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DNA Analysis for Missing Person Identification in Mass Fatalities

DNA Analysis for Missing Person Identification in Mass Fatalities Author Amanda C Sozer
ISBN-10 9781466514287
Release 2014-01-28
Pages 332
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Advances in DNA technology have expanded such that forensic DNA profiling is now considered a routine method for identifying victims of mass fatalities. Originating from an initiative funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of State, DNA Analysis for Missing Person Identification in Mass Fatalities presents a collection of training modules that supply comprehensive instruction in these complex techniques. The book begins with a concise overview of DNA analysis methods and their use in identifying victims of mass fatalities. It then goes on to explore: Mass fatality response operations, including body recovery, mortuary operations, family assistance, the identification of human remains, and psychosocial support for families Best practices in DNA sample collection and the different types of reference samples that can be used to identify a reported missing (RM) individual Autosomal short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profile analysis and interpretation, and procedures to ensure data accuracy Major steps involved in generating a DNA profile and the complex aspects of data analysis and interpretation The importance of data management using information technology tools, and tips for maintaining quality operations Accreditation and standards and the major elements of a DNA quality program Setting up a laboratory operation, including planning, staffing, identifying types of equipment and supplies, and the procedures for ensuring that laboratory equipment performs appropriately The book includes a discussion of the key steps in the preparation, delivery, and evaluation of training sessions for personnel responding to a mass fatality human identification event. It also provides a comprehensive vocabulary list with terms related to mass fatality DNA identification. This text is a must-read for organizations contemplating the use of DNA in human identification initiatives following mass fatalities. It is also a tremendous value to emergency manager/planners, medical legal authorities, and forensic DNA laboratories.



Commingled Human Remains

Commingled Human Remains Author Bradley Adams
ISBN-10 9780124059184
Release 2014-06-04
Pages 544
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Commingled human remains are encountered in situations ranging from prehistoric ossuaries to recent mass fatality incidents. Commingled Human Remains: Methods in Recovery, Analysis, and Identification brings together tools from diverse sources within the forensic science community to offer a set of comprehensive approaches to resolving issues associated with commingled remains. This edition focuses on forensic situations, although some examples from prehistoric contexts are also addressed. Commingling of bones and other body parts is a major obstacle to individual identification that must be addressed before other forensic determinations or research can proceed. Regardless of the cause for the commingling (transportation disaster, terrorist attack, natural disaster, genocide, etc.) it is critical that the proper experts are involved and that the proper techniques are employed to achieve the greatest success in making identifications. Resolution of commingling nearly always requires consideration of multiple lines of evidence that cross the disciplinary lines of modern forensic science. The use of archaeology, DNA, and forensic anthropology are several areas that are critical in this process and these are core topics presented in this book. Even a relatively “simple mass fatality event can become very complicated once body fragmentation and commingling occur. Expectations associated with all phases of the process from recovery of remains to their final identification and release to next of kin must be managed appropriately. A powerful resource for those working in the forensic sciences who need to plan for and/or address the complex challenges associated with commingled and fragmentary human remains. Written by an international group of the foremost forensic scientists presenting their research and candid experiences of dealing with commingled human remains, offering recommendations and providing "lessons learned" which can be invaluable to others who find themselves facing similar challenges Contains chapters on remains recovery, laboratory analysis, case studies, and broader topics such as mass fatality management and ethical considerations.



Management of Dead Bodies After Disasters

Management of Dead Bodies After Disasters Author Oliver Morgan
ISBN-10 UCSD:31822034522110
Release 2006
Pages 47
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Dignified and proper management of the dead in disasters is fundamental to help the families know the fate of their relatives and mourn their dead. This manual is intended for use by those first on the scene following a disaster when no specialists are at hand. It provides basic guidance to manage the recovery, basic identification, storage and disposal of dead bodies following disasters, to ensure that no information is lost and that the dead are treated with respect. This field manual is the first ever to provide step-by-step guidance on how to recover and identify victims killed in disasters while duly considering the needs and rights of survivors. The book also provides practical annexes, including a Dead Body Identification Form, a Missing Persons Form, and a chart of sequential numbers for unique referencing of bodies.



