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 The main subject of the monograph is the fractional calculus in the discrete version. The volume is divided into three main parts. Part one contains a theoretical introduction to the classical and fractional-order discrete calculus where the fundamental role is played by the backward difference and sum. In the second part, selected applications of the discrete fractional calculus in the discrete system control theory are presented. In the discrete system identification, analysis and synthesis, one can consider integer or fractional models based on the fractional-order difference equations. The third part of the book is devoted to digital image processing. Contents:Discrete-Variable Real FunctionsThe n-th Order Backward Difference/Sum of the Discrete-Variable FunctionFractional-Order Backward Differ-SumThe FOBD-S Graphical InterpretationThe FOBD/S Selected PropertiesThe FO Dynamic System DescriptionLinear FO System AnalysisThe Linear FO Discrete-Time Fundamental ElementsFO Discrete-Time System StructuresFractional Discrete-Time PID ControllerFOS Approximation ProblemsFractional PotentialFO Image Filtering and Edge DetectionAppendix A: Selected Linear Algebra Formulae and Discrete-Variable Special Functions Readership: Researchers, academics, professionals and graduate students in pattern recognition/image analysis, robotics and automated systems, systems engineering and mathematical modeling. Keywords:Fractional Calculus;Fractional-Order Backward-Difference;Fractional-Order Linear Difference Equation;Discrete-System;State-Space Equations

 This book focuses on fractional calculus, presenting novel advances in both the theory and applications of non-integer order systems. At the end of the twentieth century it was predicted that it would be the calculus of the twenty-first century, and that prophecy is confirmed year after year. Now this mathematical tool is successfully used in a variety of research areas, like engineering (e.g. electrical, mechanical, chemical), dynamical systems modeling, analysis and synthesis (e.g technical, biological, economical) as well as in multidisciplinary areas (e.g. biochemistry, electrochemistry).As well as the mathematical foundations the book concentrates on the technical applications of continuous-time and discrete-time fractional calculus, investigating the identification, analysis and control of electrical circuits and dynamical systems. It also presents the latest results.Although some scientific centers and scientists are skeptical and actively criticize the applicability of fractional calculus, it is worth breaking through the scientific and technological walls. Because the “fractional community” is growing rapidly there is a pressing need for the exchange of scientific results. The book includes papers presented at the 9th International Conference on Non-integer Order Calculus and Its Applications and is divided into three parts:• Mathematical foundations• Fractional systems analysis and synthesis• System modelingSeven papers discuss the mathematical foundations, twelve papers address fractional order analysis and synthesis and three focus on dynamical system modeling by the fractional order differential and difference equations. It is a useful resource for fractional calculus scientific community.

 This book consists of papers presented at Automation 2018, an international conference held in Warsaw from March 21 to 23, 2018. It discusses the radical technological changes occurring due to the INDUSTRY 4.0, with a focus on offering a better understanding of the Fourth Industrial Revolution. Each chapter presents a detailed analysis of interdisciplinary knowledge, numerical modeling and simulation as well as the application of cyber-physical systems, where information technology and physical devices create synergic systems leading to unprecedented efficiency. The theoretical results, practical solutions and guidelines presented are valuable for both researchers working in the area of engineering sciences and practitioners looking for solutions to industrial problems.

 This invaluable compendium highlights the challenges of perioperative process in hospitals today. It delves into the development of a multi-agent robotic system where a dirty-side robot that sorts instruments returned from a surgical room into different containers for easy scrubbing, a Traybot that navigates the environment and transports the instrument containers to different stations, a clean-side robot that picks up instruments and places them in surgical kits, and an orchestration software architecture that manages the cooperation between different robots. The book discusses the technical details of all the components, from system architecture to the details of the end-effector design. Readers will gain significant knowledge on how such a system was put together. Contents: Introduction Project Background Related Work Overall Robotic System Architecture Vision Based Instrument Singulation Dirty Side Robot Design Mobile Robot Architecture Clean Side Robot Design Experiments Conclusions and Future Work Readership: Researchers, academics, professionals and graduate students in machine perception /computer vision, pattern recognition/image analysis and robotics and automated systems software. Keywords: Computer Vision;Robotics;Mobile Robot;Bin-Picking;End-Effector;PerioperativeReview:0

 This work aims to present, in a systematic manner, results including the existence and uniqueness of solutions for the Cauchy Type and Cauchy problems involving nonlinear ordinary fractional differential equations.

