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Economic Transformations

Economic Transformations Author Richard G. Lipsey
ISBN-10 0191558095
Release 2005-11-03
Pages 618
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This book examines the long term economic growth that has raised the West's material living standards to levels undreamed of by counterparts in any previous time or place. The authors argue that this growth has been driven by technological revolutions that have periodically transformed the West's economic, social and political landscape over the last 10,000 years and allowed the West to become, until recently, the world's only dominant technological force. Unique in the diversity of the analytical techniques used, the book begins with a discussion of the causes and consequences of economic growth and technological change. The authors argue that long term economic growth is largely driven by pervasive technologies now known as General Purpose (GPTs). They establish an alternative to the standard growth models that use an aggregate production function and then introduce the concept of GPTs, complete with a study of how these technologies have transformed the West since the Neolithic Agricultural Revolution. Early modern science is given more importance than in most other treatments and the 19th century demographic revolution is studied with a combination of formal models of population dynamics and historical analysis. The authors argue that once sustained growth was established in the West, formal models can shed much light on its subsequent behaviour. They build non-conventional, dynamic, non-stationary equilibrium models of GPT-driven growth that incorporate a range of phenomena that their historical studies show to be important but which are excluded from other GPT models in the interests of analytical tractability. The book concludes with a study of the policy implications that follow from their unique approach.



General Purpose Technologies and Economic Growth

General Purpose Technologies and Economic Growth Author Elhanan Helpman
ISBN-10 0262082632
Release 1998
Pages 315
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The study of general purpose technologies (GPTs) is relatively new. The essays in this book aim to both further our understanding of GPT-driven economic growth and lay the foundation for further developments of the available frameworks.



The Mystery of Economic Growth

The Mystery of Economic Growth Author Elhanan Helpman
ISBN-10 9780674038561
Release 2009-06-30
Pages 240
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Far more than an intellectual puzzle for pundits, economists, and policymakers, economic growth--its makings and workings--is a subject that affects the well-being of billions of people around the globe. In The Mystery of Economic Growth, Elhanan Helpman discusses the vast research that has revolutionized understanding of this subject in recent years, and summarizes and explains its critical messages in clear, concise, and accessible terms. The tale of growth economics, as Helpman tells it, is organized around a number of themes: the importance of the accumulation of physical and human capital; the effect of technological factors on the rate of this accumulation; the process of knowledge creation and its influence on productivity; the interdependence of the growth rates of different countries; and, finally, the role of economic and political institutions in encouraging accumulation, innovation, and change. One of the leading researchers of economic growth, Helpman succinctly reviews, critiques, and integrates current research--on capital accumulation, education, productivity, trade, inequality, geography, and institutions--and clarifies its relevance for global economic inequities. In particular, he points to institutions--including property rights protection, legal systems, customs, and political systems--as the key to the mystery of economic growth. Solving this mystery could lead to policies capable of setting the poorest countries on the path toward sustained growth of per capita income and all that that implies--and Helpman's work is a welcome and necessary step in this direction.



Innovation in General Purpose Technologies How Knowledge Gains when It Is Shared

Innovation in General Purpose Technologies   How Knowledge Gains when It Is Shared Author
ISBN-10 9783866449152
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Innovation in General Purpose Technologies How Knowledge Gains when It Is Shared has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Innovation in General Purpose Technologies How Knowledge Gains when It Is Shared also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Innovation in General Purpose Technologies How Knowledge Gains when It Is Shared book for free.



