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Essential Mathematics and Statistics for Forensic Science

Essential Mathematics and Statistics for Forensic Science Author Craig Adam
ISBN-10 9781119964186
Release 2011-09-20
Pages 366
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This text is an accessible, student-friendly introduction to the wide range of mathematical and statistical tools needed by the forensic scientist in the analysis, interpretation and presentation of experimental measurements. From a basis of high school mathematics, the book develops essential quantitative analysis techniques within the context of a broad range of forensic applications. This clearly structured text focuses on developing core mathematical skills together with an understanding of the calculations associated with the analysis of experimental work, including an emphasis on the use of graphs and the evaluation of uncertainties. Through a broad study of probability and statistics, the reader is led ultimately to the use of Bayesian approaches to the evaluation of evidence within the court. In every section, forensic applications such as ballistics trajectories, post-mortem cooling, aspects of forensic pharmacokinetics, the matching of glass evidence, the formation of bloodstains and the interpretation of DNA profiles are discussed and examples of calculations are worked through. In every chapter there are numerous self-assessment problems to aid student learning. Its broad scope and forensically focused coverage make this book an essential text for students embarking on any degree course in forensic science or forensic analysis, as well as an invaluable reference for post-graduate students and forensic professionals. Key features: Offers a unique mix of mathematics and statistics topics, specifically tailored to a forensic science undergraduate degree. All topics illustrated with examples from the forensic science discipline. Written in an accessible, student-friendly way to engage interest and enhance learning and confidence. Assumes only a basic high-school level prior mathematical knowledge.



Essential Mathematics and Statistics for Forensic Science

Essential Mathematics and Statistics for Forensic Science Author Craig Adam
ISBN-10 0470742534
Release 2010-05-24
Pages 366
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This text is an accessible, student-friendly introduction to the wide range of mathematical and statistical tools needed by the forensic scientist in the analysis, interpretation and presentation of experimental measurements. From a basis of high school mathematics, the book develops essential quantitative analysis techniques within the context of a broad range of forensic applications. This clearly structured text focuses on developing core mathematical skills together with an understanding of the calculations associated with the analysis of experimental work, including an emphasis on the use of graphs and the evaluation of uncertainties. Through a broad study of probability and statistics, the reader is led ultimately to the use of Bayesian approaches to the evaluation of evidence within the court. In every section, forensic applications such as ballistics trajectories, post-mortem cooling, aspects of forensic pharmacokinetics, the matching of glass evidence, the formation of bloodstains and the interpretation of DNA profiles are discussed and examples of calculations are worked through. In every chapter there are numerous self-assessment problems to aid student learning. Its broad scope and forensically focused coverage make this book an essential text for students embarking on any degree course in forensic science or forensic analysis, as well as an invaluable reference for post-graduate students and forensic professionals. Key features: Offers a unique mix of mathematics and statistics topics, specifically tailored to a forensic science undergraduate degree. All topics illustrated with examples from the forensic science discipline. Written in an accessible, student-friendly way to engage interest and enhance learning and confidence. Assumes only a basic high-school level prior mathematical knowledge.



Essential Mathematics and Statistics for Forensic Science

Essential Mathematics and Statistics for Forensic Science Author Craig Adam
ISBN-10 9780470710357
Release 2010-03-30
Pages 366
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This text is an accessible, student-friendly introduction to the wide range of mathematical and statistical tools needed by the forensic scientist in the analysis, interpretation and presentation of experimental measurements. From a basis of high school mathematics, the book develops essential quantitative analysis techniques within the context of a broad range of forensic applications. This clearly structured text focuses on developing core mathematical skills together with an understanding of the calculations associated with the analysis of experimental work, including an emphasis on the use of graphs and the evaluation of uncertainties. Through a broad study of probability and statistics, the reader is led ultimately to the use of Bayesian approaches to the evaluation of evidence within the court. In every section, forensic applications such as ballistics trajectories, post-mortem cooling, aspects of forensic pharmacokinetics, the matching of glass evidence, the formation of bloodstains and the interpretation of DNA profiles are discussed and examples of calculations are worked through. In every chapter there are numerous self-assessment problems to aid student learning. Its broad scope and forensically focused coverage make this book an essential text for students embarking on any degree course in forensic science or forensic analysis, as well as an invaluable reference for post-graduate students and forensic professionals. Key features: Offers a unique mix of mathematics and statistics topics, specifically tailored to a forensic science undergraduate degree. All topics illustrated with examples from the forensic science discipline. Written in an accessible, student-friendly way to engage interest and enhance learning and confidence. Assumes only a basic high-school level prior mathematical knowledge.



