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Disease and Democracy

Disease and Democracy Author Peter Baldwin
ISBN-10 9780520251472
Release 2007-02-09
Pages 465
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“A historical masterpiece! Just when we thought we knew everything about the politics and policies of the HIV/AIDS pandemic, Peter Baldwin surprises us with innovative insights about the sharp differences in policy among countries as well as complex tradeoffs between civil liberties and public goods. This is a refreshing and readable book in which AIDS is used as a lens to understand the public health enterprise ranging from leprosy and syphilis to tuberculosis and SARS. Baldwin offers a deeply historical and comparative understanding of HIV in the industrialized world.”—Lawrence O. Gostin, author of Public Health Law: Power, Duty, Restraint "Although a vast literature has emerged to chronicle and reflect on the history of the AIDS epidemic since it was first reported almost a quarter of a century ago, there is nothing like Peter Baldwin's probing and synthetic analysis of AIDS in the industrialized world. Building on his masterful Contagion and the State in Europe 1830-1930, Baldwin has provided a complex historical tapestry of how an epidemic threat has challenged and exposed democracies that thought infectious threats a thing of the past."—Ronald Bayer author of Private Acts, Social Cosequences:Aids and the Politics Of Public Health and coauthor with Gerald Oppenheimer of AIDS Doctors:Voices from the Epidemic



Disease in the History of Modern Latin America

Disease in the History of Modern Latin America Author Diego Armus
ISBN-10 0822330695
Release 2003-03-26
Pages 326
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DIVEdited volume that takes a non-traditional approach to the history of medicine in Latin America, and emphasizes the cultural and social construction of disease./div



Notes On Democracy

Notes On Democracy Author H. L. Mencken
ISBN-10 9781446547946
Release 2013-04-16
Pages 232
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NOTES ON DEMOCRACY by H. L. MENCKEN JONATHAN. Contents include: I DEMOCRATIC MAN 1 HIS APPEARANCE IN THE WORLD 9 2 VARIETIES OF HOMO SAPIENS 15 3 THE NEW PSYCHOLOGY 21 POLITICS UNDER DEMOCRACY 29 5 THE ROLE OF THE HORMONES 35 6 ENVY AS A PHILOSOPHY 42 Jx LIBERTY AND DEMOCRATIC MAN 51 THE EFFECTS UPON PROGRESS 58 9 THE ETERNAL MOB 7 2 II THE DEMOCRATIC STATE 1 THE TWO KINDS OF DEMOCRACY 79 2 THE POPULAR WILL 85 3 DISPROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION 97 4 THE POLITICIAN UNDER DEMOCRACY 1 07 5 UTOPIA 115 6 THE OCCASIONAL EXCEPTION 124 7 THE MAKER OF LAWS 131 8 THE REWARDS OF VIRTUE 139 9 FOOTNOTE ON LAME DUCKS 148 5 CONTENTS PAGE III DEMOCRACY AND LIBERTY 1 THE WILL TO PEACE 157 2 THE DEMOCRAT AS MORALIST 1 62 3 WHERE PURITANISM FAILS 1 77 4 CORRUPTION UNDER DEMOCRACY 187 IV CODA 1 THE FUTURE OF DEMOCRACY 2O7 2 LAST WORDS 2l8. DEMOCRATIC MAN: HIS APPEARANCE IN THE WORLD. DEMOCRACY came into the Western World to the tune of sweet, soft music. There was, at the start, no harsh bawling from below there was only a dulcet twittering from above. Democratic man thus began as an ideal being, full of ineffable virtues and romantic wrongs in brief, as Rous seaus noble savage in smock and jerkin, brought out of the tropical wilds to shame the lords and masters of the civilized lands. The fact continues to have important consequences to this day. It remains impossible, as it was in the eighteenth century, to separate the democratic idea from the theory that there is a mystical merit, an esoteric and ineradicable rectitude, in the man at the bottom of the scale - that inferiority, by some strange magic, becomes a sort of superiority - nay, the superiority of superiorities. Everywhere on earth, save where the enlightenment of the modern age is confessedly in transient eclipse, the move ment is toward the completer and more enamoured enfranchisement of the lower orders. Down there, one hears, lies a deep, illimitable reservoir of righteousness and wisdom, unpolluted by the corruption of privilege. What baffles statesmen is to be solved by the people, instantly and by a sort of seraphic intuition. Their yearnings are pure they alone are capable of a perfect patriot ism in them is the only hope of peace and happi ness on this lugubrious ball. The cure for the evils of democracy is more democracy This notion, as I hint, originated in the poetic fancy of gentlemen on the upper levels - senti mentalists who, observing to their distress that the ass was over-laden, proposed to reform trans port by putting him into the cart. A stale Chris tian bilge ran through their veins, though many of them, as it happened, toyed with what is now called Modernism. They were the direct ancestors of the more saccharine Liberals of to-day, who yet mouth their tattered phrases and dream their pre posterous dreams. I can find no record that these phrases, in the beginning, made much impression upon the actual objects of their rhetoric. Early democratic man seems to have given little thought to the democratic ideal, and less veneration. What he wanted was something concrete and highly materialistic - more to eat, less work, higher wages, lower taxes. He had no apparent belief in the acroamatic virtue of his own class, and certainly none in its capacity to rule. His aim was not to exterminate the baron, but simply to bring the baron back to a proper discharge of baronial busi ness. When, by the wild shooting that naturally accompanies all mob movements, the former end was accidentally accomplished, and men out of the mob began to take on baronial airs, the mob itself quickly showed its opinion of them by butchering them deliberately and in earnest. Once the pikes were out, indeed, it was a great deal more dangerous to be a tribune of the people than to be an ornament of the old order...