Forensic DNA Applications

Forensic DNA Applications Author Dragan Primorac
ISBN-10 9781466580237
Release 2014-01-29
Pages 647
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Forensic DNA Applications: An Interdisciplinary Perspective was developed as an outgrowth of a conference held by the International Society of Applied Biological Sciences. The topic was human genome–based applications in forensic science, anthropology, and individualized medicine. Assembling the contributions of contributors from numerous regions around the world, this volume is designed as both a textbook for forensic molecular biology students and a reference for practitioners and those in the legal system. The book begins with the history and development of DNA typing and profiling for criminal and civil purposes. It discusses the statistical interpretation of results with case examples, mitochondrial DNA testing, Y single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short tandem repeats (STRs), and X SNP and STR testing. It also explores low copy number DNA typing, mixtures, and quality assurance and control. The second section examines the collection and preservation of biological evidence under a variety of different circumstances and the identification of human remains—including in mass disaster settings. It discusses applications to bioterrorism investigations, animal DNA testing in criminal cases, pedigree questions and wildlife forensic problems, applications in forensic entomology, and forensic botany. The third section explores recent developments and new technologies, including the rigorous identification of tissue of origin, mtDNA profiling using immobilized probe strips, chips and next-generation sequencing, the use of SNPs to ascertain phenotypic characteristics, and the "molecular autopsy" that looks at aspects of toxicogenetics and pharmacogenetics. The book concludes with a discussion on law, ethics, and policy. It examines the use of DNA evidence in the criminal justice system in both the United States and Europe, ethical issues in forensic laboratory practices, familial searches, DNA databases, ancestry searches, physical phenotyping, and report writing. The contributors also examine DNA applications in immigration and human trafficking cases and international perspectives on DNA databases.



Missing Persons

Missing Persons Author Karen Shalev Greene
ISBN-10 9781317095538
Release 2016-10-14
Pages 252
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A missing person is an individual whose whereabouts are unknown and where there is some concern for his or her wellbeing. In the UK, around 250,000 people are reported missing every year, with the majority being children under the age of 18. Despite the fact that missing persons are a social phenomenon which encompasses vast areas of interest, relatively little is known about those who go missing, what happens to them while they are missing, and what can be done to prevent these incidents from occurring. This groundbreaking book brings together for the first time ideas and expertise across this vast subject area into one interconnected publication. It explores the subjects of missing children, missing adults, the investigative process of missing person cases, and the families of missing persons. Those with no prior knowledge or professionals with focused knowledge in some areas will be able to expand their understanding of a variety of topics relevant to this field through detailed chapters which advance our understanding of this complex phenomenon, discuss what is unknown, and suggest the best and most important steps forward to further advance our knowledge.



New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification

New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification Author Krista E. Latham
ISBN-10 9780128125380
Release 2017-07-27
Pages 374
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New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification provides a comprehensive and up-to-date perspective on human identification methods in forensic anthropology. Divided into four distinct sections, the chapters will reflect recent advances in human skeletal identification, including statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile (sex, age, ancestry, stature), biochemical methods of identification (DNA analysis, stable isotope analysis, bomb curve analysis), and use of comparative radiography. The final section of this book highlights advances in human identification techniques that are being applied to international populations and disaster victims. The contributing authors represent established experts in forensic anthropology and closely related fields. New Perspectives in Forensic Human Skeletal Identification will be an essential resource for researchers, practitioners, and advanced students interested in state-of-the-art methods for human identification. A comprehensive and up-to-date volume on human identification methods in forensic anthropology Focuses on recent advances such as statistical and morphometric methods for assessing the biological profile, biochemical methods of identification and use of comparative radiography Includes an entire section on human identification techniques being applied to international populations and disaster victims



Forensic Odontology

Forensic Odontology Author Thomas J. David
ISBN-10 9780128052853
Release 2018-01-02
Pages 338
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Forensic Odontology: Principles and Practice details the aspects necessary to become an accomplished forensic odontologist, including an illustration of the skills necessary to become an expert witness. The book is ideal for both the experienced and novice forensic odontologist, covering many fields of expertise, including civil and criminal matters. The civil side involves standard of care and personal injury matters, while the criminal side involves not only dental identification, but management of mass fatality incidents, age assessment, child and elder abuse, and bitemark analysis. Provides a comprehensive review of forensic odontology, including the skills necessary to become a competent expert witness Covers the fields of forensic odontology, the basic skills, legal aspects, legal precedents, report writing and expert witness testimony Includes numerous illustrations, including charts and graphs, along with B&W and color images



