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Ecology in Agriculture

Ecology in Agriculture Author Louise E. Jackson
ISBN-10 0080530680
Release 1997-09-14
Pages 472
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Agricultural crops are prominent features of an increasing number of variously perturbed ecosystems and the landscapes occupied by these ecosystems. Yet the ecology of agricultural-dominated landscapes is only now receiving the scientific attention it has long deserved. This attention has been stimulated by the realization that all agriculture must become sustainable year after year while leaving nearby ecosystems unaffected. Ecology in Agriculture focuses exclusively on the ecology of agricultural ecosystems. The book is divided into four major sections. An introduction establishes the unique ties between agricultural and ecological sciences. The second section describes the community ecology of these sorts of ecosystems, while the final section focuses on the processes that operate throughout these agricultural landscapes. Contains an ecological perspective on agricultural production and resource utilization Includes in-depth reviews of major issues in crop ecology by active researchers Covers a range of topics in agricultural ecophysiology, community ecology, and ecosystems ecology Provides examples of ecological approaches to solving problems in crop management and environmental quality



Applications of Physiological Ecology to Forest Management

Applications of Physiological Ecology to Forest Management Author J. J. Landsberg
ISBN-10 0080527388
Release 1997-01-08
Pages 354
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Forest management is a complex process that now incorporates information obtained from many sources. It is increasingly obvious that the physiological status of the trees in a forest has a dramatic impact on the likely success of any particular management strategy. Indeed, models described in this book that deal with forest productivity and sustainability require physiological information. This information can only be obtained from an understanding of the basic biological mechanisms and processes that contribute to individual tree growth. This valuable book illustrates that physiological ecology is a fundamental element of proficient forest management. Provides essential information relevant to the continuing debate over sustainable forest management Outlines how modern tools for physiological ecology can be used in planning and managing forest ecosystems Reviews the most commonly used forest models and assesses their value and future



Physiological Ecology of Forest Production

Physiological Ecology of Forest Production Author J. J. Landsberg
ISBN-10 0080922546
Release 2010-11-26
Pages 352
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Process-based models open the way to useful predictions of the future growth rate of forests and provide a means of assessing the probable effects of variations in climate and management on forest productivity. As such they have the potential to overcome the limitations of conventional forest growth and yield models, which are based on mensuration data and assume that climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations will be the same in the future as they are now. This book discusses the basic physiological processes that determine the growth of plants, the way they are affected by environmental factors and how we can improve processes that are well-understood such as growth from leaf to stand level and productivity. A theme that runs through the book is integration to show a clear relationship between photosynthesis, respiration, plant nutrient requirements, transpiration, water relations and other factors affecting plant growth that are often looked at separately. This integrated approach will provide the most comprehensive source for process-based modelling, which is valuable to ecologists, plant physiologists, forest planners and environmental scientists. Includes explanations of inherently mathematical models, aided by the use of graphs and diagrams illustrating causal interactions and by examples implemented as Excel spreadsheets Uses a process-based model as a framework for explaining the mechanisms underlying plant growth Integrated approach provides a clear and relatively simple treatment



Plant Physiological Ecology

Plant Physiological Ecology Author Hans Lambers
ISBN-10 9781475728552
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 540
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This textbook is remarkable for emphasising that the mechanisms underlying plant physiological ecology can be found at the levels of biochemistry, biophysics, molecular biology and whole-plant physiology. The authors begin with the primary processes of carbon metabolism and transport, plant-water relations, and energy balance. After considering individual leaves and whole plants, these physiological processes are then scaled up to the level of the canopy. Subsequent chapters discuss mineral nutrition and the ways in which plants cope with nutrient-deficient or toxic soils. The book then looks at patterns of growth and allocation, life-history traits, and interactions between plants and other organisms. Later chapters deal with traits that affect decomposition of plant material and with plant physiological ecology at the level of ecosystems and global environmental processes.



The Physiological Ecology of Woody Plants

The Physiological Ecology of Woody Plants Author Theodore T. Kozlowski
ISBN-10 9780323138000
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 657
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The efficient management of trees and other woody plants can be improved given an understanding of the physiological processes that control growth, the complex environmental factors that influence those processes, and our ability to regulate and maintain environmental conditions that facilitate growth. Emphasizes genetic and environmental interactions that influence woody plant growth Outlines responses of individual trees and tree communities to environmental stress Explores cultural practices useful for efficient management of shade, forest, and fruit trees, woody vines, and shrubs



Agricultural Ecology and Environment

Agricultural Ecology and Environment Author B.R. Stinner
ISBN-10 9780444597953
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 645
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The increased use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in crop production has adversely affected both the environment and the agricultural economy. Not only has it led to environmental pollution, but also the increasing costs of chemical inputs and the low prices received for agricultural products have contributed to economic unprofitability and instability. The International Symposium on Agricultural Ecology and Environment was organised in order to discuss ways of achieving the goals of economically and environmentally sustainable agriculture. It is apparent that a truly multidisciplinary effort is required and for this reason the meeting was attended by authors from many different disciplines and geographical locations. Although their papers reflect a wide diversity of agroecosystem types and examples, several common themes emerge: the increased importance of biotic control of ecosystem processes in lower input systems; the key role of soil organic matter in stabilizing nutrient cycling; the importance of agricultural landscape diversity and complexity; the importance of studying ecological processes in natural and agricultural ecosystems; the critical need to integrate socio-economic and ecological approaches.



