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Einstein Tagore and the Nature of Reality

Einstein  Tagore and the Nature of Reality Author Partha Ghose
ISBN-10 9781134859412
Release 2016-06-23
Pages 256
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The nature of reality has been a long-debated issue among scientists and philosophers. In 1930, Rabindranath Tagore and Albert Einstein had a long conversation on the nature of reality. This conversation has been widely quoted and discussed by scientists, philosophers and scholars from the literary world. The important question that Tagore and Einstein discussed was whether the world is a unity dependent on humanity, or the world is a reality independent on the human factor. Einstein took the stand adopted by Western philosophers and mathematicians, namely that reality is something independent of the mind and the human factor. Tagore, on the other hand, adopted the opposite view. Nevertheless, both Einstein and Tagore claimed to be realists despite the fundamental differences between their conceptions of reality. Where does the difference lie? Can it be harmonized at some deeper level? Can Wittgenstein, for example, be a bridge between the two views? This collection of essays explores these two fundamentally different conceptions of the nature of reality from the perspectives of theories of space-time, quantum theory, general philosophy of science, cognitive science and mathematics.

Naturalizing Logico Mathematical Knowledge

Naturalizing Logico Mathematical Knowledge Author Sorin Bangu
ISBN-10 9781351998444
Release 2018-02-01
Pages 306
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This book is meant as a part of the larger contemporary philosophical project of naturalizing logico-mathematical knowledge, and addresses the key question that motivates most of the work in this field: What is philosophically relevant about the nature of logico-mathematical knowledge in recent research in psychology and cognitive science? The question about this distinctive kind of knowledge is rooted in Plato’s dialogues, and virtually all major philosophers have expressed interest in it. The essays in this collection tackle this important philosophical query from the perspective of the modern sciences of cognition, namely cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Naturalizing Logico-Mathematical Knowledge contributes to consolidating a new, emerging direction in the philosophy of mathematics, which, while keeping the traditional concerns of this sub-discipline in sight, aims to engage with them in a scientifically-informed manner. A subsequent aim is to signal the philosophers’ willingness to enter into a fruitful dialogue with the community of cognitive scientists and psychologists by examining their methods and interpretive strategies.

A Minimalist Ontology of the Natural World

A Minimalist Ontology of the Natural World Author Michael Esfeld
ISBN-10 9781351392174
Release 2017-10-25
Pages 182
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This book seeks to work out which commitments are minimally sufficient to obtain an ontology of the natural world that matches all of today’s well-established physical theories. We propose an ontology of the natural world that is defined only by two axioms: (1) There are distance relations that individuate simple objects, namely matter points. (2) The matter points are permanent, with the distances between them changing. Everything else comes in as a means to represent the change in the distance relations in a manner that is both as simple and as informative as possible. The book works this minimalist ontology out in philosophical as well as mathematical terms and shows how one can understand classical mechanics, quantum field theory and relativistic physics on the basis of this ontology. Along the way, we seek to achieve four subsidiary aims: (a) to make a case for a holistic individuation of the basic objects (ontic structural realism); (b) to work out a new version of Humeanism, dubbed Super-Humeanism, that does without natural properties; (c) to set out an ontology of quantum physics that is an alternative to quantum state realism and that avoids any ontological dualism of particles and fields; (d) to vindicate a relationalist ontology based on point objects also in the domain of relativistic physics.

Einstein Meets Magritte An Interdisciplinary Reflection

Einstein Meets Magritte  An Interdisciplinary Reflection Author Diederik Aerts
ISBN-10 9789401147040
Release 2012-12-06
Pages 274
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Einstein Meets Magritte: An Interdisciplinary Reflection presents insights of the renowned key speakers of the interdisciplinary Einstein meets Magritte conference (1995, Brussels Free University). The contributions elaborate on fundamental questions of science, with regard to the contemporary world, and push beyond the borders of traditional approaches. All of the articles in this volume address this fundamental theme, but somewhere along the road the volume expanded to become much more than a mere expression of the conference's dynamics. The articles not only deal with several scientific disciplines, they also confront these fields with the full spectrum of contemporary life, and become new science. As such, this volume presents a state-of-the-art reflection of science in the world today, in all its diversity. The contributions are accessible to a large audience of scientists, students, educators, and everyone who wants to keep up with science today.

