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Ecotoxicology Modeling

Ecotoxicology Modeling Author James Devillers
ISBN-10 1441901973
Release 2009-08-07
Pages 412
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Ecotoxicology Modeling is a comprehensive and well-documented text providing a collection of computational methods to the ecotoxicologists primarily interested in the study of the adverse effects of chemicals, their mechanisms of action and/or their environmental fate and behavior. Avoiding mathematical jargon, the book presents numerous case studies to enable the reader to understand the interest but also the limitations of linear and nonlinear models in ecotoxicology. Written by an international team of scientists, Ecotoxicology Modeling is of primary interest to those whose research or professional activity is directly concerned with the development and application of models in ecotoxicology. It is also intended to provide the graduate and post-graduate students with a clear and accessible text covering the main types of modeling approaches used in environmental sciences.



Modeling and Simulation in Ecotoxicology with Applications in MATLAB and Simulink

Modeling and Simulation in Ecotoxicology with Applications in MATLAB and Simulink Author Kenneth R. Dixon
ISBN-10 9781439855188
Release 2016-04-19
Pages 270
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Exploring roles critical to environmental toxicology, Modeling and Simulation in Ecotoxicology with Applications in MATLAB® and Simulink® covers the steps in modeling and simulation from problem conception to validation and simulation analysis. Using the MATLAB and Simulink programming languages, the book presents examples of mathematical functions and simulations, with special emphasis on how to develop mathematical models and run computer simulations of ecotoxicological processes. Designed for students and professionals with little or no experience in modeling, the book includes: General principles of modeling and simulation and an introduction to MATLAB and Simulink Stochastic modeling where variability and uncertainty are acknowledged by making parameters random variables Toxicological processes from the level of the individual organism, with worked examples of process models in either MATLAB or Simulink Toxicological processes at the level of populations, communities, and ecosystems Parameter estimation using least squares regression methods The design of simulation experiments similar to the experimental design applied to laboratory or field experiments Methods of postsimulation analysis, including stability analysis and sensitivity analysis Different levels of model validation and how they are related to the modeling purpose The book also provides three individual case studies. The first involves a model developed to assess the relative risk of mortality following exposure to insecticides in different avian species. The second explores the role of diving behavior on the inhalation and distribution of oil spill naphthalene in bottlenose dolphins. The final case study looks at the dynamics of mercury in Daphnia that are exposed to simulated thermal plumes from a hypothetical power plant cooling system. Presented in a rigorous yet accessible style, the methodology is versatile enough to be readily applicable not only to environmental toxicology but a range of other biological fields.



Modelling in Ecotoxicology

Modelling in Ecotoxicology Author S.E. Jorgensen
ISBN-10 9781483291079
Release 2013-10-22
Pages 358
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Ecotoxicology is the science of toxic substances in the environment and their impact on living organisms. Today we use many more chemicals in everyday life than we did 30-40 years ago. Our knowledge of the fate and effect of such chemicals in the environment has not yet followed the rate of chemical innovation in spite of our expanding knowledge of ecotoxicology. About 50,000 different chemicals are produced on an industrial scale, but we have only sufficient data to evaluate the environmental consequences of a few per cent of these. The need for ecotoxicological knowledge has never been more pronounced than it is today. Even more resources must be allocated in this field in the near future, if we are to be able to cope with the threat of more toxic chemical compounds in our environment. This book outlines the state of the art of modelling the fate and effects of toxic substances in the environment. Modelling in ecotoxicology differs from modelling in other fields by the great lack of data. The quality of the models is very dependent on the parameters used, and as we do not have a wide knowledge of parameters in ecotoxicological processes, good parameter estimation methods are crucial for ecotoxicolocal models. A comprehensive review of available parameter estimation methods is therefore included in this volume. Model examples and case studies have also been included to illustrate the difficulties and short comings in practical modelling.