Introduction to Statistics for Forensic Scientists

Introduction to Statistics for Forensic Scientists Author David Lucy
ISBN-10 9781118700105
Release 2013-05-03
Pages 272
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Introduction to Statistics for Forensic Scientists is an essential introduction to the subject, gently guiding the reader through the key statistical techniques used to evaluate various types of forensic evidence. Assuming only a modest mathematical background, the book uses real-life examples from the forensic science literature and forensic case-work to illustrate relevant statistical concepts and methods. Opening with a brief overview of the history and use of statistics within forensic science, the text then goes on to introduce statistical techniques commonly used to examine data obtained during laboratory experiments. There is a strong emphasis on the evaluation of scientific observation as evidence and modern Bayesian approaches to interpreting forensic data for the courts. The analysis of key forms of evidence are discussed throughout with a particular focus on DNA, fibres and glass. An invaluable introduction to the statistical interpretation of forensic evidence; this book will be invaluable for all undergraduates taking courses in forensic science. Introduction to the key statistical techniques used in the evaluation of forensic evidence Includes end of chapter exercises to enhance student understanding Numerous examples taken from forensic science to put the subject into context



Forensic Evidence in Court

Forensic Evidence in Court Author Craig Adam
ISBN-10 9781119054436
Release 2016-07-12
Pages 336
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The interpretation and evaluation of scientific evidence and its presentation in a court of law is central both to the role of the forensic scientist as an expert witness and to the interests of justice. This book aims to provide a thorough and detailed discussion of the principles and practice of evidence interpretation and evaluation by using real cases by way of illustration. The presentation is appropriate for students of forensic science or related disciplines at advanced undergraduate and master's level or for practitioners engaged in continuing professional development activity. The book is structured in three sections. The first sets the scene by describing and debating the issues around the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence presented to the court. In the second section, the principles underpinning interpretation and evaluation are explained, including discussion of those formal statistical methods founded on Bayesian inference. The following chapters present perspectives on the evaluation and presentation of evidence in the context of a single type or class of scientific evidence, from DNA to the analysis of documents. For each, the science underpinning the analysis and interpretation of the forensic materials is explained, followed by the presentation of cases which illustrate the variety of approaches that have been taken in providing expert scientific opinion.



Statistical DNA Forensics

Statistical DNA Forensics Author Wing Kam Fung
ISBN-10 0470727039
Release 2008-04-15
Pages 262
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Statistical methodology plays a key role in ensuring that DNA evidence is collected, interpreted, analyzed and presented correctly. With the recent advances in computer technology, this methodology is more complex than ever before. There are a growing number of books in the area but none are devoted to the computational analysis of evidence. This book presents the methodology of statistical DNA forensics with an emphasis on the use of computational techniques to analyze and interpret forensic evidence.



Data Analysis in Forensic Science

Data Analysis in Forensic Science Author Franco Taroni
ISBN-10 0470665076
Release 2010-03-19
Pages 388
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This is the first text to examine the use of statistical methods in forensic science and bayesian statistics in combination. The book is split into two parts: Part One concentrates on the philosophies of statistical inference. Chapter One examines the differences between the frequentist, the likelihood and the Bayesian perspectives, before Chapter Two explores the Bayesian decision-theoretic perspective further, and looks at the benefits it carries. Part Two then introduces the reader to the practical aspects involved: the application, interpretation, summary and presentation of data analyses are all examined from a Bayesian decision-theoretic perspective. A wide range of statistical methods, essential in the analysis of forensic scientific data is explored. These include the comparison of allele proportions in populations, the comparison of means, the choice of sampling size, and the discrimination of items of evidence of unknown origin into predefined populations. Throughout this practical appraisal there are a wide variety of examples taken from the routine work of forensic scientists. These applications are demonstrated in the ever-more popular R language. The reader is taken through these applied examples in a step-by-step approach, discussing the methods at each stage.