Handbook of Missing Persons

Handbook of Missing Persons Author Stephen J. Morewitz
ISBN-10 9783319401997
Release 2017-01-17
Pages 585
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This ambitious multidisciplinary volume surveys the science, forensics, politics, and ethics involved in responding to missing persons cases. International experts across the physical and social sciences offer data, case examples, and insights on best practices, new methods, and emerging specialties that may be employed in investigations. Topics such as secondary victimization, privacy issues, DNA identification, and the challenges of finding victims of war and genocide highlight the uncertainties and complexities surrounding these cases as well as possibilities for location and recovery. This diverse presentation will assist professionals in accessing new ideas, collaborating with colleagues, and handling missing persons cases with greater efficiency—and potentially greater certainty. Among the Handbook’s topics: ·A profile of missing persons: some key findings for police officers. ·Missing persons investigations and identification: issues of scale, infrastructure, and political will. ·Pregnancy and parenting among runaway and homeless young women. ·Estimating the appearance of the missing: forensic age progression in the search for missing persons. ·The use of trace evidence in missing persons investigations. ·The Investigation of historic missing persons cases: genocide and “conflict time” human rights abuses. The depth and scope of its expertise make the Handbook of Missing Persons useful for criminal justice and forensic professionals, health care and mental health professionals, social scientists, legal professionals, policy leaders, community leaders, and military personnel, as well as for the general public.



Forensic Dental Evidence

Forensic Dental Evidence Author C. Michael Bowers
ISBN-10 0123820014
Release 2010-09-14
Pages 368
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Forensic Dental Evidence: An Investigators Handbook highlights the discussion regarding unjust convictions caused by inaccurate bitemark opinions. The book focuses on cases that use forensic techniques, emphasizing modern methods and protocols. Through this book, the latest information available is offered to the forensic community. This book demonstrates expertise in forensic dentistry by presenting chapters on human identification in domestic and international situations; investigations on missing person and violent crimes against persons; mass-disaster planning and disaster response; and new threats from terrorist attacks on urban centers. Furthermore, it discusses topics regarding bitemark evidence, such as forensic photography, analysis and legal issues. The book also presents two chapters on new scientific topics: The Next Level in Victim Identification: Materials Properties as an Aid in Victim Identification; and DNA for First Responders: Recognizing, Collecting, and Analyzing Biological Evidence Related to Dentistry (chapters 3 and 8, respectively). This book is suited to anyone seeking knowledge on forensic dentistry; it will be of great value to investigators, lawyers, medical examiners, nurses, and dentists with an interest in forensic dental cases. Contributions by internationally recognized and experienced forensic experts cover missing persons cases and mass disaster cases from around the world Contains over 200 full-color photographs of crime scene evidence, human identification cases and bitemark details Includes many new exoneration cases derived from the Editor's work with the Innocence Project



Who They Were

Who They Were Author Robert C. Shaler
ISBN-10 9780743291217
Release 2005-10-28
Pages 352
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In Who They Were, Dr. Robert C. Shaler, the man who directed the largest and most groundbreaking forensic DNA investigation in U.S. history, tells with poignant clarity and refreshing honesty the story behind the relentless effort to identify the 2,749 victims of the attacks on the World Trade Center. No part of the investigation into the 9/11 attacks has taken as long or been less discussed than the daunting task of identifying the victims -- and the hijackers -- from the remains in the rubble of Ground Zero. In Who They Were, Dr. Robert C. Shaler, former director of the Forensic Biology Department at the New York City Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, tells the inside story of the relentless process of DNA identification and depicts the victories and frustrations that he and his team of scientists experienced during more than three years of grueling work. On September 11, 2001, New York City was unprepared for the mass-fatality event that occurred at the World Trade Center. The Office of the Chief Medical Examiner had to completely reconfigure itself to process and identify the nearly 20,000 remains that would eventually come through its doors. Facing an astonishing array of obstacles -- from political infighting and an overwhelming bureaucracy to the nearly insurmountable task of corralling personnel and supplies to handle the work -- Shaler and his team quickly established an unprecedented network of cooperation among public agencies and private labs doing cutting-edge research. More than a story of innovative science at the frontiers of human knowledge, Who They Were also tells the very human story of how Dr. Shaler and his staff forged important and lasting bonds with the families of those who were lost. He shares the agony of mistakes made in the chaos and unintended misidentifications resulting in the excruciating difficulty of having to retrieve remains from families of the lost. Finally, Dr. Shaler shares how he and the dedicated team of scientists who gave up more than three years of their lives when the rest of the world had moved on had to face the limits of science in dealing with the appalling level of destruction at Ground Zero and concede that no more victims would be sent home to their families. As of April 2005, when the process was suspended, only 1,592 out of the 2,749 who died on that fateful day had been identified. With compelling prose and insight, Who They Were reveals the previously untold stories of the scientists determined to bring closure to devastated families in the wake of America's largest disaster.