State Building and Democracy in Southern Africa

State Building and Democracy in Southern Africa Author Pierre Du Toit
ISBN-10 1878379461
Release 1995
Pages 355
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6. The Contest for Hegemony



The Gardens of Democracy

The Gardens of Democracy Author Eric Liu
ISBN-10 9781570618437
Release 2011-12-06
Pages 192
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American democracy is informed by the 18th century’s most cutting edge thinking on society, economics, and government. We’ve learned some things in the intervening 230 years about self interest, social behaviors, and how the world works. Now, authors Eric Liu and Nick Hanauer argue that some fundamental assumptions about citizenship, society, economics, and government need updating. For many years the dominant metaphor for understanding markets and government has been the machine. Liu and Hanauer view democracy not as a machine, but as a garden. A successful garden functions according to the inexorable tendencies of nature, but it also requires goals, regular tending, and an understanding of connected ecosystems. The latest ideas from science, social science, and economics—the cutting-edge ideas of today--generate these simple but revolutionary ideas: True self interest is mutual interest. (Society, it turns out, is an ecosystem that is healthiest when we take care of the whole.) Society becomes how we behave. (The model of citizenship depends on contagious behavior, hence positive behavior begets positive behavior.) We’re all better off when we’re all better off. (The economy is not an efficient machine. It’s an effective garden that need tending. Adjust the definition of wealth to society creating solutions for all.) Government should be about the big what and the little how. (Government should establish the ideas and the goals, and then let the people find the solutions of how to make it happen.) Freedom is responsibility. (True freedom is not about living some variant of libertarianism but rather an active cooperation a part of a big whole society; freedom costs a little freedom.) The Gardens of Democracy is an optimistic, provocative, and timely summons to improve our role as citizens in a democratic society.



State Nation and Democracy

State  Nation and Democracy Author Partha Pratim Basu
ISBN-10 8180694208
Release 2007-01-01
Pages 370
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Papers presented at the Seminar: Alternative Global Futures, held at Kolkata during 5-6 March 2003 and the Seminar: State, Nation and Democracy : Global Politics in the 21st Century, held at Kolkata during 9-10 March 2004.



Reason Social Myths and Democracy

Reason  Social Myths and Democracy Author Sidney Hook
ISBN-10 9781605206332
Release 2009-01-01
Pages 316
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Dedicated "to the memory of a Great Adversary," this 1940 work is a startling clarion call to embrace reason and rationality as the only way to solve social problems. Hook discusses: [ democracy and scientific method [ the meaning behind nonsense [ the folklore of capitalism [ ideas as weapons [ integral humanism [ science, atheism, and mythology [ science and the "new obscurantism" [ the mythology of class science [ and much more.



