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Empowering Women

Empowering Women Author Mary Hallward-Driemeier
ISBN-10 9780821395349
Release 2012-10-04
Pages 232
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This book provides compelling evidence from 42 Sub-Saharan African countries that gender gaps in legal capacity and property rights need to be addressed in terms of substance, enforcement, awareness, and access if economic opportunities for women in Sub-Saharan Africa are to continue to expand.



Enterprising Women

Enterprising Women Author Mary Hallward-Driemeier
ISBN-10 9780821398098
Release 2013-06-10
Pages 304
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This book brings together new household and enterprise data from 41 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy makers and practitioners on ways to expand women entrepreneurs’ economic opportunities. Sub-Saharan Africa boasts the highest share of women entrepreneurs, but they are disproportionately concentrated among the self-employed rather than employers. Relative to men, women are pursuing lower opportunity activities, with their enterprises more likely to be smaller, informal, and in low value-added lines of business. The challenge in expanding opportunities is not helping more women become entrepreneurs but enabling them to shift to higher return activities. A central question addressed in the book is what explains the gender sorting in the types of enterprises that women and men run? The analysis shows that many Sub-Saharan countries present a challenging environment for women. Four key areas of the agenda for expanding women’s economic opportunities in Africa are analyzed: strengthening women’s property rights and their ability to control assets; improving women’s access to finance; building human capital in business skills and networks; and strengthening women’s voices in business environment reform. These areas are important both because they have wide gender gaps and because they help explain gender differences in entrepreneurial activities. It is particularly striking that while gender gaps in education tend to close with higher incomes, gaps in women’s property rights and in women’s participation in reform processes do not. As simply raising a country’s income is unlikely to be sufficient to give women equal ability to control assets or have greater voice, more proactive steps will be needed. Practical guidelines to move the agenda forward are discussed for each of these key areas.



Enterprising Women

Enterprising Women Author Mary Hallward-Driemeier
ISBN-10 9780821398098
Release 2013-06-10
Pages 304
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This book brings together new household and enterprise data from 41 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa to inform policy makers and practitioners on ways to expand women entrepreneurs’ economic opportunities. Sub-Saharan Africa boasts the highest share of women entrepreneurs, but they are disproportionately concentrated among the self-employed rather than employers. Relative to men, women are pursuing lower opportunity activities, with their enterprises more likely to be smaller, informal, and in low value-added lines of business. The challenge in expanding opportunities is not helping more women become entrepreneurs but enabling them to shift to higher return activities. A central question addressed in the book is what explains the gender sorting in the types of enterprises that women and men run? The analysis shows that many Sub-Saharan countries present a challenging environment for women. Four key areas of the agenda for expanding women’s economic opportunities in Africa are analyzed: strengthening women’s property rights and their ability to control assets; improving women’s access to finance; building human capital in business skills and networks; and strengthening women’s voices in business environment reform. These areas are important both because they have wide gender gaps and because they help explain gender differences in entrepreneurial activities. It is particularly striking that while gender gaps in education tend to close with higher incomes, gaps in women’s property rights and in women’s participation in reform processes do not. As simply raising a country’s income is unlikely to be sufficient to give women equal ability to control assets or have greater voice, more proactive steps will be needed. Practical guidelines to move the agenda forward are discussed for each of these key areas.



Youth Employment in Sub Saharan Africa

Youth Employment in Sub Saharan Africa Author Deon Filmer
ISBN-10 9781464801082
Release 2014-01-24
Pages 280
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This book focuses on how to improve the quality of jobs and meet the aspirations of youth in Sub-Saharan Africa. It finds that a strong foundation for human capital development can be key to boosting earnings, arguing for a balanced approach that builds skills and demand for labor.



