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 In mathematics we are interested in why a particular formula is true. Intuition and statistical evidence are insufficient, so we need to construct a formal logical proof. The purpose of this book is to describe why such proofs are important, what they are made of, how to recognize valid ones, how to distinguish different kinds, and how to construct them. This book is written for 1st year students with no previous experience of formulating proofs. Dave Johnson has drawn from his considerable experience to provide a text that concentrates on the most important elements of the subject using clear, simple explanations that require no background knowledge of logic. It gives many useful examples and problems, many with fully-worked solutions at the end of the book. In addition to a comprehensive index, there is also a useful `Dramatis Personae` an index to the many symbols introduced in the text, most of which will be new to students and which will be used throughout their degree programme.

 Set theory, logic and category theory lie at the foundations of mathematics, and have a dramatic effect on the mathematics that we do, through the Axiom of Choice, Gödel's Theorem, and the Skolem Paradox. But they are also rich mathematical theories in their own right, contributing techniques and results to working mathematicians such as the Compactness Theorem and module categories. The book is aimed at those who know some mathematics and want to know more about its building blocks. Set theory is first treated naively an axiomatic treatment is given after the basics of first-order logic have been introduced. The discussion is su pported by a wide range of exercises. The final chapter touches on philosophical issues. The book is supported by a World Wibe Web site containing a variety of supplementary material.

 This gentle introduction aimed at advanced undergraduates and beginning graduate students takes a modern, more "natural" approach to its subject, developing the theory at a gentle pace. Topics covered include rings and fields, integral domains and polynomials, field extensions and splitting fields, finite fields, and the Galois group. The book contains plenty of worked examples and exercises complete with full solutions.

 This book presents a mathematically-based introduction into the fascinating topic of Fuzzy Sets and Fuzzy Logic and might be used as textbook at both undergraduate and graduate levels and also as reference guide for mathematician, scientists or engineers who would like to get an insight into Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy Sets have been introduced by Lotfi Zadeh in 1965 and since then, they have been used in many applications. As a consequence, there is a vast literature on the practical applications of fuzzy sets, while theory has a more modest coverage. The main purpose of the present book is to reduce this gap by providing a theoretical introduction into Fuzzy Sets based on Mathematical Analysis and Approximation Theory. Well-known applications, as for example fuzzy control, are also discussed in this book and placed on new ground, a theoretical foundation. Moreover, a few advanced chapters and several new results are included. These comprise, among others, a new systematic and constructive approach for fuzzy inference systems of Mamdani and Takagi-Sugeno types, that investigates their approximation capability by providing new error estimates.

 This is an introductory undergraduate textbook in set theory. In mathematics these days, essentially everything is a set. Some knowledge of set theory is necessary part of the background everyone needs for further study of mathematics. It is also possible to study set theory for its own interest--it is a subject with intruiging results anout simple objects. This book starts with material that nobody can do without. There is no end to what can be learned of set theory, but here is a beginning.

 Classic by prominent mathematician offers a concise introduction to set theory using language and notation of informal mathematics. Topics include the basic concepts of set theory, cardinal numbers, transfinite methods, more. 1960 edition.

 For over three decades, this best-selling classic has been used by thousands of students in the United States and abroad as a must-have textbook for a transitional course from calculus to analysis. It has proven to be very useful for mathematics majors who have no previous experience with rigorous proofs. Its friendly style unlocks the mystery of writing proofs, while carefully examining the theoretical basis for calculus. Proofs are given in full, and the large number of well-chosen examples and exercises range from routine to challenging. The second edition preserves the book’s clear and concise style, illuminating discussions, and simple, well-motivated proofs. New topics include material on the irrationality of pi, the Baire category theorem, Newton's method and the secant method, and continuous nowhere-differentiable functions.

 " ... many eminent scholars, endowed with great geometric talent, make a point of never disclosing the simple and direct ideas that guided them, subordinating their elegant results to abstract general theories which often have no application outside the particular case in question. Geometry was becoming a study of algebraic, differential or partial differential equations, thus losing all the charm that comes from its being an art." H. Lebesgue, Ler;ons sur les Constructions Geometriques, Gauthier Villars, Paris, 1949. This book is based on lecture courses given to final-year students at the Uni versity of Nottingham and to M.Sc. students at the University of the West Indies in an attempt to reverse the process of expurgation of the geometry component from the mathematics curricula of universities. This erosion is in sharp contrast to the situation in research mathematics, where the ideas and methods of geometry enjoy ever-increasing influence and importance. In the other direction, more modern ideas have made a forceful and beneficial impact on the geometry of the ancients in many areas. Thus trigonometry has vastly clarified our concept of angle, calculus has revolutionised the study of plane curves, and group theory has become the language of symmetry.

 The Art of Proof is designed for a one-semester or two-quarter course. A typical student will have studied calculus (perhaps also linear algebra) with reasonable success. With an artful mixture of chatty style and interesting examples, the student's previous intuitive knowledge is placed on solid intellectual ground. The topics covered include: integers, induction, algorithms, real numbers, rational numbers, modular arithmetic, limits, and uncountable sets. Methods, such as axiom, theorem and proof, are taught while discussing the mathematics rather than in abstract isolation. The book ends with short essays on further topics suitable for seminar-style presentation by small teams of students, either in class or in a mathematics club setting. These include: continuity, cryptography, groups, complex numbers, ordinal number, and generating functions.

