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Discrete Fracture Network Modeling of Hydraulic Stimulation

Discrete Fracture Network Modeling of Hydraulic Stimulation Author Mark McClure
ISBN-10 9783319003832
Release 2013-06-15
Pages 90
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Discrete Fracture Network Modeling of Hydraulic Stimulation describes the development and testing of a model that couples fluid-flow, deformation, friction weakening, and permeability evolution in large, complex two-dimensional discrete fracture networks. The model can be used to explore the behavior of hydraulic stimulation in settings where matrix permeability is low and preexisting fractures play an important role, such as Enhanced Geothermal Systems and gas shale. Used also to describe pure shear stimulation, mixed-mechanism stimulation, or pure opening-mode stimulation. A variety of novel techniques to ensure efficiency and realistic model behavior are implemented, and tested. The simulation methodology can also be used as an efficient method for directly solving quasistatic fracture contact problems. Results show how stresses induced by fracture deformation during stimulation directly impact the mechanism of propagation and the resulting fracture network.



Geothermal Power Generation

Geothermal Power Generation Author Ron DiPippo
ISBN-10 9780081003442
Release 2016-05-25
Pages 854
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Geothermal Power Generation: Developments and Innovation provides an update to the advanced energy technologies that are urgently required to meet the challenges of economic development, climate change mitigation, and energy security. As geothermal resources are considered renewable and can be used to generate baseload electricity while producing very low levels of greenhouse gas emissions, they can play a key role in future energy needs. This book, edited by a highly respected expert, provides a comprehensive overview of the major aspects of geothermal power production. The chapters, contributed by specialists in their respective areas, cover resource discovery, resource characterization, energy conversion systems, and design and economic considerations. The final section provides a range of fascinating case studies from across the world, ranging from Larderello to Indonesia. Users will find this to be an essential text for research and development professionals and engineers in the geothermal energy industry, as well as postgraduate researchers in academia who are working on geothermal energy. Provides readers with a comprehensive and systematic overview of geothermal power generation Presents an update to the advanced energy technologies that are urgently required to meet the challenges of economic development, climate change mitigation, and energy security Edited by a world authority in the field, with chapters contributed by experts in their particular areas Includes comprehensive case studies from across the world, ranging from Larderello to Indonesia



Natural Gas Hydrate Arctic Ocean Deepwater Resource Potential

Natural Gas Hydrate   Arctic Ocean Deepwater Resource Potential Author Michael D. Max
ISBN-10 9783319025087
Release 2013-10-11
Pages 113
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The book is an up-to-date basic reference for natural gas hydrate (NGH) in the Arctic Ocean. Geographical, geological, environmental, energy, new technology, and regulatory matters are discussed. The book should be of interest to general readers and scientists and students as well as industry and government agencies concerned with energy and ocean management. NGH is a solid crystalline material that compresses gas by about a factor of about 164 during crystallization from natural gas (mainly methane) - rich pore waters over time. NGH displaces water and may form large concentrations in sediment pore space. Its formation introduces changes in the geotechnical character of host sediment that allows it to be distinguished by seismic and electric exploration methods. The chemical reaction that forms NGH from gas and water molecules is highly reversible, which allows controlled conversion of the NGH to its constituent gas and water. This can be achieved rapidly by one of a number of processes including heating, depressurization, inhibitor injection, dissolution, and molecular replacement. The produced gas has the potential to make NGH a valuable unconventional natural gas resource, and perhaps the largest on earth. Estimates for NGH distribution, concentration, economic targets, and volumes in the Arctic Ocean have been carried out by restricting the economic target to deepwater turbidite sands, which are also sediment hosts for more deeply buried conventional hydrocarbon deposits. Resource base estimates are based on NGH petroleum system analysis approach using industry-standard parameters along with analogs from three relatively well known examples (Nankai-Japan, Gulf of Mexico-United States, and Arctic permafrost hydrate). Drilling data has substantiated new geotechnical-level seismic analysis techniques for estimating not just the presence of NGH but prospect volumes. In addition to a volumetric estimate for NGH having economic potential, a sedimentary depositional model is proposed to aid exploration in the five different regions around the deep central Arctic Ocean basin. Related topics are also discussed. Transport and logistics for NGH may also be applicable for stranded conventional gas and oil deposits. Arising from a discussion of new technology and methodologies that could be applied to developing NGH, suggestions are made for the lowering of exploration and capital expenses that could make NGH competitive on a produced cost basis. The basis for the extraordinarily low environmental risk for exploration and production of NGH is discussed, especially with respect to the environmentally fragile Arctic region. It is suggested that because of the low environmental risk, special regulations could be written that would provide a framework for very low cost and safe development.