Introduction to Modern Economic Growth

Introduction to Modern Economic Growth Author Daron Acemoglu
ISBN-10 9781400835775
Release 2008-12-15
Pages 1008
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Introduction to Modern Economic Growth is a groundbreaking text from one of today's leading economists. Daron Acemoglu gives graduate students not only the tools to analyze growth and related macroeconomic problems, but also the broad perspective needed to apply those tools to the big-picture questions of growth and divergence. And he introduces the economic and mathematical foundations of modern growth theory and macroeconomics in a rigorous but easy to follow manner. After covering the necessary background on dynamic general equilibrium and dynamic optimization, the book presents the basic workhorse models of growth and takes students to the frontier areas of growth theory, including models of human capital, endogenous technological change, technology transfer, international trade, economic development, and political economy. The book integrates these theories with data and shows how theoretical approaches can lead to better perspectives on the fundamental causes of economic growth and the wealth of nations. Innovative and authoritative, this book is likely to shape how economic growth is taught and learned for years to come. Introduces all the foundations for understanding economic growth and dynamic macroeconomic analysis Focuses on the big-picture questions of economic growth Provides mathematical foundations Presents dynamic general equilibrium Covers models such as basic Solow, neoclassical growth, and overlapping generations, as well as models of endogenous technology and international linkages Addresses frontier research areas such as international linkages, international trade, political economy, and economic development and structural change An accompanying Student Solutions Manual containing the answers to selected exercises is available (978-0-691-14163-3/$24.95). See: http://press.princeton.edu/titles/8970.html. For Professors only: To access a complete solutions manual online, email us at: [email protected]



The American Technological Challenge

The American Technological Challenge Author Jan Vijg
ISBN-10 9780875868868
Release 2011
Pages 248
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The American Technological Challenge - Stagnation and Decline in the 21st Centuryrefutes the myth that we live in the most innovative of times. Inventions themselves are only one of the factors that determine the technological fate of a society. Sometimes, inventions are adopted, and eagerly; sometimes not. The history of technological progress, and the historical and societal factors that impel or restrain the adoption of inventions, are explored in the book. New, life-changing inventions have become rare and in spite of ample vocal support of innovation, an increasingly complacent society has lost its taste for risk and often actively resists change. Far from being unique, technology slowdowns are recurrent events in history, occurring in civilizations that have reached the zenith of their success. They are the inevitable fate of an increasingly regulated, successful society. Most people would characterize the dawn of the 21st century as the age of technological progress par excellence. If you are one of them, then, think again. While our parents, grandparents and great-grandparents witnessed life-changing inventions every decade, very little major new technology has seen the light of day over the last half century. We find ourselves in the midst of a technology slowdown! This book is about the causes and consequences of technology slowdowns, which are not unique but recurrent events in human history. They occur not in times of upheaval, when violent interstate conflicts are the order of the day. Such periods foster innovation and allow major, breakthrough inventions to be adopted quickly. Instead, innovation seriously stalls in times that are peaceful, when governments reign supreme and citizens are encapsulated by layers of benign regulation to protect them against all possible harm. We find ourselves in the best of times. The long period of bloody combat that characterized so much of the 20th century has finally ended. Violent conflicts between states are minimal and conditions for almost everyone on the planet are on an upswing, with poverty on the decline and life expectancy and literacy increasing. Responsible government and industry leaders have begun to refrain from risky bets on exciting new exploits and the time of grand projects, such as the Eisenhower Interstate System, the Moon Landing Program or the development of the internet is behind us. Instead, we have to make do with incremental improvements of existing technology, catch-up programs in developing countries and social programs. The consequences are stalling wealth generation and an end to the dramatic changes society has undergone since the industrial revolution now more than 200 years ago.



An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change

An Evolutionary Theory of Economic Change Author Richard R. Nelson
ISBN-10 0674041437
Release 2009-06-01
Pages 454
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This book contains the most sustained and serious attack on mainstream, neoclassical economics in more than forty years. Nelson and Winter focus their critique on the basic question of how firms and industries change overtime. They marshal significant objections to the fundamental neoclassical assumptions of profit maximization and market equilibrium, which they find ineffective in the analysis of technological innovation and the dynamics of competition among firms. To replace these assumptions, they borrow from biology the concept of natural selection to construct a precise and detailed evolutionary theory of business behavior. They grant that films are motivated by profit and engage in search for ways of improving profits, but they do not consider them to be profit maximizing. Likewise, they emphasize the tendency for the more profitable firms to drive the less profitable ones out of business, but they do not focus their analysis on hypothetical states of industry equilibrium. The results of their new paradigm and analytical framework are impressive. Not only have they been able to develop more coherent and powerful models of competitive firm dynamics under conditions of growth and technological change, but their approach is compatible with findings in psychology and other social sciences. Finally, their work has important implications for welfare economics and for government policy toward industry.