Criminal Investigation

Criminal Investigation Author Kären Hess
ISBN-10 9781435469938
Release 2009-02-23
Pages 720
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Criminal Investigation, 9th Edition is a practical, applied textbook that succinctly yet comprehensively covers the very latest in investigative tools and techniques as well as established investigative procedures. The text stresses practical procedures, techniques, and applications of private and public investigations to provide learners with a solid foundation in criminal investigation. It seamlessly integrates coverage of modern investigative tools alongside discussion of established investigation policies, procedures, and techniques for the law enforcement officer. Coverage has been updated and enhanced for such important topics such as terrorism and homeland security, the `CSI Effect, cybercrime, federal law enforcement investigations, crimes against children, forensics and physical evidence, investigative photography and sketching, identity theft, white-collar crime, ethics, and much more. Criminal Investigation, 9th Edition includes a carefully structured learning system, checklists, and visuals to make learning easy. Important Notice: Media content referenced within the product description or the product text may not be available in the ebook version.



Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing Methodology

Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing  Methodology Author John M. Butler
ISBN-10 9780123878236
Release 2011-07-27
Pages 704
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Intended as a companion to the Fundamentals of Forensic DNA Typing volume published in 2009, Advanced Topics in Forensic DNA Typing: Methodology contains 18 chapters with 4 appendices providing up-to-date coverage of essential topics in this important field and citation to more than 2800 articles and internet resources. The book builds upon the previous two editions of John Butler’s internationally acclaimed Forensic DNA Typing textbook with forensic DNA analysts as its primary audience. This book provides the most detailed information written to-date on DNA databases, low-level DNA, validation, and numerous other topics including a new chapter on legal aspects of DNA testing to prepare scientists for expert witness testimony. Over half of the content is new compared to previous editions. A forthcoming companion volume will cover interpretation issues. Contains the latest information - hot-topics and new technologies Well edited, attractively laid out, and makes productive use of its four-color format Author John Butler is ranked as the number one "high-impact author in legal medicine and forensic science, 2001 to 2011" by ScienceWatch.com



Missing Persons and Unidentified Remains

Missing Persons and Unidentified Remains Author
ISBN-10 OSU:32437122536200
Release 2007
Pages 26
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Missing Persons and Unidentified Remains has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Missing Persons and Unidentified Remains also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Missing Persons and Unidentified Remains book for free.



Postmortem Fingerprinting and Unidentified Human Remains

Postmortem Fingerprinting and Unidentified Human Remains Author Marzena Mulawka
ISBN-10 9780323286008
Release 2013-12-12
Pages 132
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Fingerprinting is the least expensive and efficient forensic identification modality. Postmortem Fingerprinting and Unidentified Human Remains is an accessible and thorough guide to the forensic identification of postmortem fingerprint records from unidentified deceased—from fingerprint acquisition to submission and case management. The methods described in Postmortem Fingerprinting and Unidentified Human Remains use a number of different fingerprinting techniques to acquire examination-quality prints. Additionally, methods for accessing databases for humanitarian purposes are discussed, bringing a modern value perspective to the topic. About the Forensic Studies for Criminal Justice Series: The Forensic Studies for Criminal Justice series consists of short-format content on new developments, unique perspectives, or how-to information on areas in forensic science—all specifically designed to meet the needs of the criminal justice community. Instructors wishing to provide their students with more in-depth coverage on certain forensic areas can add these digestible, inexpensive works to their syllabi without having to completely redesign their course, introduce overly complex material, or financially overburden their students. Law enforcement and other criminal justice professionals will find a wealth of valuable information to improve training sessions. Written by experts in the disciplines they are covering and edited by a senior scholar in criminal justice, Forensic Studies for Criminal Justice opens up the world of forensic science to the criminal justice community. Part of a new Anderson series presenting brief works on forensic science, written especially for students and law enforcement Provides a thorough guide to handling and processing postmortem fingerprint records Discusses various forensic fingerprinting techniques and methods for accessing databases



