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Diplomatic Law

Diplomatic Law Author Eileen Denza
ISBN-10 9780198703969
Release 2016-01-14
Pages 560
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The 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations has for over 50 years been central to diplomacy and applied to all forms of relations among sovereign States. Participation is almost universal. The rules giving special protection to ambassadors are the oldest established in international law and the Convention is respected almost everywhere. But understanding it as a living instrument requires knowledge of its background in customary international law, of the negotiating history which clarifies many of its terms and the subsequent practice of states and decisions of national courts which have resolved other ambiguities. Diplomatic Law provides this in-depth Commentary. The book is an essential guide to changing methods of modern diplomacy and shows how challenges to its regime of special protection for embassies and diplomats have been met and resolved. It is used by ministries of foreign affairs and cited by domestic courts world-wide. The book analyzes the reasons for the widespread observance of the Convention rules and why in the special case of communications - where there is flagrant violation of their special status - these reasons do not apply. It describes how abuse has been controlled and how the immunities in the Convention have survived onslaught by those claiming that they should give way to conflicting entitlements to access to justice and the desire to punish violators of human rights. It describes how the duty of diplomats not to interfere in the internal affairs of the host State is being narrowed in the face of the communal international responsibility to monitor and uphold human rights.



Diplomatic Law 4E

Diplomatic Law 4E Author Eileen Denza
ISBN-10 9780191009129
Release 2016-01-14
Pages 560
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The 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations has for over 50 years been central to diplomacy and applied to all forms of relations among sovereign States. Participation is almost universal. The rules giving special protection to ambassadors are the oldest established in international law and the Convention is respected almost everywhere. But understanding it as a living instrument requires knowledge of its background in customary international law, of the negotiating history which clarifies many of its terms and the subsequent practice of states and decisions of national courts which have resolved other ambiguities. Diplomatic Law provides this in-depth Commentary. The book is an essential guide to changing methods of modern diplomacy and shows how challenges to its regime of special protection for embassies and diplomats have been met and resolved. It is used by ministries of foreign affairs and cited by domestic courts world-wide. The book analyzes the reasons for the widespread observance of the Convention rules and why in the special case of communications - where there is flagrant violation of their special status - these reasons do not apply. It describes how abuse has been controlled and how the immunities in the Convention have survived onslaught by those claiming that they should give way to conflicting entitlements to access to justice and the desire to punish violators of human rights. It describes how the duty of diplomats not to interfere in the internal affairs of the host State is being narrowed in the face of the communal international responsibility to monitor and uphold human rights.



Diplomatic Law 4E

Diplomatic Law 4E Author Eileen Denza
ISBN-10 9780191009136
Release 2016-01-14
Pages 560
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The 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations has for over 50 years been central to diplomacy and applied to all forms of relations among sovereign States. Participation is almost universal. The rules giving special protection to ambassadors are the oldest established in international law and the Convention is respected almost everywhere. But understanding it as a living instrument requires knowledge of its background in customary international law, of the negotiating history which clarifies many of its terms and the subsequent practice of states and decisions of national courts which have resolved other ambiguities. Diplomatic Law provides this in-depth Commentary. The book is an essential guide to changing methods of modern diplomacy and shows how challenges to its regime of special protection for embassies and diplomats have been met and resolved. It is used by ministries of foreign affairs and cited by domestic courts world-wide. The book analyzes the reasons for the widespread observance of the Convention rules and why in the special case of communications - where there is flagrant violation of their special status - these reasons do not apply. It describes how abuse has been controlled and how the immunities in the Convention have survived onslaught by those claiming that they should give way to conflicting entitlements to access to justice and the desire to punish violators of human rights. It describes how the duty of diplomats not to interfere in the internal affairs of the host State is being narrowed in the face of the communal international responsibility to monitor and uphold human rights.



The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol

The 1951 Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees and Its 1967 Protocol Author Andreas Zimmermann
ISBN-10 9780199542512
Release 2011-01-27
Pages 1799
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'.. this work is intended to provide an in-depth analysis of each and every provision of the 1951 Convention and its 1967 Protocol. Special contributions on topics that cut across various provisions or that provide an overview over developments in certain regions of the world complement this Commentary.'



Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties

Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties Author Oliver Dörr
ISBN-10 9783662551608
Release 2018-03-18
Pages 1535
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The Commentary on the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties provides an in-depth article-by-article analysis of all of the Vienna Convention’s provisions. Each provision’s analysis consists of (I) Purpose and Function of the Article, (II) Historical Background with Negotiating History, (III) Elements of the Article and finally (IV) Treaties of International Organizations. In short, the present Commentary contains a comprehensive legal analysis of all aspects of the international law of treaties. Furthermore, where the law of treaties reaches into other fields of international law, e.g. the law of state responsibility, the relevant interfaces are discussed and contextualized. With its focus on international practice, the Commentary is an invaluable reference for both academia and practitioners of international law.



The Vienna Conventions on the Law of Treaties

The Vienna Conventions on the Law of Treaties Author Olivier Corten
ISBN-10 9780199546640
Release 2011
Pages 2071
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The 1969 and 1986 Vienna Conventions on the Law of Treaties are essential components of the contemporary international legal order. They aim at regulating what has become the main source of public international law and a crucial tool in inter-state relations. The Vienna Conventions codify to a significant extent the customary rules that pre-existed in the field, but also put forward innovative concepts, such as jus cogens. In spite of their importance, these two instruments had so far not been the object of a detailed commentary. These volumes fill that gap, by providing both international and national lawyers with an in-depth analysis of each provision of both Conventions. The structure of each commentary is essentially uniform, with the first part dedicated to the exposition of that provision's object and purpose and to the assessment of its customary status. The second part of each commentary deals with the main issues of interpretation raised by the provision in question. Extensive reference is made to the travaux preparatoires of both Conventions, including the work of the UN International Law Commission and the proceedings of the 1969 and 1986 diplomatic conferences, and to practice both prior to and following the adoption of the Conventions. The 90 + authors who contributed to the book come from twenty different countries and include some of the most respected experts in international law.



The Statute of the International Court of Justice

The Statute of the International Court of Justice Author Andreas Zimmermann
ISBN-10 9780191632549
Release 2012-10-11
Pages 1808
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The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations and plays a central role in both the peaceful settlement of international disputes and the development of international law. This comprehensive Commentary on the Statute of the International Court of Justice, now in its second edition, analyses in detail not only the Statute of the Court itself but also the related provisions of the United Nations Charter as well as the relevant provisions of the Court's Rules of Procedure. Five years after the first edition was published, the second edition of the Commentary embraces current events before the International Court of Justice as well as before other courts and tribunals relevant for the interpretation and application of its Statute. The Commentary provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of all legal questions and issues the Court has had to address in the past and will have to address in the future. It illuminates the central issues of procedure and substance that the Court and counsel appearing before it face in their day-to-day work. In addition to commentary covering all of the articles of the Statute of the ICJ, plus the relevant articles of the Charter of the United Nations, the book includes three scene-setting chapters: Historical Introduction, General Principles of Procedural Law, and Discontinuation and Withdrawal. The second edition of the Commentary adds two important and instructive chapters on Counter-Claims and Evidentiary Issues. The combination of expert editors and commentators, and their assessment of new developments in the important work of the ICJ, make this a landmark publication in the field of international law.



The Oxford Guide to Treaties

The Oxford Guide to Treaties Author Duncan B. Hollis
ISBN-10 9780191637575
Release 2012-08-09
Pages 874
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From trade relations to greenhouse gases, from shipwrecks to cybercrime, treaties structure the rights and obligations of states, international organizations, and individuals. For centuries, treaties have regulated relations among nation states. Today, they are the dominant source of international law. Thus, being adept with treaties and international agreements is an indispensable skill for anyone engaged in international relations, including international lawyers, diplomats, international organization officials, and representatives of non-governmental organizations. The Oxford Guide to Treaties provides a comprehensive guide to treaties, shedding light on the rules and practices surrounding the making, interpretation, and operation of these instruments. Leading experts provide essays designed to introduce the law of treaties and offer practical insights into how treaties actually work. Foundational issues are covered, including what treaties are and when they should be used, alongside detailed analyses of treaty formation, application, interpretation, and exit. Special issues associated with treaties involving the European Union and other international organizations are also addressed. These scholarly treatments are complimented by a set of model treaty clauses. Real examples illustrate the approaches treaty-makers can take on topics such as entry into force, languages, reservations, and amendments. The Oxford Guide to Treaties thus provides an authoritative reference point for anyone studying or involved in the creation or interpretation of treaties or other forms of international agreement.