Allelopathy

Allelopathy Author Elroy L. Rice
ISBN-10 9781483267845
Release 2013-09-24
Pages 366
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Allelopathy studies the various aspects of allelopathy, the direct or indirect harmful effect by one plant (including microorganisms) on another through the production of chemical compounds that escape into the environment. Chapters presents discussions on topics on the history of research on allelopathy; roles of allelopathy in phytoplankton succession; evidence for chemical inhibition of nitrification by vegetation; roles of allelopathy in fire cycle in California annual grasslands; and the impact of allelopathy on horticulture and forestry. Botanists, horticulturists, biologists, and agriculturists will find the book a good reference book.



Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Insects

Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Insects Author Jon F. Harrison
ISBN-10 9780191625350
Release 2012-01-26
Pages 392
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Insects are the most ecologically important multicellular heterotrophs in terrestrial systems. They play critical roles in ecological food webs, remain devastating agricultural and medical pests, and represent the most diverse group of eukaryotes in terms of species numbers. Their dominant role among terrestrial heterotrophs arises from a number of key physiological traits, and in particular by the developmental and evolutionary plasticity of these traits. Ecological and Environmental Physiology of Insects presents a current and comprehensive overview of how the key physiological traits of insects respond to environmental variation. It forges conceptual links from molecular biology through organismal function to population and community ecology. As with other books in the Series, the emphasis is on the unique physiological characteristics of the insects, but with applications to questions of broad relevance in physiological ecology. As an aid to new researchers on insects, it also includes introductory chapters on the basics and techniques of insect physiology ecology.



Vascular Transport in Plants

Vascular Transport in Plants Author N. Michelle Holbrook
ISBN-10 0080454232
Release 2011-09-06
Pages 592
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Vascular Transport in Plants provides an up-to-date synthesis of new research on the biology of long distance transport processes in plants. It is a valuable resource and reference for researchers and graduate level students in physiology, molecular biology, physiology, ecology, ecological physiology, development, and all applied disciplines related to agriculture, horticulture, forestry and biotechnology. The book considers long-distance transport from the perspective of molecular level processes to whole plant function, allowing readers to integrate information relating to vascular transport across multiple scales. The book is unique in presenting xylem and phloem transport processes in plants together in a comparative style that emphasizes the important interactions between these two parallel transport systems. Includes 105 exceptional figures Discusses xylem and phloem transport in a single volume, highlighting their interactions Syntheses of structure, function and biology of vascular transport by leading authorities Poses unsolved questions and stimulates future research Provides a new conceptual framework for vascular function in plants



Scaling Physiological Processes

Scaling Physiological Processes Author
ISBN-10 9780323139571
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 388
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Traditional plant physiological ecology is organism centered and provides a useful framework for understanding the interactions between plants and their environment and for identifying characteristics likely to result in plant success in a particular habitat. This book focuses on extending concepts from plant physiological ecology as a basis for understanding carbon, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at ecosystem, regional, and global levels. This will be a valuable resource for researchers and graduate students in ecology, plant ecophysiology, ecosystem research, biometerology, earth system science, and remote sensing. Key Features * The integration of metabolic activities across spatial scales, from leaf to ecosystem * Global constraints and regional processes * Functional units in ecological scaling * Models and technologies for scaling



Crop Ecology

Crop Ecology Author David J. Connor
ISBN-10 9781139500326
Release 2011-04-28
Pages
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Food security and environmental conservation are two of the greatest challenges facing the world today. It is predicted that food production must increase by at least 70% before 2050 to support continued population growth, though the size of the world's agricultural area will remain essentially unchanged. This updated and thoroughly revised second edition provides in-depth coverage of the impact of environmental conditions and management on crops, resource requirements for productivity and effects on soil resources. The approach is explanatory and integrative, with a firm basis in environmental physics, soils, physiology and morphology. System concepts are explored in detail throughout the book, giving emphasis to quantitative approaches, management strategies and tactics employed by farmers, and associated environmental issues. Drawing on key examples and highlighting the role of science, technology and economic conditions in determining management strategies, this book is suitable for agriculturalists, ecologists and environmental scientists.