Africa s Demographic Transition

Africa s Demographic Transition Author David Canning
ISBN-10 9781464804908
Release 2015-10-22
Pages 214
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Africa is poised on the edge of a potential takeoff to sustained economic growth. This takeoff can be abetted by a demographic dividend from the changes in population age structure. Declines in child mortality, followed by declines in fertility, produce a 'bulge' generation and a large number of working age people, giving a boost to the economy. In the short run lower fertility leads to lower youth dependency rates and greater female labor force participation outside the home. Smaller family sizes also mean more resources to invest in the health and education per child boosting worker productivity. In the long run increased life spans from health improvements mean that this large, high-earning cohort will also want to save for retirement, creating higher savings and investments, leading to further productivity gains. Two things are required for the demographic dividend to generate an African economic takeoff. The first is to speed up the fertility decline that is currently slow or stalled in many countries. The second is economic policies that take advantage of the opportunity offered by demography. While demographic change can produce more, and high quality, workers, this potential workforce needs to be productively employed if Africa is to reap the dividend. However, once underway, the relationship between demographic change and human development works in both directions, creating a virtuous cycle that can accelerate fertility decline, social development, and economic growth. Empirical evidence points to three key factors for speeding the fertility transition: child health, female education, and women's empowerment, particularly through access to family planning. Harnessing the dividend requires job creation for the large youth cohorts entering working age, and encouraging foreign investment until domestic savings and investment increase. The appropriate mix of policies in each country depends on their stage of the demographic transition.



Confronting Drought in Africa s Drylands

Confronting Drought in Africa s Drylands Author Raffaello Cervigni
ISBN-10 9781464808180
Release 2016-05-10
Pages 296
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Drylands are at the core of Africa’s development challenge. Drylands make up about 43 percent of the region’s land surface, account for about 75 percent of the area used for agriculture, and are home to about 50 percent of the population, including a disproportionate share of the poor. Due to complex interactions among many factors, vulnerability in drylands is high and rising, jeopardizing the long-term livelihood prospects for hundreds of millions of people. Climate change, which is expected to increase the frequency and severity of extreme weather events, will exacerbate this challenge. African governments and their partners in the international development community stand ready to tackle the challenges confronting drylands, but important questions remain unanswered about how the task should be undertaken. Do dryland environments contain enough resources to generate the food, jobs, and income needed to support sustainable livelihoods for a fast growing population? If not, can injections of external resources make up the deficit? Or is the carrying capacity of drylands so limited that outmigration should be encouraged? Based on analysis of current and projected future drivers of vulnerability and resilience, the report uses an original modeling framework to identify promising interventions, quantify their likely costs and benefits, and describe the policy trade-offs that will need to be addressed. By 2030, economic growth leading to structural change will allow some of the people living in drylands to transition to non-agriculture based livelihood strategies, reducing their vulnerability. Many others will continue to rely on livestock keeping and crop farming. For the latter group, a number of “best bet†? interventions have the potential to make a significant difference in reducing vulnerability and increasing resilience. This report evaluates the opportunities and challenges associated with these interventions, and it draws a number of conclusions that have important implications for policy making.



Expanding Job Opportunities in Ghana

Expanding Job Opportunities in Ghana Author Maddalena Honorati
ISBN-10 9781464809422
Release 2016-10-24
Pages 160
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Ghana was, until very recently, a success story in Africa, achieving high and sustained growth and impressive poverty reduction. However, Ghana is now facing major challenges in diversifying its economy, sustaining growth, and making it more inclusive. Most of the new jobs that have been created in the past decade have been in low-earning, low-productivity trade services. Macroeconomic instability, limited diversification and growing inequities in Ghana’s labor markets make it harder for the economy to create more jobs, and particularly, better jobs. Employment needs to expand in both urban areas, which will continue to grow rapidly, and rural areas, where poverty is still concentrated. The current fiscal and economic crisis is heightening the need for urgent reforms but limiting the room for maneuver and increasing pressure for a careful prioritization of policy actions. Going forward, Ghana will need to consider an integrated jobs strategy that addresses barriers to the business climate, deficiencies in skills, lack of competitiveness of job-creating sectors, problems with labor mobility, and the need for comprehensive labor market regulation. Ghana needs to diversify its economy through gains in productivity in sectors like agribusiness, transport, construction, energy, and information and communications technology (ICT) services. Productivity needs to be increased also in agriculture, in order to increase the earnings potential for the many poor who still work there. In particular, Ghana’s youth and women need help in connecting to these jobs, through relevant skills development and services that target gaps in information about job opportunities. Even with significant effort, most of Ghana’s population will continue to work in jobs characterized by low and fluctuating earnings for the foreseeable future, however, and they will need social safety nets that help them manage vulnerability to income shortfalls. More productive and inclusive jobs will help Ghana move to a second phase of structural transformation and develop into a modern middle-income economy.