Petroleum Geosciences Indian Contexts

Petroleum Geosciences  Indian Contexts Author Soumyajit Mukherjee
ISBN-10 9783319031194
Release 2015-05-19
Pages 294
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This book incorporates original and review articles on several aspects of petroleum geosciences from Indian terrains, both onshore and offshore, and includes diverse geological (tectonic, sedimentological, organic geochemical, paleontological, stratigraphic, modelling and various others), geophysical methods and policy aspects.



A Master of Science History

A Master of Science History Author Jed Z. Buchwald
ISBN-10 9789400726277
Release 2012-01-05
Pages 440
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New essays in science history ranging across the entire field and related in most instance to the works of Charles Gillispie, one of the field's founders.



The Initiation Propagation and Arrest of Joints and Other Fractures

The Initiation  Propagation  and Arrest of Joints and Other Fractures Author John W. Cosgrove
ISBN-10 1862391653
Release 2004-01-01
Pages 330
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The Initiation Propagation and Arrest of Joints and Other Fractures has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from The Initiation Propagation and Arrest of Joints and Other Fractures also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full The Initiation Propagation and Arrest of Joints and Other Fractures book for free.



Computational Geotechnics

Computational Geotechnics Author Thomas Nagel
ISBN-10 9783319569628
Release 2017-05-28
Pages 70
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In this book, effective computational methods to facilitate those pivotal simulations using open-source software are introduced and discussed with a special focus on the coupled thermo-mechanical behavior of the rock salt. A cohesive coverage of applying geotechnical modeling to the subsurface storage of hydrogen produced from renewable energy sources is accompanied by specific, reproducible example simulations to provide the reader with direct access to this fascinating and important field. Energy carriers such as natural gas, hydrogen, oil, and even compressed air can be stored in subsurface geological formations such as depleted oil or gas reservoirs, aquifers, and caverns in salt rock. Many challenges have arisen in the design, safety and environmental impact assessment of such systems, not the least of which is that large-scale experimentation is not a feasible option. Therefore, simulation techniques are central to the design and risk assessment of these and similar geotechnical facilities.



Smart and Sustainable Planning for Cities and Regions

Smart and Sustainable Planning for Cities and Regions Author Adriano Bisello
ISBN-10 9783319757742
Release 2018-04-25
Pages 697
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This book comprises a selection of the top contributions presented at the second international conference “Smart and Sustainable Planning for Cities and Regions 2017”, held in March 2017 in Bolzano, Italy. Featuring forty-six papers by policy-makers, academics and consultants, it discusses current groundbreaking research in smart and sustainable planning, including the progress made in overcoming cities’ challenges towards improving the quality of life. Climate change adaptation and mitigation of global warming, generally identified as drivers of global policies, are just the “tip of the iceberg” when it comes to smart energy transition. Indeed, equally relevant towards this current transformation – and key topics in this volume – are ICTs, public spaces and society; next economy for the city; strategies and actions for good governance; urban-rural innovation; rethinking mobility. The book’s depth in understanding and insightfulness in re-thinking demonstrate the breaking of new ground in smart and sustainable planning. A new ground that policy-makers, academics and consultants may build upon as a bedrock for smart and sustainable planning.



Physics and Mechanics of Primary Well Cementing

Physics and Mechanics of Primary Well Cementing Author Alexandre Lavrov
ISBN-10 9783319431659
Release 2016-08-25
Pages 108
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This book covers the major physical and mechanical processes that unfold during cementing and subsequent well service, and which can affect the well integrity. Focusing on the underlying physics, it concisely presents the central concepts of well cementing. The authors discuss the displacement of different fluids in the annulus, the mechanical stability of cement subject to varying downhole temperature, pressure and in-situ stresses, and the impact of defects on cement integrity under different mechanical and thermal loads over the course of the well’s lifetime. The book identifies knowledge gaps and unresolved issues, and proposes new directions for future research and development. The book is a valuable resource for practising engineers in the oil and gas industry, academic and industrial researchers involved in oil and gas engineering, and to graduate students within this same sector.



Geoenergy Modeling I

Geoenergy Modeling I Author Norbert Böttcher
ISBN-10 9783319313351
Release 2016-06-27
Pages 107
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This introduction to geothermal modeling deals with flow and heat transport processes in porous and fractured media related to geothermal energy applications. Following background coverage of geothermal resources and utilization in several countries, the basics of continuum mechanics for heat transport processes, as well as numerical methods for solving underlying governing equations are discussed. This examination forms the theoretical basis for five included step-by-step OpenGeoSys exercises, highlighting the most important computational areas within geothermal resource utilization, including heat diffusion, heat advection in porous and fractured media, and heat convection. The book concludes with an outlook on practical follow-up contributions investigating the numerical simulation of shallow and deep geothermal systems.