Allelopathy

Allelopathy Author Manuel Joaquín Reigosa Roger
ISBN-10 1402042795
Release 2006
Pages 637
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There are many good books in the market dealing with the subject of allelopathy. When we designed the outline of this new book, we thought that it should include as many different points of view as possible, although in an integrated general scheme. Allelopathy can be viewed from different of perspectives, ranging from the molecular to the ecosystem level, and including molecular biology, plant biochemistry, plant physiology, plant ecophysiology and ecology, with information coming also from the organic chemistry, soil sciences, microbiology and many other scientific disciplines. This book was designed to include a complete perspective of allelopathic process. The book is divided into seven major sections. The first chapter explores the international development of allelopathy as a science and next section deals with methodological aspects and it explores potential limitations of actual research. Third section is devoted to physiological aspects of allelopathy. Different specialists wrote about photosynthesis, cell cycle, detoxification processes, abiotic and biotic stress, plant secondary metabolites and respiration related to allelopathy. Chapters 13 through 16 are collectively devoted to various aspects of plant ecophysiology on a variety of levels: microorganisms, soil system and weed germination. Fundamental ecology approaches using both experimental observations and theoretical analysis of allelopathy are described in chapters 16 and 17. Those chapters deal with the possible evolutionary forces that have shaped particular strategies. In the section named “allelopathy in different environments”, authors primarily center on marine, aquatic, forest and agro ecosystems. Last section includes chapters addressing application of the knowledge of allelopathy.



C4 Plant Biology

C4 Plant Biology Author
ISBN-10 0080528392
Release 1998-12-21
Pages 596
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Due to many issues related to long-term carbon dynamics, an improved understanding of the biology of C4 photosynthesis is required by more than the traditional audience of crop scientists, plant physiologists, and plant ecologists. This work synthesizes the latest developments in C4 biochemistry, physiology, systematics, and ecology. The book concludes with chapters discussing the role of C4 plants in the future development of the biosphere, particularly their interactive effects on soil, hydrological, and atmospheric processes.



Bryophyte Ecology

Bryophyte Ecology Author A. Smith
ISBN-10 9789400958913
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 512
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There has been an increasing interest in bryophyte ecology over the past 100 or so years, initially of a phytosociological nature but, additionally, in recent years, of an experimental nature as well. Early studies of bryophyte communities have led to detailed investigations into the relationships between the plants and their environment. Ecological papers, the large number of which is evidenced by the length of the bibliographies in the subsequent chapters, have appeared in numerous journals. Yet, apart from review chapters, by H. Gams and P. W. Richards in Manual of Bryology, edited b:; H. Verdoorn in 1932 and chapters in E. V. Watson's Structure and Life of Bryophytes, Prem Puri's Bryophytes - A Broad Perspective and D. H. S. Richardson's The Biology of Mosses, published in 1972,1973 and 1981 respectively, no general accounts of bryophyte ecology have been published. Although the Bryophyta is a relatively small division of plants, with between 14000 and 21000 species the interest that they have aroused is out of all proportion to the size either of the plants or of the division. It is evident, however, that despite their relative insigni ficance they play an important ecological role, especially in extreme environments and, in the case of bryophytes in tropical cloud forests and of Sphagnum, may even be a dominant factor in the ecology of the area concerned.



Turfgrass Physiology and Ecology

Turfgrass Physiology and Ecology Author Gregory E. Bell
ISBN-10 9781845936488
Release 2011-01-01
Pages 235
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In order to face new challenges and unique situations in turfgrass management, students need to understand why specific management practices work and how to adjust them based on plants' requirements. Explaining the physiological needs of turfgrass plants, this advanced textbook outlines the management techniques that help supply those needs. Chapters discuss a range of practices and methods to cope with stress under both normal and less than optimum conditions, providing the decision making tools for improvement based on changing environmental conditions. This book presents a unique perspective of both science and practical management principles that will be applicable to all turfgrass sectors.



Resource Physiology of Conifers

Resource Physiology of Conifers Author William Kirby Smith
ISBN-10 0126528705
Release 1995
Pages 396
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Coniferous forests are among the most important of ecosystems. These forests are widespread and influence both the financial and biological health of our globe. This book focuses attention on conifers and how these trees acquire, allocate, and utilize the resources that sustain this crucial productivity. An international team of experts has surveyed and synthesized information from an expanding area of inquiry. The first half of the book describes how resources are acquired both by means of photosynthesis and through root systems. The latter half of the volume focuses upon how resources are stored and used. As conifers continue as a resource and ever increasingly important contributor to the regional and global environmental sustainability, this book will help establish how much sustainability can be expected and maintained.



Oaks Physiological Ecology Exploring the Functional Diversity of Genus Quercus L

Oaks Physiological Ecology  Exploring the Functional Diversity of Genus Quercus L Author Eustaquio Gil-Pelegrín
ISBN-10 9783319690995
Release 2018-01-10
Pages 547
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With more than 500 species distributed all around the Northern Hemisphere, the genus Quercus L. is a dominant element of a wide variety of habitats including temperate, tropical, subtropical and mediterranean forests and woodlands. As the fossil record reflects, oaks were usual from the Oligocene onwards, showing the high ability of the genus to colonize new and different habitats. Such diversity and ecological amplitude makes genus Quercus an excellent framework for comparative ecophysiological studies, allowing the analysis of many mechanisms that are found in different oaks at different level (leaf or stem). The combination of several morphological and physiological attributes defines the existence of different functional types within the genus, which are characteristic of specific phytoclimates. From a landscape perspective, oak forests and woodlands are threatened by many factors that can compromise their future: a limited regeneration, massive decline processes, mostly triggered by adverse climatic events or the competence with other broad-leaved trees and conifer species. The knowledge of all these facts can allow for a better management of the oak forests in the future.