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Design and Analysis of Bridging Studies

Design and Analysis of Bridging Studies Author Jen-pei Liu
ISBN-10 9781439846346
Release 2012-07-26
Pages 287
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As the development of medicines has become more globalized, the geographic variations in the efficacy and safety of pharmaceutical products need to be addressed. To accelerate the product development process and shorten approval time, researchers are beginning to design multiregional trials that incorporate subjects from many countries around the world under the same protocol. Design and Analysis of Bridging Studies addresses the issues arising from bridging studies and multiregional clinical trials. For bridging studies, the book explores ethnic sensitivity, the necessity of bridging studies, types of bridging studies, and the assessment of similarity between regions based on bridging evidence. For multiregional clinical trials, the text considers regional differences, assesses the consistency of treatment effect across regions, and discusses sample size determination for each region. Taking into account the International Conference Harmonisation (ICH) E5 framework for bridging studies, the book provides a unified summary of the growing literature and research activities in this area. It covers the regulatory requirements, scientific and practical issues, and statistical methodology for designing and evaluating bridging studies and multiregional clinical trials, with the goal of inspiring new research activities in the field.

Randomized Phase II Cancer Clinical Trials

Randomized Phase II Cancer Clinical Trials Author Sin-Ho Jung
ISBN-10 9781439871850
Release 2013-05-02
Pages 244
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In cancer research, a traditional phase II trial is designed as a single-arm trial that compares the experimental therapy to a historical control. This simple trial design has led to several adverse issues, including increased false positivity of phase II trial results and negative phase III trials. To rectify these problems, oncologists and biostatisticians have begun to use a randomized phase II trial that compares an experimental therapy with a prospective control therapy. Randomized Phase II Cancer Clinical Trials explains how to properly select and accurately use diverse statistical methods for designing and analyzing phase II trials. The author first reviews the statistical methods for single-arm phase II trials since some methodologies for randomized phase II trials stem from single-arm phase II trials and many phase II cancer clinical trials still use single-arm designs. The book then presents methods for randomized phase II trials and describes statistical methods for both single-arm and randomized phase II trials. Although the text focuses on phase II cancer clinical trials, the statistical methods covered can also be used (with minor modifications) in phase II trials for other diseases and in phase III cancer clinical trials. Suitable for cancer clinicians and biostatisticians, this book shows how randomized phase II trials with a prospective control resolve the shortcomings of traditional single-arm phase II trials. It provides readers with numerous statistical design and analysis methods for randomized phase II trials in oncology.

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research

Sample Size Calculations in Clinical Research Author Shein-Chung Chow
ISBN-10 0203911342
Release 2003-03-04
Pages 358
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Sample size calculation plays an important role in clinical research. It is not uncommon, however, to observe discrepancies among study objectives (or hypotheses), study design, statistical analysis (or test statistic), and sample size calculation. Focusing on sample size calculation for studies conducted during the various phases of clinical research and development, Sample Size Calculation in Clinical Research explores the causes of discrepancies and how to avoid them. This volume provides formulas and procedures for determination of sample size required not only for testing equality, but also for testing non-inferiority/superiority, and equivalence (similarity) based on both untransformed (raw) data and log-transformed data under a parallel-group design or a crossover design with equal or unequal ratio of treatment allocations. It contains a comprehensive and unified presentation of statistical procedures for sample size calculation that are commonly employed at various phases of clinical development. Each chapter includes, whenever possible, real examples of clinical studies from therapeutic areas such as cardiovascular, central nervous system, anti-infective, oncology, and women's health to demonstrate the clinical and statistical concepts, interpretations, and their relationships and interactions. The book highlights statistical procedures for sample size calculation and justification that are commonly employed in clinical research and development. It provides clear, illustrated explanations of how the derived formulas and/or statistical procedures can be used.