Marine Ecotoxicology

Marine Ecotoxicology Author Julián Blasco
ISBN-10 9780128033722
Release 2016-08-05
Pages 334
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Marine Ecotoxicology: Current Knowledge and Future Issues is the first unified resource to cover issues related to contamination, responses, and testing techniques of saltwater from a toxicological perspective. With its unprecedented focus on marine environments and logical chapter progression, this book is useful to graduate students, ecotoxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators involved or interested in marine waters. As human interaction with these environments increases, understanding of the pollutants and toxins introduced into the oceans becomes ever more critical, and this book builds a foundation of knowledge to assist scientists in studying, monitoring, and making decisions that affect both marine environments and human health. A team of world renowned experts provide detailed analyses of the most common contaminants in marine environments and explain the design and purpose of toxicity testing methods, while exploring the future of ecotoxicology studies in relation to the world’s oceans. As the threat of increasing pollution in marine environments becomes an ever more tangible reality, Marine Ecotoxicology offers insights and guidance to mitigate that threat. Provides practical tools and methods for assessing and monitoring the accumulation and effects of contaminants in marine environments Unites world renowned experts in marine ecotoxicology to deliver thorough and diverse perspectives Builds the foundation required for risk assessors and regulators to adequately assess and monitor the impact of pollution in marine environments Offers helpful insights and guidance to graduate students, ecotoxicologists, risk assessors, and regulators interested in mitigating threats to marine waters



ECOTOX

ECOTOX Author L.A. Jørgensen
ISBN-10 9780444599698
Release 2012-12-02
Pages 136
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This CD-ROM provides the facts, abstracts and figures needed to build environmental models together with information on the environmental effects of chemical substances. The data has been rigorously selected from scientific journals covering 25 years. Environmental models included cover a wide range of topics, including eutrophication, dispersion of chemical compounds, growth and competition of different organisms as well as models which describe global environmental cycles. Ecotoxicological information on substances includes the water concentrations at which aquatic organisms are affected by the chemical compounds. These concentrations are used in the regulation of releases and for calculating safe concentration levels in the environment. The growth of environmental toxicological data and the growth of different types of environmental models has been a major new development in this field. ECOTOX: Ecological Modelling and Ecotoxicology presents ecotoxicological information about more than 2000 chemical substances, including such data as growth parameters, lethal concentrations (LC50), emissions, degradation of chemical substances, background concentrations, concentration factors, biological effects, octanol/water partition coefficients, excretion and uptake rates, emissions and composition of living organisms. Accompanying this information are the constants and equations to be used in environmental models, and abstracts from scientific journals to give an explanation concerning the scope of the data. All this information is directed towards environmental modelling, administration of environmental regulations, scientific models, environmental policy making and environmental impact assessment. NEW FROM APRIL 2001 - http://www.enviromod.subnet.dk/Ecological and Environmental Modeling - An Interactive Internet Course



Aquatic Ecotoxicology

Aquatic Ecotoxicology Author Claude Amiard-Triquet
ISBN-10 9780128011768
Release 2015-06-11
Pages 518
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Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks presents a thorough look at recent advances in aquatic ecotoxicology and their application in assessing the risk of well-known and emerging environmental contaminants. This essential reference, brought together by leading experts in the field, guides users through existing and novel approaches to environmental risk assessment, then presenting recent advances in the field of ecotoxicology, including omics-based technologies, biomarkers, and reference species. The book then demonstrates how these advances can be used to design and perform assays to discover the toxicological endpoints of emerging risks within the aquatic environment, such as nanomaterials, personal care products, PFOS and chemical mixtures. The text is an invaluable reference for any scientist who studies the effects of contaminants on organisms that live within aquatic environments. Provides the latest perspectives on emerging toxic risks to aquatic environments, such as nanomaterials, pharmaceuticals, chemical mixtures, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) Offers practical guidance on recent advances to help in choosing the most appropriate toxicological assay Presents case studies and information on a variety of reference species to help put the ecotoxicological theory into practical risk assess



