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Double Standards in Medical Research in Developing Countries

Double Standards in Medical Research in Developing Countries Author Ruth Macklin
ISBN-10 0521541700
Release 2004-05-27
Pages 280
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Recent international developments show that essential medications can be made affordable and accessible to developing countries, and that double standards need not prevail. This is the first book to examine these issues, drawing the bold conclusion that double standards in medical research are ethically unacceptable."--BOOK JACKET.



Legal and Ethical Regulation of Biomedical Research in Developing Countries

Legal and Ethical Regulation of Biomedical Research in Developing Countries Author Remigius N. Nwabueze
ISBN-10 9781317106425
Release 2016-04-22
Pages 334
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There has been a rapid increase in the pace and scope of international collaborative research in developing countries in recent years. This study argues that whilst ethical regulation of biomedical research in Africa and other developing countries has attracted global attention, legal liability issues, such as the application of common law rules and the development of legally enforceable regulations, have been neglected. It examines some of the major research scandals in Africa and suggests a new ethical framework against which clinical trials could be conducted. The development of research guidelines in Uganda, Tanzania, Malawi and Nigeria are also examined as well as the role of ethics committees. Providing a detailed analysis of the law of negligence and its application to research ethics committees and their members, common law and constitutional forms of action and potential negligence claims, the book concludes by suggesting new protocols and frameworks, improved regulation and litigation. This book will be a valuable guide for students, researchers, and policy-makers with an interest in medical law and ethics, bioethics, customary law in Africa and regulation in developing countries.



Organ Shortage

Organ Shortage Author Anne-Maree Farrell
ISBN-10 9781139500104
Release 2011-03-10
Pages
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Organ shortage is an ongoing problem in many countries. The needless death and suffering which have resulted necessitate an investigation into potential solutions. This examination of contemporary ethical means, both practical and policy-oriented, of reducing the shortfall in organs draws on the experiences of a range of countries. The authors focus on the resolution and negotiation of ethical conflict, examine systems approaches such as the 'Spanish model' and the US Breakthrough Collaboratives, evaluate policy proposals relating to incentives, presumed consent, and modifications regarding end-of-life care, and evaluate the greatly increased use of (non-heart-beating) donors suffering circulatory death, as well as living donors. The proposed strategies and solutions are not only capable of resolving the UK's own organ-shortage crisis, but also of being implemented in other countries grappling with how to address the growing gap between supply and demand for organs.



Ethical Challenges in Study Design and Informed Consent for Health Research in Resource poor Settings

Ethical Challenges in Study Design and Informed Consent for Health Research in Resource poor Settings Author Patricia Loomis Marshall
ISBN-10 9789241563383
Release 2007
Pages 79
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This review considers ethical challenges to research design and informed consent in biomedical and behavioral studies conducted in resource-poor settings. A review of the literature explores relevant social, cultural, and ethical issues in the conduct of biomedical and social health research in developing countries. Ten case vignettes illustrate ethical challenges that arise in international research with culturally diverse populations. Recommendations for researchers and policy-makers concerned about ethical practices in multinational studies conducted in resource-poor settings are also listed.



Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics

Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics Author Hsiang-Ke Chao
ISBN-10 9789400724549
Release 2013-07-31
Pages 256
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This volume addresses fundamental issues in the philosophy of science in the context of two most intriguing fields: biology and economics. Written by authorities and experts in the philosophy of biology and economics, Mechanism and Causality in Biology and Economics provides a structured study of the concepts of mechanism and causality in these disciplines and draws careful juxtapositions between philosophical apparatus and scientific practice. By exploring the issues that are most salient to the contemporary philosophies of biology and economics and by presenting comparative analyses, the book serves as a platform not only for gaining mutual understanding between scientists and philosophers of the life sciences and those of the social sciences, but also for sharing interdisciplinary research that combines both philosophical concepts in both fields. The book begins by defining the concepts of mechanism and causality in biology and economics, respectively. The second and third parts investigate philosophical perspectives of various causal and mechanistic issues in scientific practice in the two fields. These two sections include chapters on causal issues in the theory of evolution; experiments and scientific discovery; representation of causal relations and mechanism by models in economics. The concluding section presents interdisciplinary studies of various topics concerning extrapolation of life sciences and social sciences, including chapters on the philosophical investigation of conjoining biological and economic analyses with, respectively, demography, medicine and sociology.