Cancer Clinical Trials

Cancer Clinical Trials Author Stephen L. George
ISBN-10 9781315354330
Release 2016-08-03
Pages 474
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Cancer Clinical Trials: Current and Controversial Issues in Design and Analysis provides statisticians with an understanding of the critical challenges currently encountered in oncology trials. Well-known statisticians from academic institutions, regulatory and government agencies (such as the U.S. FDA and National Cancer Institute), and the pharmaceutical industry share their extensive experiences in cancer clinical trials and present examples taken from actual trials. The book covers topics that are often perplexing and sometimes controversial in cancer clinical trials. Most of the issues addressed are also important for clinical trials in other settings. After discussing general topics, the book focuses on aspects of early and late phase clinical trials. It also explores personalized medicine, including biomarker-based clinical trials, adaptive clinical trial designs, and dynamic treatment regimes.

Bayesian Methods in Health Economics

Bayesian Methods in Health Economics Author Gianluca Baio
ISBN-10 9781439895559
Release 2012-11-12
Pages 244
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Health economics is concerned with the study of the cost-effectiveness of health care interventions. This book provides an overview of Bayesian methods for the analysis of health economic data. After an introduction to the basic economic concepts and methods of evaluation, it presents Bayesian statistics using accessible mathematics. The next chapters describe the theory and practice of cost-effectiveness analysis from a statistical viewpoint, and Bayesian computation, notably MCMC. The final chapter presents three detailed case studies covering cost-effectiveness analyses using individual data from clinical trials, evidence synthesis and hierarchical models and Markov models. The text uses WinBUGS and JAGS with datasets and code available online.

Optimal Design for Nonlinear Response Models

Optimal Design for Nonlinear Response Models Author Valerii V. Fedorov
ISBN-10 9781439821510
Release 2013-07-15
Pages 402
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Optimal Design for Nonlinear Response Models discusses the theory and applications of model-based experimental design with a strong emphasis on biopharmaceutical studies. The book draws on the authors’ many years of experience in academia and the pharmaceutical industry. While the focus is on nonlinear models, the book begins with an explanation of the key ideas, using linear models as examples. Applying the linearization in the parameter space, it then covers nonlinear models and locally optimal designs as well as minimax, optimal on average, and Bayesian designs. The authors also discuss adaptive designs, focusing on procedures with non-informative stopping. The common goals of experimental design—such as reducing costs, supporting efficient decision making, and gaining maximum information under various constraints—are often the same across diverse applied areas. Ethical and regulatory aspects play a much more prominent role in biological, medical, and pharmaceutical research. The authors address all of these issues through many examples in the book.

Applied Meta Analysis with R

Applied Meta Analysis with R Author Ding-Geng (Din) Chen
ISBN-10 9781466505995
Release 2013-05-03
Pages 342
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In biostatistical research and courses, practitioners and students often lack a thorough understanding of how to apply statistical methods to synthesize biomedical and clinical trial data. Filling this knowledge gap, Applied Meta-Analysis with R shows how to implement statistical meta-analysis methods to real data using R. Drawing on their extensive research and teaching experiences, the authors provide detailed, step-by-step explanations of the implementation of meta-analysis methods using R. Each chapter gives examples of real studies compiled from the literature. After presenting the data and necessary background for understanding the applications, various methods for analyzing meta-data are introduced. The authors then develop analysis code using the appropriate R packages and functions. This systematic approach helps readers thoroughly understand the analysis methods and R implementation, enabling them to use R and the methods to analyze their own meta-data. Suitable as a graduate-level text for a meta-data analysis course, the book is also a valuable reference for practitioners and biostatisticians (even those with little or no experience in using R) in public health, medical research, governmental agencies, and the pharmaceutical industry.

Survival Analysis in Medicine and Genetics

Survival Analysis in Medicine and Genetics Author Jialiang Li
ISBN-10 9781439893111
Release 2013-06-04
Pages 381
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Using real data sets throughout, Survival Analysis in Medicine and Genetics introduces the latest methods for analyzing high-dimensional survival data. It provides thorough coverage of recent statistical developments in the medical and genetics fields. The text mainly addresses special concerns of the survival model. After covering the fundamentals, it discusses interval censoring, nonparametric and semiparametric hazard regression, multivariate survival data analysis, the sub-distribution method for competing risks data, the cure rate model, and Bayesian inference methods. The authors then focus on time-dependent diagnostic medicine and high-dimensional genetic data analysis. Many of the methods are illustrated with clinical examples. Emphasizing the applications of survival analysis techniques in genetics, this book presents a statistical framework for burgeoning research in this area and offers a set of established approaches for statistical analysis. It reveals a new way of looking at how predictors are associated with censored survival time and extracts novel statistical genetic methods for censored survival time outcome from the vast amount of research results in genomics.