Pluralism and Democracy in India

Pluralism and Democracy in India Author Wendy Doniger
ISBN-10 9780199380930
Release 2015-02-09
Pages 400
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Wendy Doniger and Martha Nussbaum bring together leading scholars from a wide array of disciplines to address a crucial question: How does the world's most populous democracy survive repeated assaults on its pluralistic values? India's stunning linguistic, cultural, and religious diversity has been supported since Independence by a political structure that emphasizes equal rights for all, and protects liberties of religion and speech. But a decent Constitution does not implement itself, and challenges to these core values repeatedly arise-most recently in the form of the Hindu Right movements of the twenty-first century that threatened to destabilize the nation and upend its core values, in the wake of a notorious pogrom in the state of Gujarat in which approximately 2000 Muslim civilians were killed. Focusing on this time of tension and threat, the essays in this volume consider how a pluralistic democracy managed to survive. They examine the role of political parties and movements, including the women's movement, as well as the role of the arts, the press, the media, and a historical legacy of pluralistic thought and critical argument. Featuring essays from eminent scholars in history, religious studies, political science, economics, women's studies, and media studies, Pluralism and Democracy in India offers an urgently needed case study in democratic survival. As Nehru said of India on the eve of Independence: ''These dreams are for India, but they are also for the world.'' The analysis this volume offers illuminates not only the past and future of one nation, but the prospects of democracy for all.



Political Parties and Democratic Linkage

Political Parties and Democratic Linkage Author Russell J. Dalton
ISBN-10 9780199599356
Release 2011-09-29
Pages 238
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Political Parties and Democratic Linkage examines how political parties ensure the functioning of the democratic process in contemporary societies. Based on unprecedented cross-national data, the authors find that the process of party government is still alive and well in most contemporary democracies.



The Internet and Democracy Building in Lusophone African Countries

The Internet and Democracy Building in Lusophone African Countries Author Dr Susana Salgado
ISBN-10 9781409436560
Release 2014-10-28
Pages 194
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This timely book fills an important gap in the literature on the influence of the Internet and new media on Portuguese speaking African countries. Based on extensive field work throughout the region, the author examines the influence of the Internet in the transition to democracy in Africa, and asks whether there are new possibilities for popular activism to emerge from evolving communication environments and media systems.



Torture and Democracy

Torture and Democracy Author Darius M. Rejali
ISBN-10 0691114226
Release 2007
Pages 849
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This is the most comprehensive, and most comprehensively chilling, study of modern torture yet written. Darius Rejali, one of the world's leading experts on torture, takes the reader from the late nineteenth century to the aftermath of Abu Ghraib, from slavery and the electric chair to electrotorture in American inner cities, and from French and British colonial prison cells and the Spanish-American War to the fields of Vietnam, the wars of the Middle East, and the new democracies of Latin America and Europe. As Rejali traces the development and application of one torture technique after another in these settings, he reaches startling conclusions. As the twentieth century progressed, he argues, democracies not only tortured, but set the international pace for torture. Dictatorships may have tortured more, and more indiscriminately, but the United States, Britain, and France pioneered and exported techniques that have become the lingua franca of modern torture: methods that leave no marks. Under the watchful eyes of reporters and human rights activists, low-level authorities in the world's oldest democracies were the first to learn that to scar a victim was to advertise iniquity and invite scandal. Long before the CIA even existed, police and soldiers turned instead to "clean" techniques, such as torture by electricity, ice, water, noise, drugs, and stress positions. As democracy and human rights spread after World War II, so too did these methods. Rejali makes this troubling case in fluid, arresting prose and on the basis of unprecedented research--conducted in multiple languages and on several continents--begun years before most of us had ever heard of Osama bin Laden or Abu Ghraib. The author of a major study of Iranian torture, Rejali also tackles the controversial question of whether torture really works, answering the new apologists for torture point by point. A brave and disturbing book, this is the benchmark against which all future studies of modern torture will be measured.