 This book provides a broader introduction to the theories and applications of sparse coding techniques in computer vision research. It introduces sparse coding in the context of representation learning, illustrates the fundamental concepts, and summarizes the most active research directions. A variety of applications of sparse coding are discussed, ranging from low-level image processing tasks such as super-resolution and de-blurring to high-level semantic understanding tasks such as image recognition, clustering and fusion. The book is suitable to be used as an introductory overview to this field, with its theoretical part being both easy and precious enough for quick understanding. It is also of great value to experienced researchers as it offers new perspective to the underlying mechanism of sparse coding, and points out potential future directions for different applications. Contents:IntroductionTheories of Sparse CodingImage Super-ResolutionImage DeblurringSensor FusionClusteringObject RecognitionHyper-Spectral Image ModelingConclusions Readership: Graduate students, researchers and professionals in the field of machine perception, pattern recognition, image analysis, artificial intelligence, machine learning. Key Features:Explanation of sparse coding from both theoretical and practical point of viewsA comprehensive review of the applications of sparse coding in both low-level and high-level vision problemsInvestigating future research directions of sparse coding by making connection with the current state-of-the-art feature learning models, including deep neural networksKeywords:Sparse Coding;Sparse Representation;Dictionary Learning;Super-Resolution;De-Blurring;Sensor Fusion;Image Classification;Hyper-Spectral Image

 Local Fractional Integral Transforms and Their Applications provides information on how local fractional calculus has been successfully applied to describe the numerous widespread real-world phenomena in the fields of physical sciences and engineering sciences that involve non-differentiable behaviors. The methods of integral transforms via local fractional calculus have been used to solve various local fractional ordinary and local fractional partial differential equations and also to figure out the presence of the fractal phenomenon. The book presents the basics of the local fractional derivative operators and investigates some new results in the area of local integral transforms. Provides applications of local fractional Fourier Series Discusses definitions for local fractional Laplace transforms Explains local fractional Laplace transforms coupled with analytical methods

 This book gives a comprehensive overview of the most advanced theories, methodologies and applications in computer vision. Particularly, it gives an extensive coverage of 3D and robotic vision problems. Example chapters featured are Fourier methods for 3D surface modeling and analysis, use of constraints for calibration-free 3D Euclidean reconstruction, novel photogeometric methods for capturing static and dynamic objects, performance evaluation of robot localization methods in outdoor terrains, integrating 3D vision with force/tactile sensors, tracking via in-floor sensing, self-calibration of camera networks, etc. Some unique applications of computer vision in marine fishery, biomedical issues, driver assistance, are also highlighted.

 In recent years fractional calculus has played an important role in various fields such as mechanics, electricity, chemistry, biology, economics, modeling, identification, control theory and signal processing. The scope of this book is to present the state of the art in the study of fractional systems and the application of fractional differentiation. Furthermore, the manufacture of nanowires is important for the design of nanosensors and the development of high-yield thin films is vital in procuring clean solar energy. This wide range of applications is of interest to engineers, physicists and mathematicians.