Gender Disparities in Africa s Labor Market

Gender Disparities in Africa s Labor Market Author Jorge Saba Arbache
ISBN-10 9780821380666
Release 2010
Pages 420
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"A copublication of the Agence franðcaise de dâeveloppement and the World Bank."--T.p.



The Global Gender Gap Report 2009

The Global Gender Gap Report 2009 Author
ISBN-10 9789295044289
Release 2009
Pages 196
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"The Index benchmarks national gender gaps on economic, political, education- and health-based criteria, and provides country rankings that allow for effective comparions across regions and income groups, over time"-- Page 3.



Women and Development in Africa

Women and Development in Africa Author Michael Kevane
ISBN-10 1588262383
Release 2004
Pages 244
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Kevane explores gender issues in Africa in the context of the continent's poor economic performance.



Competitiveness and Private Sector Development Women s Economic Empowerment in Selected MENA Countries The Impact of Legal Frameworks in Algeria Egypt Jordan Libya Morocco and Tunisia

Competitiveness and Private Sector Development Women s Economic Empowerment in Selected MENA Countries The Impact of Legal Frameworks in Algeria  Egypt  Jordan  Libya  Morocco and Tunisia Author OECD
ISBN-10 9789264279322
Release 2017-10-07
Pages 152
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In the MENA region, women make up more than half of the eligible workforce. They are increasingly better educated and aspire to play a more active role in the economy. However, women’s labour force and entrepreneurial participation rates remain among the lowest in the world.



Gender and Economic Growth in Tanzania

Gender and Economic Growth in Tanzania Author
ISBN-10 9780821372630
Release 2007
Pages 140
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While Tanzania has been at the forefront of creating a positive legal framework and political context for gender equality, certain legal, regulatory, and administrative barriers still hinder women's full participation in private sector development. This report analyzes these barriers and makes recommendations for needed change, to ensure women's full contribution to private sector development and economic growth in Tanzania. Building on intensive stakeholder consultations and the findings of numerous studies, notably the MKURABITA diagnostic and the 2003/4 Investment Climate Assessments for Tanzania and Zanzibar, this report examines these gender-related barriers to growth and investment. It highlights legal and administrative constraints that have a disproportionately negative effect on female-headed businesses, and makes recommendations for needed reforms. Addressing these issues would not only help unlock the full economic potential of women, but would help improve the environment for all businesses in Tanzania. While Tanzania's economic growth has been strong, this report finds that if the country were to bring female secondary schooling and female total years of schooling to the same level as now enjoyed by males, this could produce up to an additional annual percentage point of growth - a valuable contribution to achieving the 6-8 percent annual growth targets of the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP or MKUKUTA).