Identity Security and Democracy

Identity  Security and Democracy Author Emilio Mordini
ISBN-10 9781586039400
Release 2009-01-01
Pages 117
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Many people think of personal identification as only part of the security/surveillance apparatus. This is likely to be an oversimplification, which largely misrepresents the reality. 'Personal identity' means two separate concepts, namely that an individual belongs to specific categories and also that this individual is distinguished by other persons and understood as one. In other words, there are two different aspects involved in personal recognition: distinguishing between individuals and distinguishing between sets of people. The latter is likely to be the real issue. Dictatorships of any kind and totalitarian regimes have always ruled by categorizing people and by creating different classes of subjects. When rules want their subjects to humiliate themselves or their fellows, they create categories of people or exploit existing categories. From social and political points of view this allows a process known as 'pseudospeciation' to be produced. Pseudospeciation is a process which turns social and cultural differences into biological diversities. It promotes cooperation within social groups, overpowering the selfish interests of individuals in favor of collective interests, yet it also inhibits cooperation between groups, and it fosters conflict and mistrust. This work is dedicated to the thorny and multifaceted relations between identity, security and democracy. Identity, Security and Democracy shows how full of nuances the process of human identification is.



How Democracy Ends

How Democracy Ends Author David Runciman
ISBN-10 9781541616790
Release 2018-06-05
Pages 256
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How will democracy end? And what will replace it? A preeminent political scientist examines the past, present, and future of an endangered political philosophy Since the end of World War II, democracy's sweep across the globe seemed inexorable. Yet today, it seems radically imperiled, even in some of the world's most stable democracies. How bad could things get? In How Democracy Ends, David Runciman argues that we are trapped in outdated twentieth-century ideas of democratic failure. By fixating on coups and violence, we are focusing on the wrong threats. Our societies are too affluent, too elderly, and too networked to fall apart as they did in the past. We need new ways of thinking the unthinkable--a twenty-first-century vision of the end of democracy, and whether its collapse might allow us to move forward to something better. A provocative book by a major political philosopher, How Democracy Ends asks the most trenchant questions that underlie the disturbing patterns of our contemporary political life.



Healing the Heart of Democracy

Healing the Heart of Democracy Author Parker J. Palmer
ISBN-10 9781118970362
Release 2014-07-31
Pages 320
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Hope for American democracy in an era of deep divisions In Healing the Heart of Democracy, Parker J. Palmer quickens our instinct to seek the common good and gives us the tools to do it. This timely, courageous and practical work—intensely personal as well as political—is not about them, "those people" in Washington D.C., or in our state capitals, on whom we blame our political problems. It's about us, "We the People," and what we can do in everyday settings like families, neighborhoods, classrooms, congregations and workplaces to resist divide-and-conquer politics and restore a government "of the people, by the people, for the people." In the same compelling, inspiring prose that has made him a bestselling author, Palmer explores five "habits of the heart" that can help us restore democracy's foundations as we nurture them in ourselves and each other: An understanding that we are all in this together An appreciation of the value of "otherness" An ability to hold tension in life-giving ways A sense of personal voice and agency A capacity to create community Healing the Heart of Democracy is an eloquent and empowering call for "We the People" to reclaim our democracy. The online journal Democracy & Education called it "one of the most important books of the early 21st Century." And Publishers Weekly, in a Starred Review, said "This beautifully written book deserves a wide audience that will benefit from discussing it."