 An accessible introduction to abstract mathematics with an emphasis on proof writing Addressing the importance of constructing and understanding mathematical proofs, Fundamentals of Mathematics: An Introduction to Proofs, Logic, Sets, and Numbers introduces key concepts from logic and set theory as well as the fundamental definitions of algebra to prepare readers for further study in the field of mathematics. The author supplies a seamless, hands-on presentation of number systems, utilizing key elements of logic and set theory and encouraging readers to abide by the fundamental rule that you are not allowed to use any results that you have not proved yet. The book begins with a focus on the elements of logic used in everyday mathematical language, exposing readers to standard proof methods and Russell's Paradox. Once this foundation is established, subsequent chapters explore more rigorous mathematical exposition that outlines the requisite elements of Zermelo-Fraenkel set theory and constructs the natural numbers and integers as well as rational, real, and complex numbers in a rigorous, yet accessible manner. Abstraction is introduced as a tool, and special focus is dedicated to concrete, accessible applications, such as public key encryption, that are made possible by abstract ideas. The book concludes with a self-contained proof of Abel's Theorem and an investigation of deeper set theory by introducing the Axiom of Choice, ordinal numbers, and cardinal numbers. Throughout each chapter, proofs are written in much detail with explicit indications that emphasize the main ideas and techniques of proof writing. Exercises at varied levels of mathematical development allow readers to test their understanding of the material, and a related Web site features video presentations for each topic, which can be used along with the book or independently for self-study. Classroom-tested to ensure a fluid and accessible presentation, Fundamentals of Mathematics is an excellent book for mathematics courses on proofs, logic, and set theory at the upper-undergraduate level as well as a supplement for transition courses that prepare students for the rigorous mathematical reasoning of advanced calculus, real analysis, and modern algebra. The book is also a suitable reference for professionals in all areas of mathematics education who are interested in mathematical proofs and the foundation upon which all mathematics is built.

 This textbook introduces the vast array of features and powerful mathematical functions of Mathematica using a multitude of clearly presented examples and worked-out problems. Each section starts with a description of a new topic and some basic examples. The author then demonstrates the use of new commands through three categories of problems - the first category highlights those essential parts of the text that demonstrate the use of new commands in Mathematica whilst solving each problem presented; - the second comprises problems that further demonstrate the use of commands previously introduced to tackle different situations; and - the third presents more challenging problems for further study. The intention is to enable the reader to learn from the codes, thus avoiding long and exhausting explanations. While based on a computer algebra course taught to undergraduate students of mathematics, science, engineering and finance, the book also includes chapters on calculus and solving equations, and graphics, thus covering all the basic topics in Mathematica. With its strong focus upon programming and problem solving, and an emphasis on using numerical problems that do not need any particular background in mathematics, this book is also ideal for self-study and as an introduction to researchers who wish to use Mathematica as a computational tool. This new edition has been extensively revised and updated, and includes new chapters with problems and worked examples.

 The Whole Truth About Whole Numbers is an introduction to the field of Number Theory for students in non-math and non-science majors who have studied at least two years of high school algebra. Rather than giving brief introductions to a wide variety of topics, this book provides an in-depth introduction to the field of Number Theory. The topics covered are many of those included in an introductory Number Theory course for mathematics majors, but the presentation is carefully tailored to meet the needs of elementary education, liberal arts, and other non-mathematical majors. The text covers logic and proofs, as well as major concepts in Number Theory, and contains an abundance of worked examples and exercises to both clearly illustrate concepts and evaluate the students’ mastery of the material.

 Written for students taking a second or third year undergraduate course in mathematics or computer science, this book is the ideal companion to a course in enumeration. Enumeration is a branch of combinatorics where the fundamental subject matter is numerous methods of pattern formation and counting. Introduction to Enumeration provides a comprehensive and practical introduction to this subject giving a clear account of fundamental results and a thorough grounding in the use of powerful techniques and tools. Two major themes run in parallel through the book, generating functions and group theory. The former theme takes enumerative sequences and then uses analytic tools to discover how they are made up. Group theory provides a concise introduction to groups and illustrates how the theory can be used to count the number of symmetries a particular object has. These enrich and extend basic group ideas and techniques. The authors present their material through examples that are carefully chosen to establish key results in a natural setting. The aim is to progressively build fundamental theorems and techniques. This development is interspersed with exercises that consolidate ideas and build confidence. Some exercises are linked to particular sections while others range across a complete chapter. Throughout, there is an attempt to present key enumerative ideas in a graphic way, using diagrams to make them immediately accessible. The development assumes some basic group theory, a familiarity with analytic functions and their power series expansion along with some basic linear algebra.

 This textbook contains the fundamentals for an undergraduate course in mathematical finance aimed primarily at students of mathematics. Assuming only a basic knowledge of probability and calculus, the material is presented in a mathematically rigorous and complete way. The book covers the time value of money, including the time structure of interest rates, bonds and stock valuation; derivative securities (futures, options), modelling in discrete time, pricing and hedging, and many other core topics. With numerous examples, problems and exercises, this book is ideally suited for independent study.