Enhancing the Climate Resilience of Africa s Infrastructure

Enhancing the Climate Resilience of Africa s Infrastructure Author Raffaello Cervigni
ISBN-10 9781464804670
Release 2015-09-01
Pages 216
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To sustain Africa’s growth, and accelerate the eradication of extreme poverty, investment in infrastructure is fundamental. In 2010, the Africa Infrastructure Country Diagnostic found that to enable Africa to fill its infrastructure gap, some US$ 93 billion per year for the next decade will need to be invested. The Program for Infrastructure Development in Africa (PIDA), endorsed in 2012 by the continent’s Heads of State and Government, lays out an ambitious long-term plan for closing Africa’s infrastructure including trough step increases in hydroelectric power generation and water storage capacity. Much of this investment will support the construction of long-lived infrastructure (e.g. dams, power stations, irrigation canals), which may be vulnerable to changes in climatic patterns, the direction and magnitude of which remain significantly uncertain. Enhancing the Climate Resilience of Africa 's Infrastructure evaluates -using for the first time a single consistent methodology and the state-of-the-arte climate scenarios-, the impacts of climate change on hydro-power and irrigation expansion plans in Africa’s main rivers basins (Niger, Senegal, Volta, Congo, Nile, Zambezi, Orange); and outlines an approach to reduce climate risks through suitable adjustments to the planning and design process. The book finds that failure to integrate climate change in the planning and design of power and water infrastructure could entail, in scenarios of drying climate conditions, losses of hydropower revenues between 5% and 60% (depending on the basin); and increases in consumer expenditure for energy up to 3 times the corresponding baseline values. In in wet climate scenarios, business-as-usual infrastructure development could lead to foregone revenues in the range of 15% to 130% of the baseline, to the extent that the larger volume of precipitation is not used to expand the production of hydropower. Despite the large uncertainty on whether drier or wetter conditions will prevail in the future in Africa, the book finds that by modifying existing investment plans to explicitly handle the risk of large climate swings, can cut in half or more the cost that would accrue by building infrastructure on the basis of the climate of the past.



Separated and Divorced Women in India

Separated and Divorced Women in India Author Kirti Singh
ISBN-10 9788132117490
Release 2013-05-08
Pages 248
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Separated and Divorced Women in India examines the economic rights and entitlements of separated/deserted women in law and practice in India, and explores all the laws and policies relating to financial support for a wife or child that come into play once a separation or divorce has taken place. Based on a survey of more than 400 women in four different regions across the country, this seminal work lays bare the miserable financial conditions of separated/deserted women and the lengthy procedural obstacles that these women have to contend with to get any justice. It interrogates the absence of any laws that would give Indian women ownership rights in the property and assets that they have helped to acquire through financial or non-financial contributions in the marital home, and suggests that Community of Property should be made a part of law for all Indian women. This work further challenges the conventional understanding of productive work and advocates recognition of the productive nature of women's household work. Another aspect discussed pertains to the pervasive scourge of dowry and how seldom women recover their dowry and stridhan through the law.



Gender and Economic Growth in Kenya

Gender and Economic Growth in Kenya Author
ISBN-10 9780821369203
Release 2007
Pages 120
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This book examines the legal, administrative, and regulatory barriers that are preventing women in Kenya from contributing fully to the Kenyan economy. Building on the 2004 FIAS Improving the Commercial Legal Framework and Removing Administrative and Regulatory Barriers to Investment report, this study looks at the bureaucratic barriers facing women in Kenya through a gender lens.



Yearbook of the United Nations

Yearbook of the United Nations Author United Nations
ISBN-10 UCSD:31822039136361
Release 2008
Pages
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Issue for 1946-47 includes a summary of the organization's activities from its inception to July 1, 1947.



Women Work and the Economy Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity

Women  Work  and the Economy Macroeconomic Gains from Gender Equity Author Ms. Katrin Elborgh-Woytek
ISBN-10 9781484371244
Release 2013-09-20
Pages 41
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The proposed SDN discusses the specific macro-critical aspects of women’s participation in the labor market and the constraints that prevent women from developing their full economic potential. Building on earlier Fund analysis, work undertaken by other organizations and academic research, the SDN presents possible policies to overcome these obstacles in different types of countries.