Essential Mathematics and Statistics for Science

Essential Mathematics and Statistics for Science Author Dr. Graham Currell
ISBN-10 0470022299
Release 2005-10-21
Pages 360
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Basic Mathematics and Statistics for Science is a low-level introduction to the essential techniques students need to understand. It assumes little prior knowledge, and adopts a gentle approach that leads through examples in the book and website. No other text provides this range of educational support for science students. The integration between book and website provides study options that would be impossible through a book alone, and allows students to study in ways that suit their own circumstances and preferences. The combination of book and website also provides ready-prepared material for lectures, tutorials and computer practicals. Tutors can use the material to develop a variety of coherent programme using different learning styles. The book develops the mathematics and statistics through examples and questions that reflect the scientific context, and has succeeded in being relevant to a range of undergraduate science programmes.



Introduction to Data Analysis with R for Forensic Scientists

Introduction to Data Analysis with R for Forensic Scientists Author James Michael Curran
ISBN-10 1420088270
Release 2010-07-30
Pages 331
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Statistical methods provide a logical, coherent framework in which data from experimental science can be analyzed. However, many researchers lack the statistical skills or resources that would allow them to explore their data to its full potential. Introduction to Data Analysis with R for Forensic Sciences minimizes theory and mathematics and focuses on the application and practice of statistics to provide researchers with the dexterity necessary to systematically analyze data discovered from the fruits of their research. Using traditional techniques and employing examples and tutorials with real data collected from experiments, this book presents the following critical information necessary for researchers: A refresher on basic statistics and an introduction to R Considerations and techniques for the visual display of data through graphics An overview of statistical hypothesis tests and the reasoning behind them A comprehensive guide to the use of the linear model, the foundation of most statistics encountered An introduction to extensions to the linear model for commonly encountered scenarios, including logistic and Poisson regression Instruction on how to plan and design experiments in a way that minimizes cost and maximizes the chances of finding differences that may exist Focusing on forensic examples but useful for anyone working in a laboratory, this volume enables researchers to get the most out of their experiments by allowing them to cogently analyze the data they have collected, saving valuable time and effort.



Essentials of Mathematical Statistics

Essentials of Mathematical Statistics Author Brian Albright
ISBN-10 9781449685348
Release 2013-02-19
Pages 594
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This text combines the topics generally found in main-stream elementary statistics books with the essentials of the underlying theory. The book begins with an axiomatic treatment of probability followed by chapters on discrete and continuous random variables and their associated distributions. It then introduces basic statistical concepts including summarizing data and interval parameter estimation, stressing the connection between probability and statistics. Final chapters introduce hypothesis testing, regression, and non-parametric techniques. All chapters provide a balance between conceptual understanding and theoretical understanding of the topics at hand.



Statistics for Lawyers

Statistics for Lawyers Author Michael O. Finkelstein
ISBN-10 9781441959850
Release 2015-12-16
Pages 657
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This classic text, first published in 1990, is designed to introduce law students, law teachers, practitioners, and judges to the basic ideas of mathematical probability and statistics as they have been applied in the law. The third edition includes over twenty new sections, including the addition of timely topics, like New York City police stops, exonerations in death-sentence cases, projecting airline costs, and new material on various statistical techniques such as the randomized response survey technique, rare-events meta-analysis, competing risks, and negative binomial regression. The book consists of sections of exposition followed by real-world cases and case studies in which statistical data have played a role. The reader is asked to apply the theory to the facts, to calculate results (a hand calculator is sufficient), and to explore legal issues raised by quantitative findings. The authors' calculations and comments are given in the back of the book. As with previous editions, the cases and case studies reflect a broad variety of legal subjects, including antidiscrimination, mass torts, taxation, school finance, identification evidence, preventive detention, handwriting disputes, voting, environmental protection, antitrust, sampling for insurance audits, and the death penalty. A chapter on epidemiology was added in the second edition. In 1991, the first edition was selected by the University of Michigan Law Review as one of the important law books of the year.



