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Environmental Burden of Disease Assessment

Environmental Burden of Disease Assessment Author Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson
ISBN-10 9789400759251
Release 2013-02-12
Pages 489
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This publication characterizes the environmental burden of disease in the United Arab Emirates (UAE), measured by the excess number of deaths and illnesses in the population due to exposure to environmental hazards. The robust methods used in this risk analysis can be applied to any country or region. This publication documents the systematic, multi-step process used to identify environmental priorities and the detailed methods used to quantify the disease burden attributable to each risk. Based on the results of the burden of disease assessment, the publication summarizes the subsequent steps that are recommended to further reduce the burden of disease resulting from various environmental risk factors.​ Authors and Contributors This book represents the synthesis of research carried out by a large, interdisciplinary team from several institutions and multiple nations between June 2008 and June 2011.The lead authors are responsible for weaving together the pieces prepared by the team.Nonetheless, this book would not have been possible without major contributions from each team member.The list below shows contributors to each chapter.Following this list are biographies of all of the authors and contributors. Lead Authors Jacqueline MacDonald Gibson, Frederic J. P. Launay, Jens T. W. Thomsen, Angela Brammer, Christopher Davidson Additional Contributors (by Chapter) Chapter 2: Prioritizing Environmental Risks to Health Henry H. Willis, Aimee Curtright, Gary Cecchine, Zeinab S. Farah,Sandra A. Geschwind, Jianhui Hu, Ying Li, Melinda Moore, Sarah Olmstead, Hanine Salem, Regina A. Shih, J. Jason West Chapter 3: Assessing the Environmental Burden of Disease:Method Overview Tiina Folley, Elizabeth S. Harder, Mejs Hasan Chapter 4: Burden of Disease from Outdoor Air Pollution Ying Li, Gavino Puggioni, Prahlad Jat, Mejs Hasan, Marc Serre, Kenneth G. Sexton, J. Jason West, Saravanan Arunachalam, Uma Shankar, William Vizuete, Mohammed Zuber Farooqui Chapter 5: Burden of Disease from Indoor Air Pollution Chris B. Trent Chapter 6: Burden of Disease from Occupational Exposures Tiina Folley, Leena A. Nylander-French Chapter 7: Burden of Disease from Climate Change Richard N. L. Andrews, Leslie Chinery, Elizabeth S. Harder, J. Jason West Chapter 8: Burden of Disease from Drinking Water Contamination Gregory W. Characklis, Joseph N. LoBuglio Chapter 9: Burden of Disease from Coastal Water Pollution Gregory W. Characklis, Leigh-Anne H. Krometis, Joseph N. LoBuglio Chapter 10: Burden of Disease from Soil and Groundwater Contamination Chidsanuphong Chart-asa, Stephanie Soucheray-Grell Chapter 11: Burden of Disease from Produce and Seafood Contamination Leigh-Anne H. Krometis, Leslie Chinery



Advances in Spatial and Temporal Databases

Advances in Spatial and Temporal Databases Author Christophe Claramunt
ISBN-10 9783319223636
Release 2015-08-12
Pages 522
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This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 14th International Symposium on Spatial and Temporal Databases, SSTD 2015, held in Hong Kong, China, in August 2015. The 24 revised full papers together with 8 demos presented were carefully reviewed and selected from 64 submissions. The conference program has the scope on following subjects: reachability query and path query, reverse query and indexing, navigation and routing, trajectory analysis, spatio-temporal approaches, privacy and matching, similarity search and pattern, keyword and pattern.



Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments

Preventing Disease Through Healthy Environments Author Annette Prüss-Üstün
ISBN-10 9789241565196
Release 2016
Pages 147
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"The main message emerging from this new comprehensive global assessment is that premature death and disease can be prevented through healthier environments--and to a significant degree. Analysing the latest data on the environment-disease nexus and the devastating impact of environmental hazards and risks on global health, backed up by expert opinion, this report covers more than 130 diseases and injuries. The analysis shows that 23% of global deaths (and 26% of deaths among children under five) are due to modifiable environmental factors--and therefore can be prevented. Stroke, ischaemic heart disease, diarrhoea and cancers head the list. People in low-income countries bear the greatest disease burden, with the exception of noncommunicable diseases. The report's unequivocal evidence should add impetus to coordinating global efforts to promote healthy environments--often through well-established, cost-effective interventions. This analysis will inform those who want to better understand the transformational spirit of the Sustainable Development Goals agreed by Heads of State in September 2015. The results of the analysis underscore the pressing importance of stronger intersectoral action to create healthier environments that will contribute to sustainably improving the lives of millions around the world."--Page 4 of cover.