 This invaluable book provides a broad introduction to the fascinating and beautiful subject of Fractional Calculus of Variations (FCV). In 1996, FVC evolved in order to better describe non-conservative systems in mechanics. The inclusion of non-conservatism is extremely important from the point of view of applications. Forces that do not store energy are always present in real systems. They remove energy from the systems and, as a consequence, Noether's conservation laws cease to be valid. However, it is still possible to obtain the validity of Noether's principle using FCV. The new theory provides a more realistic approach to physics, allowing us to consider non-conservative systems in a natural way. The authors prove the necessary Euler–Lagrange conditions and corresponding Noether theorems for several types of fractional variational problems, with and without constraints, using Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalisms. Sufficient optimality conditions are also obtained under convexity, and Leitmann's direct method is discussed within the framework of FCV. The book is self-contained and unified in presentation. It may be used as an advanced textbook by graduate students and ambitious undergraduates in mathematics and mechanics. It provides an opportunity for an introduction to FCV for experienced researchers. The explanations in the book are detailed, in order to capture the interest of the curious reader, and the book provides the necessary background material required to go further into the subject and explore the rich research literature.

 In the recent years, fractional-order systems have been studied by many researchers in the engineering field. It was found that many systems can be described more accurately by fractional differential equations than by integer-order models. Advanced Synchronization Control and Bifurcation of Chaotic Fractional-Order Systems is a scholarly publication that explores new developments related to novel chaotic fractional-order systems, control schemes, and their applications. Featuring coverage on a wide range of topics including chaos synchronization, nonlinear control, and cryptography, this publication is geared toward engineers, IT professionals, researchers, and upper-level graduate students seeking current research on chaotic fractional-order systems and their applications in engineering and computer science.

 Humans perceive the three-dimensional structure of the world with apparent ease. However, despite all of the recent advances in computer vision research, the dream of having a computer interpret an image at the same level as a two-year old remains elusive. Why is computer vision such a challenging problem and what is the current state of the art? Computer Vision: Algorithms and Applications explores the variety of techniques commonly used to analyze and interpret images. It also describes challenging real-world applications where vision is being successfully used, both for specialized applications such as medical imaging, and for fun, consumer-level tasks such as image editing and stitching, which students can apply to their own personal photos and videos. More than just a source of “recipes,” this exceptionally authoritative and comprehensive textbook/reference also takes a scientific approach to basic vision problems, formulating physical models of the imaging process before inverting them to produce descriptions of a scene. These problems are also analyzed using statistical models and solved using rigorous engineering techniques Topics and features: structured to support active curricula and project-oriented courses, with tips in the Introduction for using the book in a variety of customized courses; presents exercises at the end of each chapter with a heavy emphasis on testing algorithms and containing numerous suggestions for small mid-term projects; provides additional material and more detailed mathematical topics in the Appendices, which cover linear algebra, numerical techniques, and Bayesian estimation theory; suggests additional reading at the end of each chapter, including the latest research in each sub-field, in addition to a full Bibliography at the end of the book; supplies supplementary course material for students at the associated website, http://szeliski.org/Book/. Suitable for an upper-level undergraduate or graduate-level course in computer science or engineering, this textbook focuses on basic techniques that work under real-world conditions and encourages students to push their creative boundaries. Its design and exposition also make it eminently suitable as a unique reference to the fundamental techniques and current research literature in computer vision.

 This brief presents a general unifying perspective on the fractional calculus. It brings together results of several recent approaches in generalizing the least action principle and the Euler–Lagrange equations to include fractional derivatives. The dependence of Lagrangians on generalized fractional operators as well as on classical derivatives is considered along with still more general problems in which integer-order integrals are replaced by fractional integrals. General theorems are obtained for several types of variational problems for which recent results developed in the literature can be obtained as special cases. In particular, the authors offer necessary optimality conditions of Euler–Lagrange type for the fundamental and isoperimetric problems, transversality conditions, and Noether symmetry theorems. The existence of solutions is demonstrated under Tonelli type conditions. The results are used to prove the existence of eigenvalues and corresponding orthogonal eigenfunctions of fractional Sturm–Liouville problems. Advanced Methods in the Fractional Calculus of Variations is a self-contained text which will be useful for graduate students wishing to learn about fractional-order systems. The detailed explanations will interest researchers with backgrounds in applied mathematics, control and optimization as well as in certain areas of physics and engineering.