The Law of International Responsibility

The Law of International Responsibility Author James Crawford
ISBN-10 9780199296972
Release 2010-05-20
Pages 1296
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The law of international responsibility is one of international law's core foundational topics. Written by international experts, this book provides an overview of the modern law of international responsibility, both as it applies to states and to international organizations, with a focus on the ILC's work.



The Conventions on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations and Its Specialized Agencies

The Conventions on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations and Its Specialized Agencies Author August Reinisch
ISBN-10 9780198744610
Release 2016-03-03
Pages 1056
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The book provides a comprehensive overview and detailed discussion of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations and the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies distinguished legal scholars, experts and practitioners in their respective fields of law.



State Immunity in International Law

State Immunity in International Law Author Xiaodong Yang
ISBN-10 9780521844017
Release 2012-09-27
Pages 761
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Xiaodong Yang examines the issue of jurisdictional immunities of States and their property in foreign domestic courts.



The 1949 Geneva Conventions

The 1949 Geneva Conventions Author Andrew Clapham
ISBN-10 9780191003523
Release 2015-10-15
Pages 1400
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The four Geneva Conventions, adopted in 1949, remain the fundamental basis of contemporary international humanitarian law. They protect the wounded and sick on the battlefield, those wounded, sick or shipwrecked at sea, prisoners of war, and civilians in time of war. However, since they were adopted warfare has changed considerably. In this groundbreaking commentary over sixty international law experts investigate the application of the Geneva Conventions and explain how they should be interpreted today. It places the Conventions in the light of the developing obligations imposed by international law on states, armed groups, and individuals, most notably through international human rights law and international criminal law. The context in which the Conventions are to be applied and interpreted has changed considerably since they were first written. The borderline between international and non-international armed conflicts is not as clear-cut as was once thought, and is complicated further by the use of armed force mandated by the United Nations and the complex mixed and transnational nature of certain non-international armed conflicts. The influence of other developing branches of international law, such as human rights law and refugee law has been considerable. The development of international criminal law has breathed new life into multiple provisions of the Geneva Conventions. This commentary adopts a thematic approach to provide detailed analysis of each key issue dealt with by the Conventions, taking into account both judicial decisions and state practice. Cross-cutting chapters on issues such as transnational conflicts and the geographical scope of the Conventions also give readers a full understanding of the meaning of the Geneva Conventions in their contemporary context. Prepared under the auspices of the Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights, this commentary on four of the most important treaties in international law is unmissable for anyone working in or studying situations of armed conflicts.



Treaty Interpretation

Treaty Interpretation Author Richard Gardiner
ISBN-10 9780191648045
Release 2015-06-18
Pages 544
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The rules of treaty interpretation codified in the 'Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties' now apply to virtually all treaties, in an international context as well as within national legal systems, where treaties have an impact on a large and growing range of matters. The rules of treaty interpretation differ somewhat from typical rules for interpreting legal instruments and legislation within national legal systems. Lawyers, administrators, diplomats, and officials at international organisations are increasingly likely to encounter issues of treaty interpretation which require not only knowledge of the relevant rules of interpretation, but also how these rules have been, and are to be, applied in practice. Since the codified rules of treaty interpretation came into decree, there is a considerable body of case-law on their application. This case-law, combined with the history and analysis of the rules of treaty interpretation, provides a basis for understanding this most important task in the application of treaties internationally and within national systems of law. Any lawyer who ever has to consider international matters, and increasingly any lawyer whose work involves domestic legislation with any international connection, is at risk nowadays of encountering a treaty provision which requires interpretation, whether the treaty provision is explicitly in issue or is the source of the relevant domestic legislation. This fully updated new edition features case law from a broader range of jurisdictions, and an account of the work of the International Law Commission in its relation to interpretative declarations. This book provides a guide to interpreting treaties properly in accordance with the modern rules.