The Challenge of Sustaining Emergent Democracies

The Challenge of Sustaining Emergent Democracies Author Joseph Osei
ISBN-10 9781469101019
Release 2009-07-24
Pages 299
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The recent political crises in Kenya, Zimbabwe, and Georgia should alert all to the fact that the emergent democracies that mushroomed all over Africa and Eastern Europe at the end of the last century cannot be taken for granted. They face multiple obstacles including political manipulation, poverty, dependency, racism, ethnicism, religious extremism, short-sighted nationalism, fraud, and corruption of all types. Are these democracies sustainable? Were the skeptics right? Are the obstacles due to internal or external factors or both? Could democracy itself with its emphasis on freedom and self-determination cause ethnic conflicts? This book does not only identify and analyze the main obstacles but also argues that they can be overcome with thoughtful strategies. These include identifying the inherent strengths and weaknesses of democracy, contextualizing some democratic ideals and practices for developing economies, minimizing dependences, making religion an ally for fighting fraud, corruption, and for promoting peace and social transformation, and adopting a pro-democracy and pro-development philosophy of education. Rev Dr. Joseph Osei is Professor of Philosophy at Fayetteville State University, NC. His PHD in Philosophy is from The Ohio State University (1991), the M.A is from Ohio University (1986) and the B.A. in Philosophy & Religion is from The University of Ghana (1981). Osei is also a graduate of Trinity Theological Seminary (Legon) and an ordained minister of The Methodist Church, Ghana. He was born at Kokofu, Ashanti, Ghana in 1951 and is married to Victoria Osei. They have five kids: Lucy, Gina, Suzie, Miriam, and Emmanuel.



Drugs Deviancy and Democracy in Iran

Drugs  Deviancy and Democracy in Iran Author Janne Bjerre Christensen
ISBN-10 9780857720184
Release 2011-09-30
Pages 304
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In the aftermath of the Iranian Revolution, the government initiated a stringent anti-drug campaign that included fining addicts, imprisonment, physical punishment and even the death penalty. Despite these measures, drug use was and is still commonplace. Based on her most recent fieldwork in Iran, Janne Bjerre Christensen highlights the mounting problems of drug use, how treatment became legalized in 1998, and how local NGOs have become involved in the treatment of drug addicts, and indeed, face continues political challenges in doing so. _x000D_ _x000D_ Drugs, Deviancy and Democracy explores how treatment is carried out among homeless drug users in South Tehran, in a private clinic and in the work of Narcotics Anonymous. By attempting to socially include and ‘normalize’ drug users, these local organisations balance on the margins of state permissiveness and control, constantly navigating the relations between state and non-state, normalcy and deviancy. Although treatment is allowed, state responses to both drug users and NGOs remain deeply contradictory, reflecting the competing ideals of Islamic governance prevailing since the revolution._x000D_ _x000D_ It is through an analysis of the emergence of local NGOs, their work, the challenges that they face, and the ways in which both them and the drug users are discussed in Iranian society, media and cinema, that Christensen examines the very nature of power and its loci in Iran. She thus uncovers the precarious relationship between state and society, and points to the subtle, detailed and contradictory ways in which ‘reform’ is born, manifested and reformulated. Her conclusions thereby hold wider implications for understanding the political mobilization in Iran and the state’s reaction to it as the Islamic Republic reaches its fourth decade. _x000D_ _x000D_ This book is thus a unique account of Iran’s recent social and political history, drawing important conclusions about the complexity of state power, and the growing impact of civil society, vital for all those interested in Iran’s history, politics and society.



Social Policy and Citizenship

Social Policy and Citizenship Author Adalbert Evers
ISBN-10 9780199754045
Release 2013
Pages 404
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In both Europe and America, the landscape of social policies has undergone fundamental changes in recent decades, especially in endeavors to develop new welfare arrangements. How does this affect citizenship-at-large as defined by the Marshallian triad of personal, democratic, and social rights? Taking nine European countries as case studies, the contributions analyze the ways that citizenship has changed in key areas such as social security, labor market policies, and social services. Other chapters concentrate on the theoretical and conceptual challenges that result from the interrelation of changing social policies with different notions of citizenship. Trends in welfare reform have become harder to interpret. They are no longer about simple reductions in social services and entitlements, or a decline in social citizenship; the terms of debate have shifted. In a postindustrial world, individuals are afforded more mobility, autonomy, and responsibility. Security is being reexamined in light of the new risks stemming from a worldwide knowledge-based economy. Behind the diversity of changes there is a unified agenda taking shape, characterized with concepts like activation, social investments, concerns with inclusion, and the strengthening of links between rights and responsibilities. The contributions in this volume represent an insightful look at the debate between the determination to curb social spending and a new model of an activist state ready to make social investments.