The Logical Foundations of Scientific Theories

The Logical Foundations of Scientific Theories Author Decio Krause
ISBN-10 9781315535203
Release 2016-07-15
Pages 162
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This book addresses the logical aspects of the foundations of scientific theories. Even though the relevance of formal methods in the study of scientific theories is now widely recognized and regaining prominence, the issues covered here are still not generally discussed in philosophy of science. The authors focus mainly on the role played by the underlying formal apparatuses employed in the construction of the models of scientific theories, relating the discussion with the so-called semantic approach to scientific theories. The book describes the role played by this metamathematical framework in three main aspects: considerations of formal languages employed to axiomatize scientific theories, the role of the axiomatic method itself, and the way set-theoretical structures, which play the role of the models of theories, are developed. The authors also discuss the differences and philosophical relevance of the two basic ways of aximoatizing a scientific theory, namely Patrick Suppes’ set theoretical predicates and the "da Costa and Chuaqui" approach. This book engages with important discussions of the nature of scientific theories and will be a useful resource for researchers and upper-level students working in philosophy of science.

The Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader

The Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader Author Senel Symons
ISBN-10 9781136734168
Release 2012-08-06
Pages 200
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The Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader has been specially designed for intermediate and advanced learners of Turkish and comprises a broad selection of graded readings. Written by prominent Turkish academics and journalists, the collection of modern texts presented here have been carefully selected to ensure students receive maximum exposure to current political and cultural issues related to Turkey; from gender, ethnicity, religion and social class through to arts and history. Each reading is fully supported by: an introduction written by an expert in the related field a vocabulary list with English translation and vocabulary in context short grammar explanations of any difficult structures encountered in the text comprehension questions directly text related, language exercises and subject specific questions to generate class-discussion and essay writing in Turkish a key to comprehension questions and language exercises a list of suggested further reading (online support). Suitable for both class use and independent study, The Routledge Intermediate Turkish Reader is an essential tool for increasing language proficiency and enriching the learners’ socio-cultural knowledge of Turkey. Companion website available at Introductions in English by: Prof. Dr. E. Fuat Keyman, Koç University, Prof. Dr. Ümit Cizre, Bilkent University, Dr. Can Dündar, journalist, writer, columnist, director, Dr. Martin Stokes, Oxford University, Prof. Dr. Cemil Koçak, Sabancı University, Prof. Dr. Fatih Selami Mahmutoğlu, İstanbul University, Prof. Dr. Fatma Gök, Boğaziçi University, Prof. Dr. Dilek Cindoğlu, Bilkent University, Prof. Dr. Yıldız Silier, Boğaziçi University, Prof. Dr. Ayşegül Kibaroğlu, Middle East Technical University, Prof. Dr. Oya Pancaroğlu, Boğaziçi University, Prof. Dr. Meliz Ergin, Koç University, Prof. Dr. Özlem Tür, Middle East Technical University, Prof. Dr. Ayşe Uyduranoğlu, Bilgi University, Prof. Dr. Zeynep Gambetti, Boğaziçi University, Prof. Dr. Saime Özçürümez, Bilkent University, Prof. Dr. Kürşad Ertuğrul, Middle East Technical University, Dr. Selin Akyüz-Şaşmaz, Bilkent University. The articles in Turkish by: Prof. Dr. Murat Belge, Bilgi University, Prof. Dr. Orhan Tekelioğlu, Bahçeşehir University, Prof. Dr. E. Fuat Keyman, Koç University, Murat Yetkin, journalist, columnist, lecturer, Radikal, Prof. Dr. Türker Alkan, Çankaya University, Prof. Dr. Baskın Oran, Ankara University, Prof. Dr. Hakan Hakeri, Ondokuz Mayıs University; Cem Erciyes, journalist, Radikal, Dr. Fikret Bila, journalist, columnist, Milliyet, Prof. Dr. Şahin Alpay, Bahçeşehir University, Prof. Dr. Mümtaz‘er Türköne, Gazi University, Prof. Dr. Mahnaz Gümrükçüoğlu, Sakarya University, Dr. Ali Bayramoğlu, journalist, Yeni Şafak, Prof. Dr. Hakkı Uyar, Dokuz Eylül University, Ayşe Hür, historian, journalist, columnist, Taraf.