The Modification of Treaties by Subsequent Practice

The Modification of Treaties by Subsequent Practice Author Irina Buga
ISBN-10 9780198787822
Release 2018-04-12
Pages 480
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While treaties can be notoriously difficult to amend by formal means, they must nevertheless be adapted over time in order to remain useful. Herein lies the role of subsequent practice as a key tool for treaty change. Subsequent practice-a well-established means of treaty interpretation-sometimes diverges from the original treaty provision to such an extent that it can no longer be said to constitute an act of interpretation or application. Rather, it becomes, in effect, one of treaty modification. The modification of treaties by subsequent practice extends to all fields of international law, from the law of the sea, environmental law, and investment law, to human rights and humanitarian law. Such modifications can have significant practical consequences, from revising or creating new rights and obligations, to establishing new institutional mechanisms. Determining when and how treaty modification by subsequent practice occurs poses difficulty to legal scholars and dispute settlement bodies alike, and impacts States' expectations as to their treaty obligations. This significant yet underexplored process is the focus of this book. Modification of Treaties by Subsequent Practice proves that subsequent practice can-under carefully defined conditions that ensure strict accordance with the will of the treaty parties-alter, supplement, and terminate treaty provisions or even entire treaty frameworks. It can also generate customary law and fuel regime interaction. Ultimately, this book demonstrates the relevance and dynamism of the process of treaty modification by subsequent practice, emphasizing the need to deal with the issue head on, and explains-on a theoretical and practical level-how it can be identified and dealt with more consistently in the future. The book thus contributes to a deeper understanding of the process of treaty modification by subsequent practice and its continued role in striking the judicious balance between the stability of treaties on the one hand, and the organic evolution of the law on the other.



The 1972 World Heritage Convention

The 1972 World Heritage Convention Author Francesco Francioni
ISBN-10 0199291691
Release 2008
Pages 576
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The World Heritage Convention (WHC) is the most comprehensive and widely ratified among UNESCO treaties on the protection of cultural and natural heritage. The Convention establishes a system of identification, presentation, and registration in an international List of cultural properties and natural sites of outstanding universal value. Throughout the years the WHC has progressively attained almost universal recognition by the international community, and even the International CriminalTribunal for the Former Yugoslavia has recently considered sites inscribed in the World Heritage List as "values especially protection by the international community." Besides, the WHC has been used as a model for other legal instruments dealing with cultural heritage, like the recently adopted (2003) Convention on the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. During its more than 30 years of life, the Convention has undergone extensive interpretation and evolution in its scope of application. Operational Guidelines, which are the implementing rules governing the operation of the Convention, have been extensively revised. New institutions such as the World Heritage Centre, have been established. New links, with the World Bank and the United Nations, have developed to take into account the economic and political dimension of world heritage conservation and management. However, many legal issues remain to be clarified. For example, what is the meaning of "outstanding universalvalue" in the context of cultural and natural heritage? How far can we construe "universal value" in terms of representivity between the concept of "World Heritage" and the sovereignty of the territorial state? Should World Heritage reflect a reasonable balance between cultural properties and natural sites? Is consent of the territorial state required for the inscription of a World Heritage property in the List of World Heritage in Danger? What is the role of the World Heritage Centre in the management of the WHC? No comprehensive work has been produced so far to deal with these and many other issues that have arisen in the interpretation and application of the WHC. This Commentary is intended to fill this gap by providing article by article analysis, in the light of the practice of the World Heritage Committee, other relevant treaty bodies, as well as of State parties and in the hope that it may be of use to academics, lawyers, diplomats and officials involved in the management and conservation of cultural and natural heritage of international significance.