Urbanization and Growth

Urbanization and Growth Author Michael Spence
ISBN-10 0821375741
Release 2008-11-26
Pages 288
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Why is productivity higher in cities? Does urbanization cause growth or does growth cause urbanization? Do countries achieve rapid growth or high incomes without urbanization? How can policy makers reap the benefits of urbanization without paying too high a cost? Does supporting urbanization imply neglecting rural areas? Why do so few governments welcome urbanization? What should governments do to improve housing conditions in cities as they urbanize? Are innovations in housing finance a blessing or a curse for developing countries? How will governments finance the trillions of dollars of infrastructure spending needed for cities in developing countries? First in a series of thematic volumes, this book was prepared for the Commission on Growth and Development to evaluate the state of knowledge of the relationship between urbanization and economic growth. It does not pretend to provide all the answers, but it does identify insights and policy levers to help countries make urbanization work as part of a national growth strategy. It examines a variety of topics: the relevance and policy implications of recent advances in urban economics for developing countries, the role of economic geography in global economic trends and trade patterns, the impacts of urbanization on spatial inequality within countries, and alternative approaches to financing the substantial infrastructure investments required in developing-country cities. Written by prominent academics in their fields, Urbanization and Growth seeks to create a better understanding of the role of urbanization in growth and to inform policy makers tackling the formidable challenges it poses.



Is War Necessary for Economic Growth

Is War Necessary for Economic Growth Author Vernon W. Ruttan
ISBN-10 0198040652
Release 2006-01-05
Pages 232
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Military and defense-related procurement has been an important source of technology development across a broad spectrum of industries that account for an important share of United States industrial production. In this book, the author focuses on six general-purpose technologies: interchangeable parts and mass production; military and commercial aircraft; nuclear energy and electric power; computers and semiconductors; the INTERNET; and the space industries. In each of these industries, technology development would have occurred more slowly, and in some case much more slowly or not at all, in the absence of military and defense-related procurement. The book addresses three questions that have significant implications for the future growth of the United States economy. One is whether changes in the structure of the United States economy and of the defense-industrial base preclude military and defense-related procurement from playing the role in the development of advanced technology in the future, comparable to the role it has played in the past. A second question is whether public support for commercially oriented research and development will become an important source of new general-purpose technologies. A third and more disturbing question is whether a major war, or the threat of major war, will be necessary to mobilize the scientific, technical, and financial resources necessary to induce the development of new general-purpose technologies. When the history of United States technology development in the next half century is written, it will focus on incremental rather than revolutionary changes in both military and commercial technology. It will also be written within the context of slower productivity growth than of the relatively high rates that prevailed in the United States in the 1950s and 1960s or during the information technology bubble that began in the early 1990s. These will impose severe constraints on the capacity of the United States to sustain a global-class military posture and a position of leadership in the global economy.



The Knowledge Economy and Lifelong Learning

The Knowledge Economy and Lifelong Learning Author D.W. Livingstone
ISBN-10 9789460919152
Release 2012-09-07
Pages 360
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This book presents some of the most trenchant critical analyses of the widespread claims for the recent emergence of a knowledge economy and the attendant need for greater lifelong learning. The book contains two sections: first, general critiques of the limits of current notions of a knowledge economy and required adult learning, in terms of historical comparisons, socio-political construction and current empirical evidence; secondly, specific challenges to presumed relations between work requirements and learning through case studies in diverse current workplaces that document richer learning processes than knowledge economy advocates intimate. Many of the leading authors in the field are represented. There are no other books to date that both critically assess the limits of the notion of the knowledge economy and examine closely the relation of workplace restructuring to lifelong learning beyond the confines of formal higher education and related educational policies. This reader provides a distinctive overview for future studies of relations between work and learning in contemporary societies beyond caricatures of the knowledge economy. The book should be of interest to students following undergraduate or postgraduate courses in most social sciences and education, business and labour studies departments, as well as to policy makers and the general public concerned about economic change and lifelong learning issues. D. W. Livingstone is Canada Research Chair in Lifelong Learning and Work and Professor Emeritus at the Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, University of Toronto. David Guile is Professor of Education and Work at the Institute of Education, University of London.