Air Pollution

Air Pollution Author Bhola R. Gurjar
ISBN-10 1439809631
Release 2010-06-22
Pages 556
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Air pollution is recognized as one of the leading contributors to the global environmental burden of disease, even in countries with relatively low concentrations of air pollution. Air Pollution: Health and Environmental Impacts examines the effect of this complex problem on human health and the environment in different settings around the world. It not only covers general modeling, monitoring, and characterization techniques but also includes field studies and cases that offer valuable insight into region-specific issues. With contributions from a distinguished group of international experts, the book explores ways of controlling air pollution and mitigating its adverse effects on human health and the environment. Often taking a regional and global perspective, it discusses the monitoring and source characterization of air pollution, the theory and application of air quality modeling, health effects and risk assessment, and the environmental impacts of air pollution. The book also addresses air quality management and relevant policy issues. Along with providing an understanding of the scientific basis of air pollution, this volume helps readers better appreciate social and environmental determinants of public health and apply country-based research evidence to reduce health disparities and environmental inequalities. It also encourages future research and policy action on the health and environmental consequences of air pollution from the local to global level.



Cancer as an Environmental Disease

Cancer as an Environmental Disease Author P. Nicolopoulou-Stamati
ISBN-10 1402020198
Release 2004-03-31
Pages 213
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During recent decades the somatic mutation theory for the causation of cancer has held sway. The influence of environmental factors in the aetiology of cancer has become a matter of debate between those who maintain that it is largely a degenerative phenomenon and other voices who increasingly support the hypothesis that environmental factors predominate. An examination of some aspects of this debate is the prime purpose of this book. The increasing incidence of cancer across many parts of the world, particularly in children, has happened over a very short period of time in evolutionary terms. One can infer that it is connected to changes in the environment and/or our lifestyles. A major counter-argument to this contention is that rising cancer incidence is mainly because the average life expectancy has increased.These pages contain a number of chapters from specialists in the field who consider, from a number of different perspectives, the currently available evidence that supports the environmental cancer,aetiology hypothesis. This constitutes the first part of the book. In the second part of the book, an examination of the policy implications of accepting that the cancer epidemic may essentially be preventable is presented. This will pose some difficult problems for politicians and decision-makers, who will have to consider adopting policies that may damage the economy in the short term in order to reap health benefits which will only become apparent several decades in the future.



Epistemological Aspects of Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences

Epistemological Aspects of Computer Simulation in the Social Sciences Author Flaminio Squazzoni
ISBN-10 9783642011092
Release 2009-04-21
Pages 183
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This volume collects the revised versions of the invited and selected papers that were presented at the Second EPOS––Epistemological Perspectives on Simulation––Workshop, held in Brescia, Italy, in October 2006. EPOS is a bi-annual cross-disciplinary workshop on simulation originally established by Ulrich Frank and Klaus G. Troitzsch, with a first e- tion held in Koblenz in July 2004. EPOS aims to provide a forum for scholars from various disciplines, such as the social sciences, computer sciences, engineering and natural sciences, who are interested in discussing epistemological aspects of computer simulation across disciplinary boundaries. The common belief behind the workshop is the recognition that the time has come to seriously reflect on epistemological and methodological preconditions, processes and consequences of simulation as a research tool. During the fist edition in Koblenz 2004, a number of interesting topics were ca- fully addressed: the link between theory and simulation models, the empirical vali- tion of agent-based models in the natural and the social sciences, the relation between models and truth, as well as the role of stylized facts in evidence-based models. A good cross-disciplinary atmosphere permeated the workshop, making possible the exchange of knowledge and ideas beyond any disciplinary boundary. The first EPOS proceedings were edited by Ulrich Frank and Klaus G. Troitzsch and published in the Journal of Artificial Societies and Social Simulation, Vol. 8, No. 4, 2005.



The Sustainable Learning Community

The Sustainable Learning Community Author John Aber
ISBN-10 9781584658375
Release 2009-12-15
Pages 288
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Case studies from the University of New Hampshire explore all the dimensions of sustainability in campus life, combining frugality and creativity



Global Health Risks

Global Health Risks Author World Health Organization
ISBN-10 9789241563871
Release 2009
Pages 62
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This publication is a comprehensive assessment of leading risks to global health. It provides detailed global and regional estimates of premature mortality, disability and loss of health attributable to 24 global risk factors.--Publisher's description.



Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise

Burden of Disease from Environmental Noise Author
ISBN-10 9289002298
Release 2011
Pages 106
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The health impacts of environmental noise are a growing concern. At least one million healthy life years are lost every year from traffic-related noise in the western part of Europe. This publication summarizes the evidence on the relationship between environmental noise and health effects, including cardiovascular disease, cognitive impairment, sleep disturbance, tinnitus, and annoyance. For each one, the environmental burden of disease methodology, based on exposure-response relationship, exposure distribution, background prevalence of disease and disability weights of the outcome, is applied to calculate the burden of disease in terms of disability-adjusted life-years. Data are still lacking for the rest of the WHO European Region. This publication provides policy-makers and their advisers with technical support in their quantitative risk assessment of environmental noise. International, national and local authorities can use the procedure for estimating burdens presented here to prioritize and plan environmental and public health policies.



Health Impacts of Waste Management Policies

Health Impacts of Waste Management Policies Author Polyxeni Nicolopoulou-Stamati
ISBN-10 9789401595506
Release 2013-04-17
Pages 326
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This chapter introduces key themes from the book, reflecting the topics of the 'Awareness of the Health Impacts of Waste Management Policies' Seminar, in Kos, Greece. November, 1998. The waste management and health scene is introduced by an outline of concems relating to persistent organic pollutants, as well as through perspectives from Less Developed Countries and from industry. An overview of policy lines for waste management includes an assessment of recent proposals by the European Commission, as well as selected examples from European countries and the USA. Descriptions of developments in research, tools and conceptual approaches for waste management and health issues are provided. Research into health effects of dioxins and PCBs is outlined, as are reviews of technological options for waste management, proposed developments in health impact assessment, environmental taxes as a waste management tool, and integrated regional waste management approaches. A series of case studies provide real world examples of research and policy development including a review of the effects of waste management on wildlife and domestic animals. In conclusion, important crossover themes and challenges are outlined. Topical issues include differences between technological capacity and actual performance, burden of proof and the precautionary principle, hazard versus risk assessment, and societal dimensions of awareness and attitudes. Time-lag, intergenerational effects and the introduction of the chemical hygiene concept are highlighted as important considerations, as well as the general need for prioritisation of the child and infant in all regulatory procedures.



Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors

Global Burden of Disease and Risk Factors Author Alan D. Lopez
ISBN-10 9780821362631
Release 2006-04-02
Pages 475
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Strategic health planning, the cornerstone of initiatives designed to achieve health improvement goals around the world, requires an understanding of the comparative burden of diseases and injuries, their corresponding risk factors and the likely effects of invervention options. The Global Burden of Disease framework, originally published in 1990, has been widely adopted as the preferred method for health accounting and has become the standard to guide the setting of health research priorities. This publication sets out an updated assessment of the situation, with an analysis of trends observed since 1990 and a chapter on the sensitivity of GBD estimates to various sources of uncertainty in methods and data.



The New Public Health

The New Public Health Author Theodore H. Tulchinsky
ISBN-10 9780124157675
Release 2014-03-26
Pages 912
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The New Public Health has established itself as a solid textbook throughout the world. Translated into 7 languages, this work distinguishes itself from other public health textbooks, which are either highly locally oriented or, if international, lack the specificity of local issues relevant to students' understanding of applied public health in their own setting. This 3e provides a unified approach to public health appropriate for all masters' level students and practitioners—specifically for courses in MPH programs, community health and preventive medicine programs, community health education programs, and community health nursing programs, as well as programs for other medical professionals such as pharmacy, physiotherapy, and other public health courses. Changes in infectious and chronic disease epidemiology including vaccines, health promotion, human resources for health and health technology Lessons from H1N1, pandemic threats, disease eradication, nutritional health Trends of health systems and reforms and consequences of current economic crisis for health Public health law, ethics, scientific d health technology advances and assessment Global Health environment, Millennium Development Goals and international NGOs