Quantum Information and Consciousness

Quantum Information and Consciousness Author Danko D. Georgiev
ISBN-10 9781351401777
Release 2017-12-06
Pages 344
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"I loved the book! This book is not just interesting, it is exciting. I have probably read every significant book in the field, and this is the strongest and most convincing one yet. It is also one of the most comprehensive in its explanations. I shall most certainly recommend the book to colleagues." –Richard G. Petty, MD "a very good introduction to the basic theory of quantum systems.... Dr. Georgiev’s book aptly prepares the reader to confront whatever might be in store later." –from the Foreword by Prof. James F. Glazebrook, Eastern Illinois University This book addresses the fascinating cross-disciplinary field of quantum information theory applied to the study of brain function. It offers a self-study guide to probe the problems of consciousness, including a concise but rigorous introduction to classical and quantum information theory, theoretical neuroscience, and philosophy of the mind. It aims to address long-standing problems related to consciousness within the framework of modern theoretical physics in a comprehensible manner that elucidates the nature of the mind-body relationship. The reader also gains an overview of methods for constructing and testing quantum informational theories of consciousness.

The Religion of Man

The Religion of Man Author Rabindranath Tagore
Release 2015-09-21
Pages 246
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The divine principle of unity has ever been that of an inner inter-relationship. This is revealed in some of its earliest stages in the evolution of multicellular life on this planet. The most perfect inward expression has been attained by man in his own body. But what is most important of all is the fact that man has also attained its realization in a jnore subtle body outside his physical system. He misses himself when isolated; he finds his own larger and truer self in his wide human relationship, His multicellular body is born and it dies; his multi-personal humanity is immortal. In this ideal of unity he realizes the eternal in his life and the boundless in his love. The unity becomes not a mere subjective idea, but an energizing truth. Whatever name may be given to it, and whatever form it symbolizes, the consciousness of this unity is spiritual, and our effort to be true to it is our religion. It ever waits to be revealed in our history in a more and more perfect illumination. We have our eyes, which relate to us the vision of the physical universe. We have also an inner faculty of our own which helps us to find our relationship with the supreme self of man, the universe of personality. This faculty is our luminous imagination, which in its higher stage is special to man. It offers us that vision of wholeness which for the biological necessity of physical survival is superfluous; its purpose is to arouse in us the sense of perfection which is our true sense of immortality. For perfection dwells ideally in Man the Eternal, inspiring love for this ideal in the individual, urging him more and more to realize it. This classic is organized as follows: I. Man’s Universe II. The Creative Spirit III. The Surplus in Man IV. Spiritual Union V. The Prophet VI. The Vision VII. The Man of My Heart VIII. The Music Maker IX. The Artist X. Man’s Nature XII. The Teacher XIII. Spiritual Freedom XIV. The Four Stages of Life XV. Conclusion

The New Physics and Cosmology

The New Physics and Cosmology Author Arthur Zajonc
ISBN-10 9780199882830
Release 2004-03-25
Pages 264
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What happens when the Dalai Lama meets with leading physicists and a historian? This book is the carefully edited record of the fascinating discussions at a Mind and Life conference in which five leading physicists and a historian (David Finkelstein, George Greenstein, Piet Hut, Arthur Zajonc, Anton Zeilinger, and Tu Weiming) discussed with the Dalai Lama current thought in theoretical quantum physics, in the context of Buddhist philosophy. A contribution to the science-religion interface, and a useful explanation of our basic understanding of quantum reality, couched at a level that intelligent readers without a deep involvement in science can grasp. In the tradition of other popular books on resonances between modern quantum physics and Zen or Buddhist mystical traditions--notably The Dancing Wu Li Masters and The Tao of Physics, this book gives a clear and useful update of the genuine correspondences between these two rather disparate approaches to understanding the nature of reality.

Physics Before and After Einstein

Physics Before and After Einstein Author M. Mamone Capria
ISBN-10 9781607501060
Release 2005-04-22
Pages 336
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It is now a century ago that one of the icons of modern physics published some of the most influential scientific papers of all times. With his work on relativity and quantum theory, Albert Einstein has altered the field of physics forever. It should not come as a surprise that looking back at Einstein's work, one needs to rethink the whole scope of physics, before and after his time. This books aims to provide a perspective on the history of modern physics, spanning from the late 19th century up to today. It is not an encyclopaedic work, but it presents the groundbreaking and sometimes provocative main contributions by Einstein as marking the line between ‘old’ and ‘new’ physics, and expands on some of the developments and open issues to which they gave rise. This presentation is not meant as a mere celebration of Einstein’s work, but as a critical appraisal which provides accurate historical and conceptual information. The contributing authors all have a reputation for working on themes related to Einstein’s work and its consequences. Therefore, the collection of papers gives a good representation of what happened in the 100 years after Einstein’s landmark Annalen der Physik articles. All people interested in the field of physics, history of science and epistemology could benefit from this book. An effort has been made to make the book attractive not only to scientists, but also to people with a more basic knowledge of mathematics and physics.