Ecotoxicology Essentials

Ecotoxicology Essentials Author Donald W. Sparling
ISBN-10 9780128019610
Release 2016-04-18
Pages 500
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Ecotoxicology Essentials: Environmental Contaminants and Their Biological Effects on Animals and Plants provides a fundamental understanding of this area for students and professionals in ecotoxicology, ecology, conservation, chemistry, public health, wildlife management, fisheries, and many other disciplines. Although new chemicals and potential problems are developed every year, a basic education is essential to address these new challenges, and this work gives such training. Written with the regulatory framework in mind, the material guides readers on modelling, how to conduct assessments, and human and wildlife risk, focusing on effects on animals rather than transport of chemicals. Simple discussions of chemistry are complemented by coverage on the behavior of the animal, dynamics of the ecosystem, real-life situations like drought, and predators in the system – i.e., the natural system versus the lab setting. The book’s first section contains chapters on the principles of contaminant toxicology including a brief history of the science of ecotoxicology, basic principles of the science, testing methods, and ways of determining if animals have been exposed to either acute or chronic concentrations of contaminants. The second section deals with the primary classes of contaminants including their chemical characteristics, sources, uses, and effects on organisms. The third section focuses on more complex issues such as the regulation of pollution, population and community effects, risk assessment and modelling. Uses examples from both aquatic and terrestrial environments and species Includes a Terms to Know section and a list of study questions in each chapter, fostering a greater understanding of the issues Focuses on the effects of contaminants on wildlife while providing enough chemistry to allow a detailed understanding of the various contaminant groups Emphasizes natural examples and 'real' species, rather than laboratory studies on only a handful of organisms Features case histories, detailing actual events that include aspects of how the contamination occurred and its effects on wildlife Provides material from a wide variety of international sources



Aquatic Ecotoxicology

Aquatic Ecotoxicology Author Claude Amiard-Triquet
ISBN-10 9780128011768
Release 2015-06-11
Pages 518
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Aquatic Ecotoxicology: Advancing Tools for Dealing with Emerging Risks presents a thorough look at recent advances in aquatic ecotoxicology and their application in assessing the risk of well-known and emerging environmental contaminants. This essential reference, brought together by leading experts in the field, guides users through existing and novel approaches to environmental risk assessment, then presenting recent advances in the field of ecotoxicology, including omics-based technologies, biomarkers, and reference species. The book then demonstrates how these advances can be used to design and perform assays to discover the toxicological endpoints of emerging risks within the aquatic environment, such as nanomaterials, personal care products, PFOS and chemical mixtures. The text is an invaluable reference for any scientist who studies the effects of contaminants on organisms that live within aquatic environments. Provides the latest perspectives on emerging toxic risks to aquatic environments, such as nanomaterials, pharmaceuticals, chemical mixtures, and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) Offers practical guidance on recent advances to help in choosing the most appropriate toxicological assay Presents case studies and information on a variety of reference species to help put the ecotoxicological theory into practical risk assess



Ecotoxicology

Ecotoxicology Author Erik Jorgensen
ISBN-10 0444536299
Release 2010-04-16
Pages 402
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Ecotoxicology offers an overview of current ecotoxicological problems. It includes basic ecotoxicological concepts, as well as information about chemicals and toxic substances that may cause harmful effects on the ecosystem and its living components. The book, with a total of 48 chapters, is divided into three parts. The first part includes the basic concepts of ecotoxicology, starting with an introductory chapter on ecotoxicology as a subdiscipline of ecology; assessment on ecotoxicological effects and risk; and properties and effects of toxic chemicals. These topics are further discussed throughout the book, along with nomenclature, focal topics, and the history of ecotoxicology. The two remaining parts tackle harmful properties and harmful chemicals. The second part also covers bioaccumulation, bioavailability, biodegradability, biodegradation, and biomagnification. It also provides models for ecotoxicological populations, ecosystems and landscapes, and on food-web bioaccumulation. Chemicals including benzene, copper, lead, nitrogen, phenols, pheromones, phthalates, plutonium, and uranium are covered in separate chapters in the final part. This book will be of great value to ecologists, ecotoxicologists, and environmental managers. Provides an overview of the theory and application of global ecology International focus and range of ecosystems makes Ecotoxicology an indispensable resource to scientists Based on the bestselling Encyclopedia of Ecology Full-color figures and tables support the text and aid in understanding



Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling

Fundamentals of Ecological Modelling Author Sven Erik Jørgensen
ISBN-10 9780080440156
Release 2001-01
Pages 530
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This is a thoroughly revised and updated edition of an authoritative introduction to ecological modelling. Sven Erik Jørgensen, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Ecological Modelling, and Giuseppe Bendoricchio, Professor of Environmental Modelling at the University of Padova, Italy, offer compelling insights into the subject. This volume explains the concepts and processes involved in ecological modelling, presents the latest developments in the field and provides readers with the tools to construct their own models. The Third Edition features: • A detailed discussion and step-by-step outline of the modelling procedure. • An account of different model types including overview tables, examples and illustrations. • A comprehensive presentation of the submodels and unit processes used in modelling. • In-depth descriptions of the latest modelling techniques. • Structured exercises at the end of each chapter. • Three mathematical appendices and a subject index. This practical and proven book very effectively combines the theory, methodology and applications of ecological modelling. The new edition is an essential, up-to-date guide to a rapidly growing field.



Handbook of Ecotoxicology Second Edition

Handbook of Ecotoxicology  Second Edition Author David J. Hoffman
ISBN-10 9781420032505
Release 2002-11-13
Pages 1312
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Handbook of Ecotoxicology, Second Edition focuses on toxic substances and how they affect ecosystems worldwide. It presents methods for quantifying and measuring ecotoxicological effects in the field and in the lab, as well as methods for estimating, predicting, and modeling in ecotoxicology studies. Completely revised and updated with 18 new chapters, this second edition includes contributions from over 75 international experts. Also, a Technical Review Board reviewed all manuscripts for accuracy and currency. This authoritative work is the definitive reference for students, researchers, consultants, and other professionals in the environmental sciences, toxicology, chemistry, biology, and ecology - in academia, industry, and government.



A One dimensional Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology Model in River Systems

A One dimensional Aquatic Ecology and Ecotoxicology Model in River Systems Author Podjanee Inthasaro
ISBN-10 OCLC:776146378
Release 2010
Pages 506
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This dissertation presents a comprehensive system for the modeling of hydrodynamics and ecological properties of the river systems, with emphasis on the abilities to simulate water temperature, water quality, aquatic ecology, contaminant transport, and aquatic ecotoxicology. The model is designed to deal with a long term prediction in environmental properties of the ecosystems. The framework of the integrated model is composed of four submodels: (1) water temperature model, (2) water quality and aquatic ecological model, (3) contaminant fate and transport model, and (4) aquatic ecotoxicological model. These submodels are integrated into the existing hydrodynamic and sediment transport model, CCHE1D. The water temperature model is capable of simulating the heat transfer based on the law of conservation of energy. The water quality and ecological model is designed to incorporate the modeling of water quality and food web dynamics. Water quality model alone can be used for the modeling of non-conservative substance, biological oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen, and phosphorus. The food web structure consists of phytoplankton, zooplankton, forage fish, and predatory fish. The age-structure model is not considered in this study for simplicity. The contaminant fate and transport model accounts for the water and suspended- sediment phase transports with equilibrium partitioning, volatilization, biodegradation, advection, dispersion, uptake and depuration due to biota. Direct uptake from water, consumption of contaminated food, and depuration of contaminant are considered in the bioaccumulation model. The water temperature, water quality, and aquatic ecology models have been applied to predict ecological properties of the Tualatin River, Oregon. The model has been used to simulate water quality and food web dynamics of the Lower Boise River, Idaho. A number of wastewater treatment plants, tributaries, and flow withdrawal stations are located along the rivers. The model predicts the instream water quality variations due to the loadings from the lateral discharges and seasonal fluctuations. The ecotoxicological model has been applied to predict the PCB accumulation in biotic organisms of the Upper Hudson River, New York. Long term simulated results of nutrients, biomass concentrations of aquatic organisms, and total PCB concentrations are in agreement with the measurements.



Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology

Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology Author Michael C. Newman
ISBN-10 9781466582293
Release 2014-12-16
Pages 680
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An integrated analysis exploring current and relevant concepts, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology: The Science of Pollution, Fourth Edition extends the dialogue further from the previous editions and beyond conventional ecosystems. It explores landscape, regional, and biospheric topics, communicating core concepts with subjects ranging from molecular to global issues. It addresses the increasing growth and complexity of ecotoxicological problems, contains additional vignettes, and employs input from a variety of experts in the field. Divided into 14 chapters, the book begins with an overall history of the field. It details the essential features of the key contaminants of concern today, including their sources. It examines bioaccumulation, the effects of contaminants at increasing levels of ecological organization, and the regulatory aspects of the field addressing the technical issues of risk assessment. The author includes appendices illustrating important environmental laws and regulations, and compiles key terms not already identified by section headings in the glossary. He also provides suggested readings at the end of each chapter and presents study questions at the end of the book. Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology: The Science of Pollution, Fourth Edition contains a broad overview of ecotoxicology, and provides a basic understanding of the field. Designed as a textbook for use in introductory graduate or upper-level undergraduate courses in ecotoxicology, applied ecology, environmental pollution, and environmental science, it can also be used as a general reference for practicing environmental toxicologists.



Ecotoxicology Problems and Approaches

Ecotoxicology  Problems and Approaches Author Simon A. Levin
ISBN-10 9781461235200
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 547
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Ecotoxicology is the science that seeks to predict the impacts of chemi cals upon ecosystems. This involves describing and predicting ecological changes ensuing from a variety of human activities that involve release of xenobiotic and other chemicals to the environment. A fundamental principle of ecotoxicology is embodied in the notion of change. Ecosystems themselves are constantly changing due to natural processes, and it is a challenge to distinguish the effects of anthropogenic activities against this background of fluctuations in the natural world. With the frustratingly large, diverse, and ever-emerging sphere of envi ronmental problems that ecotoxicology must address, the approaches to individual problems also must vary. In part, as a consequence, there is no established protocol for application of the science to environmental prob lem-solving. The conceptual and methodological bases for ecotoxicology are, how ever, in their infancy, and thus still growing with new experiences. In deed, the only robust generalization for research on different ecosystems and different chemical stresses seems to be a recognition of the necessity of an ecosystem perspective as focus for assessment. This ecosystem basis for ecotoxicology was the major theme of a previous pUblication by the Ecosystems Research Center at Cornell University, a special issue of Environmental Management (Levin et al. 1984). With that effort, we also recognized an additional necessity: there should be a continued develop ment of methods and expanded recognition of issues for ecotoxicology and for the associated endeavor of environmental management.