Building Knowledge Economies

Building Knowledge Economies Author
ISBN-10 9780821369586
Release 2007
Pages 191
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In many parts of the world, knowledge is being put to work to accelerate and deepen the development process, promoting innovation and helping to generate wealth and jobs. This book discusses advanced development strategies that take into account education, information and communication technology, infrastructure, innovation, and the prerequisite economic and institutional regimes.



Handbook of the Economics of Innovation

Handbook of the Economics of Innovation Author Bronwyn H. Hall
ISBN-10 0080931111
Release 2010-05-14
Pages 804
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Economists examine the genesis of technological change and the ways we commercialize and diffuse it. The economics of property rights and patents, in addition to industry applications, are also surveyed through literature reviews and predictions about fruitful research directions. - Two volumes, available as a set or sold separately Expert articles consider the best ways to establish optimal incentives in technological progress Science and innovation, both their theories and applications, are examined at the intersections of the marketplace, policy, and social welfare Economists are only part of an audience that includes attorneys, educators, and anyone involved in new technologies



Exploring the Black Box

Exploring the Black Box Author Nathan Rosenberg
ISBN-10 0521459559
Release 1994-03-10
Pages 274
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This book presents a unique account of how technological change is generated and the processes by which improved technologies are introduced into economic activity. The central theme of the book is the idea that technological changes are often "path dependent": their form and direction tend to be influenced strongly by the particular sequence of earlier events out of which a new technology has emerged. Individual chapters explore the particular features of new technologies in different historical and sectoral contexts.



Innovation in General Purpose Technologies How Knowledge Gains when It Is Shared

Innovation in General Purpose Technologies   How Knowledge Gains when It Is Shared Author
ISBN-10 9783866449152
Release
Pages
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Innovation in General Purpose Technologies How Knowledge Gains when It Is Shared has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Innovation in General Purpose Technologies How Knowledge Gains when It Is Shared also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Innovation in General Purpose Technologies How Knowledge Gains when It Is Shared book for free.



ICT Diffusion in Developing Countries

ICT Diffusion in Developing Countries Author Ewa Lechman
ISBN-10 9783319182544
Release 2015-06-22
Pages 308
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This book provides an extensive overview of the diffusion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) in developing countries between 2000 and 2012. It covers issues such as country-specific ICT diffusion patterns, technological substitution and technological convergence. By identifying social, economic and institutional prerequisites and analyzing critical country-specific conditions, the author develops a new approach to explaining the emergence of their technological takeoff. Readers will discover how developing countries are now adopting ICTs, rapidly catching up with the developed world in terms of ICT access and use.



Simulating Knowledge Dynamics in Innovation Networks

Simulating Knowledge Dynamics in Innovation Networks Author Nigel Gilbert
ISBN-10 9783662435083
Release 2014-07-22
Pages 248
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The competitiveness of firms, regions and countries greatly depends on the generation, dissemination and application of new knowledge. Modern innovation research is challenged by the need to incorporate knowledge generation and dissemination processes into the analysis so as to disentangle the complexity of these dynamic processes. With innovation, however, strong uncertainty, nonlinearities and actor heterogeneity become central factors that are at odds with traditional modeling techniques anchored in equilibrium and homogeneity. This text introduces SKIN (Simulation Knowledge Dynamics in Innovation Networks), an agent-based simulation model that primarily focuses on joint knowledge creation and exchange of knowledge in innovation co‐operations and networks. In this context, knowledge is explicitly modeled and not approximated by, for instance, the level of accumulated R&D investment. The SKIN approach supports applications in different domains ranging from sector-based research activities in knowledge-intensive industries to the activities of international research consortia engaged in basic and applied research. Following a general description of the SKIN model, several applications and modifications are presented. Each chapter introduces in detail the structure of the model, the relevant methodological considerations and the analysis of simulation results, while options for empirically validating the models’ structure and outcomes are also discussed. The book considers the scope of further applications and outlines prospects for the development of joint modeling strategies.



Transforming Economies

Transforming Economies Author International Labour Organization
ISBN-10 9221285650
Release 2014
Pages 402
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Transforming Economies has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Transforming Economies also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Transforming Economies book for free.