The Ethics and Governance of Human Genetic Databases

The Ethics and Governance of Human Genetic Databases Author Matti Häyry
ISBN-10 9781139464048
Release 2007-04-19
Pages
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The Medical Biobank of Umeå in Sweden, deCODE's Health Sector Database in Iceland, the Estonian Genome Project and the UK Biobank contain health data and genetic data from large populations. Some include genealogical or lifestyle information. They are resources for research in human genetics and medicine, exploring interaction between genes, lifestyle, environmental factors and health and diseases. The collection, storage and use of this data raise ethical, legal and social issues. In this book, first published in 2007, bioethics scholars examine whether existing ethical frameworks and social policies reflect people's concerns, and how they may need to change in light of new scientific and technological developments. The ethical issues of social justice, genetic discrimination, informational privacy, trust in science and consent to participation in database research are analyzed, whilst an empirical survey, conducted in the four countries, demonstrates public views of privacy and related moral values in the context of human genetic databases.



Against Relativism

Against Relativism Author Ruth Macklin
ISBN-10 0195116321
Release 1999
Pages 290
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This book analyzes the debate surrounding cultural diversity and its implications for ethics. If ethics are relative to particular cultures or societies, then it is not possible to hold that there are any fundamental human rights. The author examines the role of cultural tradition, often used as a defense against critical ethical judgments, and explores key issues in health and medicine in the context of cultural diversity: the physician-patient relationship, disclosing a diagnosis of a fatal illness, informed consent, brain death and organ transplantation, rituals surrounding birth and death, female genital mutilation, sex selection of offspring, fertility regulation, and biomedical research involving human subjects. Among the conclusions the author reaches are that ethical universals exist but must not be confused with ethical absolutes. The existence of ethical universals is compatible with a variety of culturally relative interpretations, and some rights related to medicine and health care should be considered human rights. Illustrative examples are drawn from the author's experiences serving on international ethical review committees and her travels to countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, where she conducted educational workshops and carried out her own research.



International Legal Materials

International Legal Materials Author
ISBN-10 UCSD:31822034010538
Release 2004
Pages
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International Legal Materials has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from International Legal Materials also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full International Legal Materials book for free.



Choice

Choice Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105122345049
Release 2005
Pages
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Choice has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Choice also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Choice book for free.



The Power of Pills

The Power of Pills Author Jillian Cohen
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105134512651
Release 2006-10-20
Pages 297
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Unique textbook covering everything you need to know about the pharmaceutical industry -- from regulation to ethical questions



Public Health Ethics Cases Spanning the Globe

Public Health Ethics  Cases Spanning the Globe Author Drue H. Barrett
ISBN-10 9783319238470
Release 2016-04-12
Pages 329
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This Open Access book highlights the ethical issues and dilemmas that arise in the practice of public health. It is also a tool to support instruction, debate, and dialogue regarding public health ethics. Although the practice of public health has always included consideration of ethical issues, the field of public health ethics as a discipline is a relatively new and emerging area. There are few practical training resources for public health practitioners, especially resources which include discussion of realistic cases which are likely to arise in the practice of public health. This work discusses these issues on a case to case basis and helps create awareness and understanding of the ethics of public health care. The main audience for the casebook is public health practitioners, including front-line workers, field epidemiology trainers and trainees, managers, planners, and decision makers who have an interest in learning about how to integrate ethical analysis into their day to day public health practice. The casebook is also useful to schools of public health and public health students as well as to academic ethicists who can use the book to teach public health ethics and distinguish it from clinical and research ethics.



Exploitation and Developing Countries

Exploitation and Developing Countries Author Jennifer S. Hawkins
ISBN-10 9781400837328
Release 2008-08-04
Pages 320
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When is clinical research in developing countries exploitation? Exploitation is a concept in ordinary moral thought that has not often been analyzed outside the Marxist tradition. Yet it is commonly used to describe interactions that seem morally suspect in some way. A case in point is clinical research sponsored by developed countries and carried out in developing countries, with participants who are poor and sick, and lack education. Such individuals seem vulnerable to abuse. But does this, by itself, make such research exploitative? Exploitation and Developing Countries is an attempt by philosophers and bioethicists to reflect on the meaning of exploitation, to ask whether and when clinical research in developing countries counts as exploitative, and to consider what can be done to minimize the possibility of exploitation in such circumstances. These reflections should interest clinical researchers, since locating the line between appropriate and inappropriate use of subjects--the line between exploitation and fair use--is the central question at the heart of research ethics. Reflection on this rich and important moral concept should also interest normative moral philosophers of a non-Marxist bent. In addition to the editors, the contributors are Richard J. Arneson, Alisa L. Carse, Margaret Olivia Little, Thomas Pogge, Andrew W. Siegel, and Alan Wertheimer.