Quantitative Ecotoxicology Second Edition

Quantitative Ecotoxicology  Second Edition Author Michael C. Newman
ISBN-10 9781439835647
Release 2012-08-29
Pages 592
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Quantitative Ecotoxicology, Second Edition explores models and methods of quantitative ecotoxicology at progressively higher biological scales using worked examples and common software packages. It complements the author’s previous books, Fundamentals of Ecotoxicology, Third Edition and Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment. Encouraging a more rigorous inferential approach to research, the book examines the quantitative features of the science of ecotoxicology. The first chapters lay the foundation by introducing fundamental concepts and definitions. The author traces the historical perspective, rationale, and characteristics of scientific ecotoxicology as well as the general measurement process. He also considers methodologies for defining and controlling variance, which could otherwise exclude valid conclusions from ecotoxicological endeavors. The book then discusses ecotoxicological concepts at increasing levels of ecological organization and outlines quantitative methods used to measure toxicant accumulation and effects. Reflecting the importance of establishing type I and type II error rates, it highlights design issues, particularly sample size and power estimation. The final chapter summarizes the book with a brief discussion of ecotoxicology from a nonregulatory perspective. Extensively updated, this second edition has been expanded to include terrestrial as well as aquatic ecotoxicology. Requiring only a basic knowledge of statistics, this highly readable book is suitable for graduate students and researchers as well as practicing environmental scientists and engineers. It guides readers to better understand the fate and effects of toxicants in the biosphere—and helps them frame this understanding in quantitative terms. What’s New in This Edition More than 40 new figures and 20 new worked examples Updated measurement quality methods and software Expanded coverage of synecological models and methods More integration of Bayesian concepts Appendices for power analysis and basic matrix methods Additional mixture toxicity and up-and-down methods Greatly expanded discussion of significance testing Expanded discussion of metapopulations Matrix tools for population demography Light isotope-based models for trophic transfer of toxicants Inclusion of metacommunity and SHE analysis techniques R script examples by Eduard Szöcs (University Koblenz-Landau) available at http://edild.github.io/blog/categories/quantitative-ecotoxicology-with-r/



Ecotoxicology

Ecotoxicology Author Michael C. Newman
ISBN-10 1420005014
Release 2007-12-13
Pages 880
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Integrating ecotoxicological concepts across a range of hierarchical levels, Ecotoxicology: A Comprehensive Treatment focuses on the paradigms and fundamental themes of ecotoxicology while providing the detail and practical application of concepts often found in more specialized books. By synthesizing the best qualities of a general textbook and the narrower, more specific scope of a technical reference, the authors create a volume flexible enough to cover a variety of instructional vantages and thorough enough to engender a respect for the importance of understanding and integrating concepts from all levels of biological organization. Divided into six sections, the book builds progressively from the biomolecular level toward a discussion of effects on the global biosphere. It begins with the fundamentals of hierarchical ecotoxicology and vantages for exploring ecotoxicological issues. The second section introduces organismal ecotoxicology and examines effects to biochemicals, cells, organs, organ systems, and whole organisms, and bioaccumulation and bioavailability of contaminants. Population ecotoxicology, section three, places the discussion in the larger context of entire populations by analyzing epidemiology, population dynamics, demographics, genetics, and natural selection. Section four encompasses issues of community ecotoxicology. This section presents biotic and abiotic factors influencing communities, biomonitoring and community response, and the application of multimetric and multivariate approaches. Section five evaluates the entire ecosystem by describing assessment approaches, identifying patterns, analyzing relationships between species, and reviewing the effects of global atmospheric stressors. A detailed conclusion integrating the concepts discussed and promoting a balanced assessment of the overarching paradigms rounds out the coverage in section six.



Quantitative Methods in Aquatic Ecotoxicology

Quantitative Methods in Aquatic Ecotoxicology Author Michael C. Newman
ISBN-10 0873716221
Release 1994-12-21
Pages 448
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This book provides a quantitative treatment of the science of ecotoxicology. The first chapters consider fundamental concepts and definitions essential to understanding the fate and effects of toxicants at various levels of ecological organization as covered in the remaining chapters. Scientific ecotoxicology and associated topics are defined. The historical perspective, rationale, and characteristics are outlined for the strong inferential and quantitative approach advocated in this book. The general measurement process is discussed, and methodologies for defining and controlling variance, which could otherwise exclude valid conclusions regarding ecotoxicological endeavors, are considered. Ecotoxicological concepts at increasing levels of ecological organization are discussed in the second part of the book. Quantitative methods used to measure toxicant effects are outlined in this section. The final chapter summarizes the book with a brief discussion of ecotoxicological assessment. Numerous figures and tables accompany text, with many statistical tables found in the appendix for quick reference. Although the book primarily focuses on aquatic systems, with appropriate modification the concepts and methods can be applied to terrestrial systems.