U S Social Welfare Reform

U S  Social Welfare Reform Author Richard K. Caputo
ISBN-10 1441976744
Release 2011-01-20
Pages 308
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U. S. Social Welfare Reform examines pivotal changes in social welfare for low-income families in the United States between 1981, the advent of the Reagan administration, and 2008, the end of the G.W. Bush administration. It focuses on the change from the Federal-state open entitlement Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) program to the time-limited state run Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) program which Congress authorized with passage of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act of 1996. The book also focuses on the development of the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) program, enacted in 1975 against the backdrop of failed efforts to nationalize AFDC which aimed at providing a basic income to all poor families, but which blossomed with continued bipartisan support in the 1990s. This book also explores alternative strategies to assist low-income families, including job training programs. It present original research on the educational and economic well-being of youth from low-income families who participated in government sponsored job training programs in the late 1970 and early 1980s. The book seeks a middle ground between general and technical social policy texts. It provides more depth than is available in the more general social policy texts. Further, while the more comprehensive texts often rely on government documents and reports relying on Current Population Survey data to profile program use, this book relies on panel data from the National Longitudinal Surveys and presents original research that builds upon prior related research and scholarship about the role of the federal government in social welfare provisioning in general and AFDC/TANF and EITC use in particular and on school-to-work transition programs. It presents related technical material in a narrative style better suited to professionals and policy makers who may lack expertise in quantitative analysis.



Geological Core Analysis

Geological Core Analysis Author Vahid Tavakoli
ISBN-10 9783319780276
Release 2018-04-02
Pages 99
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This book offers a compact guide to geological core analysis, covering both theoretical and practical aspects of geological studies of reservoir cores. It equips the reader with the knowledge needed to precisely and accurately analyse cores. The book begins by providing a description of a coring plan, coring, and core sampling and continues with a sample preparation for geological analysis. It then goes on to explain how the samples are named, classified and integrated in order to understand the geological properties that dictate reservoir characteristics. Subsequently, porosity and permeability data derived from routine experiments are combined to define geological rock types and reduce reservoir heterogeneity. Sequence stratigraphy is introduced for reservoir zonation. Core log preparation is also covered, allowing reservoirs to be analysed even more accurately. As the study of core samples is the only way to accurately gauge reservoir properties, this book provides a useful guide for all geologists and engineers working with subsurface samples.



The Geopolitics of Renewables

The Geopolitics of Renewables Author Daniel Scholten
ISBN-10 9783319678559
Release 2018-01-11
Pages 338
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Renewables are a game changer for interstate energy relations. Their abundance and intermittency, possibilities for decentral generation and use of rare earth materials, and generally electric nature of transportation make them very different from fossil fuels. What do these geographic and technical characteristics of renewable energy systems imply for infrastructure topology and operations, business models, and energy markets? What are the consequences for the strategic realities and policy considerations of producer, consumer, and transit countries and energy-related patterns of cooperation and conflict between them? Who are the winners and losers? The Geopolitics of Renewables is the first in-depth exploration of the implications for interstate energy relations of a transition towards renewable energy. Fifteen international scholars combine insights from several disciplines - international relations, geopolitics, energy security, renewable energy technology, economics, sustainability transitions, and energy policy - to establish a comprehensive overview and understanding of the emerging energy game. Focus is on contemporary developments and how they may shape the coming decades on three levels of analysis: · The emerging global energy game; winners and losers · Regional and bilateral energy relations of established and rising powers · Infrastructure developments and governance responses The book is recommended for academics and policy makers. It offers a novel analytical framework that moves from geography and technology to economics and politics to investigate the geopolitical implications of renewable energy and provides practical illustrations and policy recommendations related to specific countries and regions such as the US, EU, China, India, OPEC, and Russia



Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians

Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians Author Edmund S. Higgins
ISBN-10 9781585628902
Release 2009-02-20
Pages 203
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Brain stimulation -- focally applying electricity to the brain -- is a field with a rapidly expanding and promising array of techniques, which already have proven efficacy in treating conditions ranging from Parkinson's disease to chronic and acute pain to depression. Comprehensively surveying the landscape of current practice, Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians provides a clear and straightforward analysis of the many therapeutic applications, along with the technologies and techniques involved in each. The book begins with a thoughtful, and occasionally macabre, history of electrical stimulation of the brain. The authors then provide an accessible and concise overview of electricity and its effects on the brain. The essence of the book, though, is its thorough exploration of the clinical applications of electrical stimulation. Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians covers the wide range of existing electrical stimulation therapies, including electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), vagus nerve stimulation (VNS), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), deep brain stimulation (DBS), and a host of other clinical applications. Each chapter examines a particular therapy, including its history, an overview of the techniques involved, its clinical indications, side effects, and a critical review of the literature surrounding its efficacy. Designed as an approachable and thorough reference for the practicing clinician, the book includes many features to assist in evaluating the variety of stimulation therapies. The book as a whole is an excellent-quick start guide to help practitioners make informed choices about brain stimulation therapies. The background on the basics of electricity is useful for those not intimately familiar with these concepts. A thorough glossary helps the clinician navigate the jargon and decode the alphabet soup surrounding current practice. Clear and useful diagrams and schematics illustrate all essential points. Interesting sidebars highlight fascinating and occasionally amusing potential applications of brain stimulation techniques -- and offer a glimpse into the sometimes grim history of human brain experimentation. The authors' careful attention to evidence-based literature helps clinicians determine which techniques have proven efficacy and which claims are unsupported. Each chapter features a comprehensive bibliography of references for further reading. Brain Stimulation Therapies for Clinicians is an essential reference for any clinician, or even potential patient, interested in understanding electrical stimulation as therapy.



Renewable Energy Sources Engineering Technology Innovation

Renewable Energy Sources  Engineering  Technology  Innovation Author Krzysztof Mudryk
ISBN-10 9783319723716
Release 2018-02-09
Pages 834
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This volume presents refereed papers based on the oral and poster presentations at the 4th International Conference on Renewable Energy Sources, which was held from June 20 to 23, 2017 in Krynica, Poland. The scope of the conference included a wide range of topics in renewable energy technology, with a major focus on biomass and solar energy, but also extending to geothermal energy, heat pumps, fuel cells, wind energy, energy storage, and the modeling and optimization of renewable energy systems. The conference had the unique goal of gathering Polish and international researchers’ perspectives on renewable energy sources, and furthermore of balancing them against governmental policy considerations. Accordingly, the conference offered not only scientific sessions but also panels to discuss best practices and solutions with local entrepreneurs and federal government bodies. The Conference was jointly organized by the University of Agriculture in Krakow, the International Commission of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (CIGR), the Polish Society of Agricultural Engineering, AGH University of Science and Technology (Krakow), the Polish Society for Agrophysics under the patronage of the Rector of the University of Agriculture in Krakow, and the Polish Chamber of Ecology.



Power System Optimization Modeling in GAMS

Power System Optimization Modeling in GAMS Author Alireza Soroudi
ISBN-10 9783319623504
Release 2017-09-18
Pages 295
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This unique book describes how the General Algebraic Modeling System (GAMS) can be used to solve various power system operation and planning optimization problems. This book is the first of its kind to provide readers with a comprehensive reference that includes the solution codes for basic/advanced power system optimization problems in GAMS, a computationally efficient tool for analyzing optimization problems in power and energy systems. The book covers theoretical background as well as the application examples and test case studies. It is a suitable reference for dedicated and general audiences including power system professionals as well as researchers and developers from the energy sector and electrical power engineering community and will be helpful to undergraduate and graduate students.



Biogas

Biogas Author Meisam Tabatabaei
ISBN-10 9783319773353
Release 2018-04-19
Pages 472
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This book presents the state of the art in biogas production using anaerobic digestion technology, with an emphasis on waste utilization/valorization. Offering a comprehensive reference guide to biogas production from different waste streams, it covers various aspects of anaerobic digestion technology from the basics, i.e., microbiological aspects to prominent parameters governing biogas production systems, as well as major principles of their operation, analysis, process control, and troubleshooting. Written and edited by internationally recognized experts in the field of biogas production from both academia and industry, it provides in-depth and cutting-edge information on central developments in the field. In addition, it discusses and reviews major issues affecting biogas production, including the type of feedstock, pretreatment techniques, production systems, design and fabrication of biogas plants, as well as biogas purification and upgrading technologies. ‘Biogas: Fundamentals, Process, and Operation’ also addresses the application of advanced environmental and energy evaluation tools including life cycle assessment (LCA), exergy, techno-economics, and modeling techniques. This book is intended for all researchers, practitioners and students who are interested in the current trends and future prospects of biogas production technologies.