Einstein Zen

Einstein   Zen Author Conrad P. Pritscher
ISBN-10 1433108704
Release 2010
Pages 242
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This book makes a strong case for free schooling, comparing the mind of Albert Einstein – who said much – to Zen conscious practice, which says little but encompasses everything. Examining the work of brain researchers, neuroscientists, physicists, and other scholars to illuminate the commonalities between Einstein’s thought and the Zen practice of paying attention to one’s present experience, the book reveals their many similarities, showing the development of self-direction as a key to fostering compassionate consideration of others and to harmonious, semi-effortless learning and living. Examples demonstrate that students who choose to study what is interesting, remarkable, and important for them tend to become more like Einstein than students with the rigid school curricula; students who are free to learn often demonstrate empathy, and less rigid rule-following, while involved in the process of imaginatively becoming their own oracles and self-educators.

Wittgenstein s Vienna Revisited

Wittgenstein s Vienna Revisited Author Allan Janik
ISBN-10 9781351326148
Release 2018-04-17
Pages 287
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Fin de siecle Vienna was once memorably described by Karl Kraus as a "proving ground for the destruction of the world." In the decades leading to the World War that brought down the Austro-Hungarian empire, the city was at once an operetta dream world masking social and political problems and tension, as well as a center for the far-reaching explorations and innovations in music, art, science, and philosophy that would help to define modernity. One of the most powerful critiques of the retreat into fantasy was that of the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, whose early career in Vienna has helped frame debates about ethical and aesthetic values in culture. In Wittgenstein's Vienna Revisited Allan Janik expands upon his work Wittgenstein's Vienna (co-authored with Stephen Toulmin) to amplify a number of significant points concerning the genesis of Wittgenstein's thought, the nature of Viennese culture, and criticism of contemporary culture. Although Wittgenstein is the central figure in this volume, Janik places considerable emphasis on other influential figures, both Viennese and non-Viennese, in order to break down some of the persistent stereotypes about the philosopher and his surrounding culture, especially the myths of "carefree" Vienna and Wittgenstein the positivist. The persistence of these myths, in Janik's view, stems in part from the inability of many historians to differentiate past from present in the evaluation of intellectual currents. Janik reviews a number of figures overlooked in assessing Wittgenstein: Otto Weininger, Kraus, Schoenberg, Nietzsche, Wagner, Ibsen, Offenbach, and Georg Trakl. All of these, Janik demonstrates, are absolutely necessary to understand what was at stake in the debates on aestheticism and the critique of a modern culture. Wittgenstein's efforts to recognize the limits of thought and language and thus to be fair to science, religion, and art account for his place of honor among critical modernists. These essays elucidate Wittgenstein's perspective on our culture.

Science and the Indian Tradition

Science and the Indian Tradition Author David L. Gosling
ISBN-10 9781134143337
Release 2007-09-12
Pages 208
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This new text is a detailed study of an important process in modern Indian history. During the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, India experienced an intellectual renaissance, which owed as much to the influx of new ideas from the West as to traditional religious and cultural insights. Gosling examines the effects of the introduction of Western science into India, and the relationship between Indian traditions of thought and secular Western scientific doctrine. He charts the early development of science in India, its role in the secularization of Indian society, and the subsequent reassertion, adaptation and rejection of traditional modes of thought. The beliefs of key Indian scientists, including Jagadish Chandra Bose, P.C. Roy and S.N. Bose are explored and the book goes on to reflect upon how individual scientists could still accept particular religious beliefs such as reincarnation, cosmology, miracles and prayer. Science and the Indian Tradition gives an in-depth assessment of results of the introduction of Western science into India, and will be of interest to scholars of Indian history and those interested in the interaction between Western and Indian traditions of intellectual thought.