Forensic DNA Collection at Death Scenes

Forensic DNA Collection at Death Scenes Author Rhonda Williams, PhD., F-ABC
ISBN-10 9781482203691
Release 2014-03-27
Pages 175
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DNA evidence collected from death scenes is an essential tool for law enforcement, death investigators, and forensic pathologists—providing insights into cause and manner of death as well as the identification of the responsible person or persons. Ineffective collection procedures raise the risk of evidence being altered or lost during transportation of the body. Using real death scene photos and actual cases as examples, Forensic DNA Collection at Death Scenes: A Pictorial Guide provides a practical approach to evidence collection with emphasis on proper identification, collection, documentation, and preservation. The first atlas of its kind, it demonstrates best practices for collecting DNA from decedents depending on the circumstances of the death scene and other materials present on the decedent such as clothing, bindings, and other objects. The authors discuss the success of the techniques employed in each scenario and analyze the DNA results obtained. The techniques employed at death scenes can also be applied to sexual assault cases, where DNA is collected from the body after an assault takes place. The increasing applications of evidence-based medicine and forensic science to criminal justice and civil litigation demand that crime scene investigations be more scientific, better organized, and multidisciplinary. This atlas provides a step-by-step guide to effective, uncompromising evidence collection.



Forensic Human Identification

Forensic Human Identification Author Tim Thompson
ISBN-10 9781420005714
Release 2006-11-14
Pages 544
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Identity theft, criminal investigations of the dead or missing, mass disasters both by natural causes and by criminal intent – with this as our day to day reality, the establishment and verification of human identity has never been more important or more prominent in our society. Maintaining and protecting the integrity of out identity has reached levels of unprecedented importance and has led to international legislation to protect our human rights. Forensic Human Identification: An Introduction examines the variety of biological indicators that are available to investigators and illustrates the basic principles of each discipline. While DNA and fingerprints are clearly the favored methods of identification, they require a prior record and verifiable baseline for comparison. When these tools cannot be used it is necessary to employ those biological factors with higher variation and lower diagnostic probability. This reference introduces a number of different specialties such as, foot- and earprinting, dental interventions, skeletal anomalies, tattoos, facial reconstruction, personal effects, and handwriting. While recognizing that no single factor is an absolute indicator of identity, the contributors explain how a multitude of factors taken into summative consideration can establish a probability for confirmation. They discuss the difference between positive and probable identification and the use of exclusion to confirm identity. Using three high profile case studies, the book addresses the context of human identification in today’s society and illustrates the use of techniques described in the text. Heavily referenced and using more than 120 charts, figures, photographs, and tables, Forensic Human Identification: An Introduction provides detailed introductory and extended information to newcomers and experts alike on the wide range of identification techniques in international practice.



Management of Dead Bodies in Disaster Situations

Management of Dead Bodies in Disaster Situations Author Mary Elizabeth Stonaker
ISBN-10 9781437900637
Release 2008-07-01
Pages 176
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This manual will ensure that the management of massive fatalities forms part of disaster preparedness and response plans, and that it is a fundamental aspect of humanitarian assistance to survivors and rehabilitation and reconstruction programs. The manual provides the technical information that will support the correct approach to handling dead bodies. Contents: Preparedness for mass deaths; Medicolegal work in major disasters; Health considerations in cases of mass fatalities; Sociocultural aspects; Psychological aspects; Legal aspects; Cases studies; Final recommendations; Myths and realities of management of dead bodies in disasters; and Glossary. Illustrations.