Ethics Dumping

Ethics Dumping Author Doris Schroeder
ISBN-10 9783319647319
Release 2017-12-04
Pages 134
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This book is published under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book provides original, up-to-date case studies of “ethics dumping” that were largely facilitated by loopholes in the ethics governance of low and middle-income countries. It is instructive even to experienced researchers since it provides a voice to vulnerable populations from the fore mentioned countries. Ensuring the ethical conduct of North-South collaborations in research is a process fraught with difficulties. The background conditions under which such collaborations take place include extreme differentials in available income and power, as well as a past history of colonialism, while differences in culture can add a new layer of complications. In this context, up-to-date case studies of unethical conduct are essential for research ethics training.



The Limits of Consent

The Limits of Consent Author Oonagh Corrigan
ISBN-10 9780199231461
Release 2009-01-29
Pages 234
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Informed consent in medical research : a procedure stretched beyond breaking point? / Søren Holm and Søren Madsen -- Trust and exploitation in clinical research / Paul B. Miller and Charles Weijer -- Consent and private liability in clinical research / Paul B. Miller and Josephine Johnston -- The decision to decline to enroll in a clinical trial : a blind spot in the literature on decision-making for research participation / Clare Snowdon, Diana Elbourne, and Jo Garcia -- Beyond a rebarbative commitment to consent / Kathy Liddell -- The normative status of the requirement to gain an informed consent in clinical trials : comprehension, obligations, and empirical evidence / Angus Dawson.



Autonomy Informed Consent and Medical Law

Autonomy  Informed Consent and Medical Law Author Alasdair Maclean
ISBN-10 1139477137
Release 2009-02-12
Pages
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Alasdair Maclean analyses the ethical basis for consent to medical treatment, providing both an extensive reconsideration of the ethical issues and a detailed examination of English law. Importantly, the analysis is given a context by situating consent at the centre of the healthcare professional-patient relationship. This allows the development of a relational model that balances the agency of the two parties with their obligations that arise from that relationship. That relational model is then used to critique the current legal regulation of consent. To conclude, Alasdair Maclean considers the future development of the law and contrasts the model of relational consent with Neil Manson and Onora O'Neill's recent proposal for a model of genuine consent.



Bioethics and the Future of Stem Cell Research

Bioethics and the Future of Stem Cell Research Author Insoo Hyun
ISBN-10 9781107067073
Release 2013-06-24
Pages
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Despite years of heated social controversy over the use of human embryos in embryonic stem cell research, the caravan of stem cell science continues to proceed at an unrelenting pace all around the world. Bioethics and the Future of Stem Cell Research urges readers to look beyond the embryo debate to a much wider array of ethical issues in basic stem cell science and clinical translational research, including research involving adult and induced pluripotent stem cells. Insoo Hyun offers valuable insights into complex ethical issues ranging from pre-clinical animal studies to clinical trials and stem cell tourism, all presented through a unique blend of philosophy, literature and the history of science, as well as with Dr Hyun's extensive practical experiences in international stem cell policy formation. This thoughtful book is an indispensable resource for anyone interested in the science of stem cells and the practical and philosophical elements of research ethics.



Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response

Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response Author National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine
ISBN-10 9780309457767
Release 2017-07-26
Pages 342
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The 2014â€"2015 Ebola epidemic in western Africa was the longest and most deadly Ebola epidemic in history, resulting in 28,616 cases and 11,310 deaths in Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. The Ebola virus has been known since 1976, when two separate outbreaks were identified in the Democratic Republic of Congo (then Zaire) and South Sudan (then Sudan). However, because all Ebola outbreaks prior to that in West Africa in 2014â€"2015 were relatively isolated and of short duration, little was known about how to best manage patients to improve survival, and there were no approved therapeutics or vaccines. When the World Heath Organization declared the 2014-2015 epidemic a public health emergency of international concern in August 2014, several teams began conducting formal clinical trials in the Ebola affected countries during the outbreak. Integrating Clinical Research into Epidemic Response: The Ebola Experience assesses the value of the clinical trials held during the 2014â€"2015 epidemic and makes recommendations about how the conduct of trials could be improved in the context of a future international emerging or re-emerging infectious disease events.