Bayesian Methods in Epidemiology

Bayesian Methods in Epidemiology Author Lyle D. Broemeling
ISBN-10 9781466564978
Release 2013-08-13
Pages 464
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Written by a biostatistics expert with over 20 years of experience in the field, Bayesian Methods in Epidemiology presents statistical methods used in epidemiology from a Bayesian viewpoint. It employs the software package WinBUGS to carry out the analyses and offers the code in the text and for download online. The book examines study designs that investigate the association between exposure to risk factors and the occurrence of disease. It covers introductory adjustment techniques to compare mortality between states and regression methods to study the association between various risk factors and disease, including logistic regression, simple and multiple linear regression, categorical/ordinal regression, and nonlinear models. The text also introduces a Bayesian approach for the estimation of survival by life tables and illustrates other approaches to estimate survival, including a parametric model based on the Weibull distribution and the Cox proportional hazards (nonparametric) model. Using Bayesian methods to estimate the lead time of the modality, the author explains how to screen for a disease among individuals that do not exhibit any symptoms of the disease. With many examples and end-of-chapter exercises, this book is the first to introduce epidemiology from a Bayesian perspective. It shows epidemiologists how these Bayesian models and techniques are useful in studying the association between disease and exposure to risk factors.

Benefit Risk Assessment Methods in Medical Product Development

Benefit Risk Assessment Methods in Medical Product Development Author Qi Jiang
ISBN-10 9781482259377
Release 2016-05-25
Pages 296
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Guides You on the Development and Implementation of B–R Evaluations Benefit–Risk Assessment Methods in Medical Product Development: Bridging Qualitative and Quantitative Assessments provides general guidance and case studies to aid practitioners in selecting specific benefit–risk (B–R) frameworks and quantitative methods. Leading experts from industry, regulatory agencies, and academia present practical examples, lessons learned, and best practices that illustrate how to conduct structured B–R assessment in clinical development and regulatory submission. The first section of the book discusses the role of B–R assessments in medicine development and regulation, the need for both a common B–R framework and patient input into B–R decisions, and future directions. The second section focuses on legislative and regulatory policy initiatives as well as decisions made at the U.S. FDA’s Center for Devices and Radiological Health. The third section examines key elements of B–R evaluations in a product’s life cycle, such as uncertainty evaluation and quantification, quantifying patient B–R trade-off preferences, ways to identify subgroups with the best B–R profiles, and data sources used to assist B–R assessment. The fourth section equips practitioners with tools to conduct B–R evaluations, including assessment methodologies, a quantitative joint modeling and joint evaluation framework, and several visualization tools. The final section presents a rich collection of case studies. With top specialists sharing their in-depth knowledge, thought-provoking considerations, and practical advice, this book offers comprehensive coverage of B–R evaluation methods, tools, and case studies. It gives practitioners a much-needed toolkit to develop and conduct their own B–R evaluations.

Biosimilar Clinical Development Scientific Considerations and New Methodologies

Biosimilar Clinical Development  Scientific Considerations and New Methodologies Author Kerry B. Barker
ISBN-10 9781315355900
Release 2016-11-25
Pages 268
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Biosimilars have the potential to change the way we think about, identify, and manage health problems. They are already impacting both clinical research and patient care, and this impact will only grow as our understanding and technologies improve. Written by a team of experienced specialists in clinical development, this book discusses various potential drug development strategies, the design and analysis of pharmacokinetics (PK) studies, and the design and analysis of efficacy studies.