Einstein for the 21st Century

Einstein for the 21st Century Author Peter Galison
ISBN-10 0691135207
Release 2008
Pages 363
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"A stellar array of twenty historians and philosophers, artists and scientists, and writers and critics has contributed to this fascinating examination of Albert Einstein's legacy and its relevance for our times. We are presented with a multifaceted, interpretive effort to understand in novel terms Einstein's science, music, and politics, his relationship to God and aesthetics, and his unusual position at the divide between a now-vanished world and a future that will surely retain deep traces of his unique contributions and personality."--Diana K. Buchwald, Einstein Papers Project, Caltech "Whether serendipitously or by design, many of us have found ourselves involved in some aspect of Einstein's multifaceted legacy. This far-reaching volume of personal essays clarifies why Einstein's persona has been so seductive and so meaningful to us all."--Alice Calaprice, editor of The New Quotable Einstein "Here is the complete Einstein: the physicist, whose many insights and achievements persist at the forefront of modern science; the man, who remained idealistic, philosophically minded, and politically engaged throughout his life; and the iconic visionary, who continues to inspire individual creativity. This is a generous book, rich with detail."--Tony Robbin, author of Shadows of Reality: The Fourth Dimension in Relativity, Cubism, and Modern Thought "Einstein for the 21st Century is accessible to a broad readership and attractive because its distinguished authors, all experts in their disciplines, cover a very large intellectual space. There are so many fine and interesting contributions that there is something for nearly every potential reader."--Helge Kragh, University of Aarhus, Denmark

Testing Quantum Mechanics on New Ground

Testing Quantum Mechanics on New Ground Author Partha Ghose
ISBN-10 0521026598
Release 2006-11-02
Pages 224
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Simple accounts of experiments which test the counterintuitive and bizarre consequences of quantum theory.

Thinking Literature across Continents

Thinking Literature across Continents Author Ranjan Ghosh
ISBN-10 9780822373698
Release 2016-11-11
Pages 320
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Thinking Literature across Continents finds Ranjan Ghosh and J. Hillis Miller—two thinkers from different continents, cultures, training, and critical perspectives—debating and reflecting upon what literature is and why it matters. Ghosh and Miller do not attempt to formulate a joint theory of literature; rather, they allow their different backgrounds and lively disagreements to stimulate generative dialogue on poetry, world literature, pedagogy, and the ethics of literature. Addressing a varied literary context ranging from Victorian literature, Chinese literary criticism and philosophy, and continental philosophy to Sanskrit poetics and modern European literature, Ghosh offers a transnational theory of literature while Miller emphasizes the need to account for what a text says and how it says it. Thinking Literature across Continents highlights two minds continually discovering new paths of communication and two literary and cultural traditions intersecting in productive and compelling ways.

Faces in the Clouds

Faces in the Clouds Author Stewart Elliott Guthrie
ISBN-10 0195356802
Release 1995-04-06
Pages 670
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Religion is universal human culture. No phenomenon is more widely shared or more intensely studied, yet there is no agreement on what religion is. Now, in Faces in the Clouds, anthropologist Stewart Guthrie provides a provocative definition of religion in a bold and persuasive new theory. Guthrie says religion can best be understood as systematic anthropomorphism--that is, the attribution of human characteristics to nonhuman things and events. Many writers see anthropomorphism as common or even universal in religion, but few think it is central. To Guthrie, however, it is fundamental. Religion, he writes, consists of seeing the world as humanlike. As Guthrie shows, people find a wide range of humanlike beings plausible: Gods, spirits, abominable snowmen, HAL the computer, Chiquita Banana. We find messages in random events such as earthquakes, weather, and traffic accidents. We say a fire "rages," a storm "wreaks vengeance," and waters "lie still." Guthrie says that our tendency to find human characteristics in the nonhuman world stems from a deep-seated perceptual strategy: in the face of pervasive (if mostly unconscious) uncertainty about what we see, we bet on the most meaningful interpretation we can. If we are in the woods and see a dark shape that might be a bear or a boulder, for example, it is good policy to think it is a bear. If we are mistaken, we lose little, and if we are right, we gain much. So, Guthrie writes, in scanning the world we always look for what most concerns us--livings things, and especially, human ones. Even animals watch for human attributes, as when birds avoid scarecrows. In short, we all follow the principle--better safe than sorry. Marshalling a wealth of evidence from anthropology, cognitive science, philosophy, theology, advertising, literature, art, and animal behavior, Guthrie offers a fascinating array of examples to show how this perceptual strategy pervades secular life and how it characterizes religious experience. Challenging the very foundations of religion, Faces in the Clouds forces us to take a new look at this fundamental element of human life.