Complicity in International Law

Complicity in International Law Author Miles Jackson
ISBN-10 9780191056758
Release 2015-03-12
Pages 272
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This book examines how international law prohibits state and individual complicity. Complicity is a derivative form of responsibility that links an accomplice to the wrongdoing of a principal actor. Whenever a legal system prohibits complicity, it must address certain questions as to the content and structure of the rules. To understand how international law answers these questions, this book proposes an analytical framework in which complicity rules may be assessed and defends a normative claim as to how they should be structured. Anchored by this framework and normative claim, this book shows that international criminal law regulates individual complicity in a comprehensive way, using the doctrines of instigation and aiding and abetting to inculpate complicit participants in international crimes. By contrast, international law's regulation of state complicity was historically marked by an absence of complicity rules. This is changing. In respect of state complicity in the wrongdoing of another state, international law now imposes both specific and general complicity obligations, the latter prohibiting states from aiding or assisting another state in the commission of any internationally wrongful act. In respect of the ways that states participate in harms caused by non-state actors, the traditional normative structure of international law, which imposed obligations only on states, foreclosed the possibility of prohibiting the state's participation as a form of complicity. As that traditional normative structure has evolved, so the possibility of holding states responsible for complicity in the wrongdoing of non-state actors has emerged. More and more, both the wrongs that international actors commit, and the wrongs they help or encourage others to commit, matter.



Diplomatic Interference and the Law

Diplomatic Interference and the Law Author Paul Behrens
ISBN-10 9781509902781
Release 2016-05-05
Pages 536
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Diplomatic interference carries considerable potential for disruption. In this context, diplomats have been accused of insulting behaviour, the funding of political parties, incitement to terrorism and even attempts to topple the host government. Reactions can be harsh: expulsions are common and, occasionally, diplomatic relations are severed altogether. But an evaluation under international law faces challenges. Often enough, charges of interference are made when legitimate interests are involved � for instance, when diplomats criticise the human rights record of their hosts. In such cases, diplomats may be able to invoke grounds which are recognised under international law. On the basis of more than 300 cases of alleged diplomatic interference and the practice of about 100 States and territories, Diplomatic Interference and the Law provides an examination of the main areas in which charges of meddling have arisen � such as lobbying activities, contacts with the opposition, propaganda, the use of threats and insults and the granting of asylum. It analyses situations in which the sovereignty of the receiving State meets competing interests and offers solutions which avoid a conflict of norms. It concludes with useful advice for foreign offices and diplomatic agents and underlines the most efficient ways of dealing with situations of alleged interference. ''A book that is here to stay! It is essential reading for diplomats, academics, journalists, students and everyone who has an interest in international law and justice. Based on rigorous research, Paul Behrens' book offers new and thoughtful perspectives on the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations which we drafted in 1961. It demonstrates just how important it is to have a lawyer of his impartiality and integrity if we want to reach peaceful and lasting solutions in international relations. Diplomatic Interference and the Law has the makings of an instant classic, and I have no doubt that it will pave the way for the sorely needed reform of diplomatic law.'' Dr Nelson Iriñiz Casás, Vice President of the Committee of the Whole of the Vienna Conference on Diplomatic Relations in 1961; former Head of the diplomatic missions of Uruguay to Austria, Czechoslovakia, Hong Kong, Denmark and Sweden; author of Corrupción en la ONU. ''Dr Behrens's book rigorously analyses the legal doctrine of non-interference by diplomats in their hosts' internal affairs, and how it may conflict with legal obligations to combat, for example, denial of self-determination and breaches of human rights. Exhaustively researched and in accessible language, with copious, often entertaining examples, it will be an indispensable guide for diplomats. "Behrens on diplomatic interference" will be cited as the definitive authority on the matter for the foreseeable future. I recommend this book to diplomats, lawyers and the general reader: they will all read and refer to it with profit and immense pleasure.'' Sir Brian Barder KCMG, BA (Cantab.), is a former British ambassador to Ethiopia, Bénin and Poland and High Commissioner to Nigeria and Australia. ''Paul Behrens' book breaks new ground. It is the first study to focus on the vexed question of diplomatic 'meddling' in the domestic affairs of the receiving State. It has heightened topicality as many Western governments in their concern to promote human rights and democracy urge their diplomats to be active in their support of civil society, particularly in countries with authoritarian governments. This book is replete with case studies covering the 50 years since the signature of the Vienna Convention and provides an invaluable pathway through this legal minefield.'' Sir Ivor Roberts KCMG FCIL, President of Trinity College, Oxford; Former British Ambassador to Yugoslavia, Ireland and Italy