An Introduction to Forensic Genetics

An Introduction to Forensic Genetics Author William Goodwin
ISBN-10 9780470010259
Release 2007-11-27
Pages 162
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An Introduction to Forensic Genetics is a comprehensive introduction to this fast moving area from the collection of evidence at the scene of a crime to the presentation of that evidence in a legal context. The last few years have seen significant advances in the subject and the development and application of genetics has revolutionised forensic science. This book begins with the key concepts needed to fully appreciate the subject and moves on to examine the latest developments in the field, illustrated throughout with references to relevant casework. In addition to the technology involved in generating a DNA profile, the underlying population biology and statistical interpretation are also covered. The evaluation and presentation of DNA evidence in court is discussed as well with guidance on the evaluation process and how court reports and statements should be presented. An accessible introduction to Forensic Genetics from the collection of evidence to the presentation of that evidence in a legal context Includes case studies to enhance student understanding Includes the latest developments in the field focusing on the technology used today and that which is likely to be used in the future Accessible treatment of population biology and statistics associated with forensic evidence This book offers undergraduate students of Forensic Science an accessible approach to the subject that will have direct relevance to their courses. An Introduction to Forensic Genetics is also an invaluable resource for postgraduates and practising forensic scientists looking for a good introduction to the field.



Math on Trial

Math on Trial Author Leila Schneps
ISBN-10 9780465037940
Release 2013-03-12
Pages 272
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In the wrong hands, math can be deadly. Even the simplest numbers can become powerful forces when manipulated by journalists, politicians or other public figures, but in the case of the law your liberty—and your life—can depend on the right calculation. Math on Trial tells the story of ten trials in which mathematical arguments were used—and disastrously misused—as evidence. Despite years of math classes, most people (and most jurors) fail to detect even simple mathematical sophistry, resulting in such horrors as a medical expert’s faulty calculation of probabilities providing the key evidence for a British mother’s conviction for the murder of her two babies. The conviction was later overturned, but three years in prison took its toll—Sally Clark died of acute alcohol intoxication in March of 2007. Mathematicians Leila Schneps and Coralie Colmez use a wide range of examples, from a mid-19th-century dispute over wills that became a signal case in the forensic use of mathematics, to the conviction and subsequent exoneration of Amanda Knox, to show how the improper application of mathematical concepts can mean the difference between walking free and life in prison. The cases discussed include: -The Case of Amanda Knox (How a judge’s denial of a second DNA test may have destroyed a chance to reveal the truth about Meredith Kercher’s murder) -The Case of Joe Sneed (How a fabricated probability framed a son for his parents’ grisly killing) -The Case of Sally Clark (How multiplying non-independent probabilities landed an innocent mother in jail for the murder of her children) -The Case of Janet Collins (How unjustified estimates combined with a miscalculated probability convicted an innocent couple of violent robbery) A colorful narrative of mathematical abuse featuring such characters as Charles Ponzi, Alfred Dreyfus, Hetty Green, and Oliver Wendell Holmes, Math on Trial shows that legal expertise isn’t everything when it comes to proving a man innocent.



Forensic Science A Very Short Introduction

Forensic Science  A Very Short Introduction Author Jim Fraser
ISBN-10 9780191609664
Release 2010-02-25
Pages 160
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Forensic science is a subject of wide fascination. What happens at a crime scene? How does DNA profiling work? How can it help solve crimes that happened 20 years ago? In forensic science, a criminal case can often hinge on a piece of evidence such as a hair, a blood trace, half a footprint, or a tyre mark. High profile cases such as the Stephen Lawrence enquiry and the Madeleine McCann case have attracted enormous media attention and enhanced this interest in recent years. However, the public understanding of forensic science is poor, and largely based on TV shows such as CSI: Crime Scene Investigation, which exploit high-tech imagery for dramatic effect. Forensic science is a complex activity at the interface of science and law. However, it also deals with real life issues and its results are interpreted within unique situations. Complex scientific findings must be considered carefully, dispassionately, and communicated with clarity, simplicity, and precision. In this Very Short Introduction, Jim Fraser introduces the concept of forensic science and explains how it is used in the investigation of crime. He begins at the crime scene itself, explaining the principles and processes of crime scene management. He explores how forensic scientists work; from the reconstruction of events to laboratory examinations. He considers the techniques they use, such as fingerprinting, and goes on to highlight the immense impact DNA profiling has had. Providing examples from forensic science cases in the UK, US, and other countries, he considers the techniques and challenges faced around the world. ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.