Translational Medicine

Translational Medicine Author Dennis Cosmatos
ISBN-10 1584888733
Release 2008-12-17
Pages 224
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Examines Critical Decisions for Transitioning Lab Science to a Clinical Setting The development of therapeutic pharmaceutical compounds is becoming more expensive, and the success rates for getting such treatments approved for marketing and to the patients is decreasing. As a result, translational medicine (TM) is becoming increasingly important in the healthcare industry – a means of maximizing the consideration and use of information collected as compounds transition from initial lab discovery, through pre-clinical testing, early clinical trials, and late confirmatory studies that lead to regulatory approval of drug release to patients. Translational Medicine: Strategies and Statistical Methods suggests a process for transitioning from the initial lab discovery to the patient’s bedside with minimal disconnect and offers a comprehensive review of statistical design and methodology commonly employed in this bench-to-bedside research. Documents Alternative Research Approaches for Faster and More Accurate Data Judgment Calls Elaborating on how to introduce TM into clinical studies, this authoritative work presents a keen approach to building, executing, and validating statistical models that consider data from various phases of development. It also delineates a truly translational example to help bolster understanding of discussed concepts. This comprehensive guide effectively demonstrates how to overcome obstacles related to successful TM practice. It contains invaluable information for pharmaceutical scientists, research executives, clinicians, and biostatisticians looking to expedite successful implementation of this important process.

Statistics In the Pharmaceutical Industry 3rd Edition

Statistics In the Pharmaceutical Industry  3rd Edition Author C. Ralph Buncher
ISBN-10 0824754697
Release 2005-09-28
Pages 504
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The growth of the pharmaceutical industry over the past decade is astounding, but the impact of this growth on statistics is somewhat confusing. While software has made analysis easier and more efficient, regulatory bodies now demand deeper and more complex analyses, and pharmacogenetic/genomic studies serve up an entirely new set of challenges. For more than two decades, Statistics in the Pharmaceutical Industry has been the definitive guide to sorting through the challenges in the industry, and this Third Edition continues that tradition. Updated and expanded to reflect the most recent trends and developments in the field, Statistics in the Pharmaceutical Industry, Third Edition presents chapters written by experts from both regulatory agencies and pharmaceutical companies who discuss everything from experimental design to post-marketing studies. This approach sheds light on what regulators consider acceptable methodologies and what methods have proven successful for industrial statisticians. Both new and revised chapters reflect the increasingly global nature of the industry as represented by authors from Japan and Europe, the increasing trend toward non-inferiority/equivalence testing, adaptive design in clinical trials, global harmonization of regulatory standards, and multiple comparison studies. The book also examines the latest considerations in anti-cancer studies. Statistics in the Pharmaceutical Industry, Third Edition demystifies the approval process by combining regulatory and industrial points of view, making it a must-read for anyone performing statistical analysis at any point in the drug approval process.

Multiregional Clinical Trials for Simultaneous Global New Drug Development

Multiregional Clinical Trials for Simultaneous Global New Drug Development Author Joshua Chen
ISBN-10 9781498701488
Release 2016-04-21
Pages 353
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In a global clinical development strategy, multiregional clinical trials (MRCTs) are vital in the development of innovative medicines. Multiregional Clinical Trials for Simultaneous Global New Drug Development presents a comprehensive overview on the current status of conducting MRCTs in clinical development. International experts from academia, industry, and health organizations address various aspects of the important problems in global clinical development and MRCTs. The book first provides a high-level introduction to the context, motivation, opportunities, and challenges in simultaneous global clinical development using MRCTs. It then focuses on the design, monitoring, and analysis/interpretation of MRCTs. The book concludes with an examination of the latest research topics from MRCT perspectives, such as special considerations by local health authorities, health economic evaluations, benefit-risk assessment, and medical devices. Explaining how to design, conduct, and interpret MRCTs, this book will help biostatisticians working in the late-stage clinical development of medical products. It will also be useful for statisticians and clinicians in the biopharmaceutical industry, regulatory agencies, and medical research institutes.

Journal of Transportation and Statistics

Journal of Transportation and Statistics Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105113740208
Release 2002
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Journal of Transportation and Statistics has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Journal of Transportation and Statistics also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Journal of Transportation and Statistics book for free.

A Lexicon to Achilles Tatius

A Lexicon to Achilles Tatius Author James N. O'Sullivan
ISBN-10 9783110863628
Release 1980-01-01
Pages 442
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A Lexicon to Achilles Tatius has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from A Lexicon to Achilles Tatius also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full A Lexicon to Achilles Tatius book for free.