Failed Promises

Failed Promises Author David M. Konisky
ISBN-10 9780262327145
Release 2015-04-10
Pages 296
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In the 1970s and 1980s, the U.S. Congress passed a series of laws that were milestones in environmental protection, including the Clean Air Act and the Clean Water Act. But by the 1990s, it was clear that environmental benefits were not evenly distributed and that poor and minority communities bore disproportionate environmental burdens. The Clinton administration put these concerns on the environmental policy agenda, most notably with a 1994 executive order that called on federal agencies to consider environmental justice issues whenever appropriate. This volume offers the first systematic, empirically based evaluation of the effectiveness of the federal government's environmental justice policies.The contributors consider three overlapping aspects of environmental justice: distributive justice, or the equitable distribution of environmental burdens and benefits; procedural justice, or the fairness of the decision-making process itself; and corrective justice, or the fairness of punishment and compensation. Focusing on the central role of the Environmental Protection Agency, they discuss such topics as facility permitting, rulemaking, participatory processes, bias in enforcement, and the role of the courts in redressing environmental injustices. Taken together, the contributions suggest that -- despite recent environmental justice initiatives from the Obama administration -- the federal government has largely failed to deliver on its promises of environmental justice. ContributorsDorothy M. Daley, Eileen Gauna, Elizabeth Gross, David M. Konisky, Douglas S. Noonan, Tony G. Reames, Christopher Reenock, Ronald J. Shadbegian, Paul Stretesky, Ann Wolverton



The Global Burden of Disease

The Global Burden of Disease Author World Health Organization
ISBN-10 9789241563710
Release 2008
Pages 146
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The global burden of disease: 2004 update is a comprehensive assessment of the health of the world's population. It provides detailed global and regional estimates of premature mortality, disability and loss of health for 135 causes by age and sex, drawing on extensive WHO databases and on information provided by Member States.--Publisher description.



Comparative Quantification of Health Risks Sexual and reproductive health

Comparative Quantification of Health Risks  Sexual and reproductive health Author Majid Ezzati
ISBN-10 9789241580311
Release 2004
Pages 2248
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During the last quarter of the twentieth century, a number of works have addressed both the methodological and empirical aspects of population-wide impacts of major causes of diseases. This gradual establishment of risk assessment, or risk quantification, has been driven partly by the academic curiosity of individual researchers and partly by the demands of regulatory agencies and public policy for better quantitative evidence on the health implications of certain risk exposures. These efforts nonetheless have generally been within the disciplinary and methodological traditions of individual risk factors and in a limited number of settings. As a result, the criteria for evaluating scientific evidence have varied greatly across risk factors resulting in lack of comparability across risk factors. This book provides a comprehensive assessment of the scientific evidence on prevalence and hazards, and the resulting health effects, of a range of exposures that are known to be hazardous to human health, including childhood and maternal undernutrition, nutritional and physiological risk factors for adult health, addictive substances, sexual and reproductive health, and risks in the physical environments of households and communities, as well as among workers. This book is the culmination of over 3 years of scientific enquiry and data collection, collectively known as the Comparative Risk Assessment (CRA) project, involving over 100 scientists, applying a common analytical framework and methods to ensure greater consistency and comparability in using and evaluating scientific evidence across risks. As a result, our understanding of the comparative extent of disease burden caused by various exposures worldwide has advanced, and key areas of scientific enquiry to better inform policy needs to reduce risks have been elucidated. As public health researchers and practitioners evaluate policy alternatives for improving population health, this book not only demonstrates the enormous potential for disease prevention but also provides a fundamental reference for the scientific evidence on some of the most important global risks to health.Volumes 1 and 2 are hardbound; Volume 3 is a CD-ROM.



Urban Environmental Management and Technology

Urban Environmental Management and Technology Author Keisuke Hanaki
ISBN-10 9784431783978
Release 2008-08-28
Pages 242
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This book examines the importance of urban environmental management in the face of formidable challenges. It offers a comprehensive overview of science and policy, with discussion of relevant traditional and contemporary technologies.



No Family History

No Family History Author Sabrina McCormick
ISBN-10 9780742566286
Release 2009-07-16
Pages 192
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No Family History presents compelling evidence of environmental links to breast cancer, ranging from everyday cosmetics to industrial waste. Sabrina McCormick weaves the story of one survivor with no family history into a powerful exploration of the big business of breast cancer. As drugs, pink products, and corporate sponsorships generate enormous revenue to find a cure, a growing number of experts argue that we should instead increase focus on prevention—reducing environmental exposures that have contributed to the sharp increase of breast cancer rates. But the dollars continue to pour into the search for a cure, and the companies that profit, including some pharmaceutical and cosmetics companies, may in fact contribute to the environmental causes of breast cancer. No Family History shows how profits drive our public focus on the cure rather than prevention, and suggests new ways to reduce breast cancer rates in the future.