Statistics on the Table

Statistics on the Table Author Stephen M. Stigler
ISBN-10 0674009797
Release 2002
Pages 488
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This lively collection of essays examines statistical ideas with an ironic eye for their essence and what their history can tell us for current disputes. The topics range from seventeenth-century medicine and the circulation of blood, to the cause of the Great Depression and the effect of the California gold discoveries of 1848 upon price levels, to the determinations of the shape of the Earth and the speed of light, to the meter of Virgil's poetry and the prediction of the Second Coming of Christ.



Bayesian Networks and Probabilistic Inference in Forensic Science

Bayesian Networks and Probabilistic Inference in Forensic Science Author Franco Taroni
ISBN-10 0470091738
Release 2006-04-07
Pages 372
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The amount of information forensic scientists are able to offer is ever increasing, owing to vast developments in science and technology. Consequently, the complexity of evidence does not allow scientists to cope adequately with the problems it causes, or to make the required inferences. Probability theory, implemented through graphical methods, specifically Bayesian networks, offers a powerful tool to deal with this complexity, and discover valid patterns in data. Bayesian Networks and Probabilistic Inference in Forensic Science provides a unique and comprehensive introduction to the use of Bayesian networks for the evaluation of scientific evidence in forensic science. Includes self-contained introductions to both Bayesian networks and probability. Features implementation of the methodology using HUGIN, the leading Bayesian networks software. Presents basic standard networks that can be implemented in commercially and academically available software packages, and that form the core models necessary for the reader’s own analysis of real cases. Provides a technique for structuring problems and organizing uncertain data based on methods and principles of scientific reasoning. Contains a method for constructing coherent and defensible arguments for the analysis and evaluation of forensic evidence. Written in a lucid style, suitable for forensic scientists with minimal mathematical background. Includes a foreword by David Schum. The clear and accessible style makes this book ideal for all forensic scientists and applied statisticians working in evidence evaluation, as well as graduate students in these areas. It will also appeal to scientists, lawyers and other professionals interested in the evaluation of forensic evidence and/or Bayesian networks.



Statistical Techniques for Forensic Accounting

Statistical Techniques for Forensic Accounting Author Saurav K. Dutta
ISBN-10 9780133133813
Release 2013
Pages 262
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Master powerful statistical techniques for uncovering fraud or misrepresentation in complex financial data. The discipline of statistics has developed sophisticated, well-accepted approaches for identifying financial fraud and demonstrating that it is deliberate. Statistical Techniques for Forensic Accounting is the first comprehensive guide to these tools and techniques. Leading expert Dr. Saurav Dutta explains their mathematical underpinnings, shows how to use them properly, and guides you in communicating your findings to other interested and knowledgeable parties, or assessing others' analyses. Dutta is singularly well-qualified to write this book: he has been engaged as an expert in many of the world's highest-profile financial fraud cases, including Worldcom, Global Crossing, Cendant, and HealthSouth. Here, he covers everything professionals need to know to construct and conduct valid and defensible statistical tests, perform analyses, and interpret others' analyses. Coverage includes: exploratory data analysis to identify the "Fraud Triangle" and other red flags... data mining tools, usage, and limitations... statistical terms and methods applicable to forensic accounting... relevant uncertainty and probability concepts... Bayesian analysis and networks... statistical inference, sampling, sample size, estimation, regression, correlation, classification, prediction, and much more. For all forensic accountants, auditors, investigators, and litigators involved with corporate financial reporting; and for all students interested in forensic accounting and related fields.