, and error-correction methods. Addressing both specialist researchers and nonspecialists from related areas, this book will also be useful for graduate students planning to specialize in this field



Satellites Oceanography and Society

Satellites  Oceanography and Society Author D. Halpern
ISBN-10 9780080540719
Release 2000-06-06
Pages 380
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The book shows how the new observations from satellites required advances in theory and influenced societal decision-making. Chapters have a review with an extensive reference list, making the book an excellent source of information for biological and physical oceanographers and atmospheric scientists. A large range of state-of-the art applications of satellite data (altimeter, color, infrared radiometer, scatterometer, synthetic aperture radar) visible in regional-to-global scale ocean studies integrating satellite and in-situ measurements with circulation models are covered in the book. Subjects include forecasting of surface waves, both swell and windsea, and surface wind; El Niño/La Niña; exchange of water masses between ocean basins, Rossby waves; eddies and filaments; fisheries; coastal ocean dynamics; phytoplankton dynamics; and ideas to measure sea surface salinity.