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European Law on Unfair Commercial Practices and Contract Law

European Law on Unfair Commercial Practices and Contract Law Author Mateja Djurovic
ISBN-10 9781782258124
Release 2016-07-28
Pages 240
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The book examines the ambiguous relationship between the European law on unfair commercial practices and contract law. In particular, the manuscript demonstrates that the Directive 2005/29/EC on unfair commercial practices (UCPD) has had a major impact on contract law, despite the declaration concerning the formal independence between the two branches of law established by Article 3(2) UCPD. The insights and conclusions identified in the book contribute to a better understanding of European private law and the general process of Europeanisation of private law in the European Union, and in particular of contract law.



EU Liability and International Economic Law

EU Liability and International Economic Law Author Armin Steinbach
ISBN-10 9781509901609
Release 2017-06-01
Pages 216
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The book provides both a legal and economic assessment of an increasingly important issue for the EU: the question of whether individuals can hold the European Union liable for damages they suffer due to its infringement of international economic law. However, liability regimes vary depending on the issue concerned. In international trade law the individual holds a weak position, being deprived of both legal remedies to seek annulment and damages. This is due to the constant refusal of the direct effect of WTO law. By contrast, international investment law has been designed in an 'individualistic' manner from the outset – states agree reciprocally to grant certain procedural and substantial individual rights, which they invoke to claim damages before international tribunals rather than domestic courts. The divergent role of the individual in the respective area of international economic law leads to a different set of research questions related to liability. In international trade law, the doctrinal exercise of de-coupling the notion of direct effect from liability is at the core of establishing liability. In international investment law, liability is connected to a number of issues emerging from the recent transfer of competence pertaining to investment issues from Member States to the EU and the nature of investment agreements as mixed agreements. Against this backdrop, exploring liability issues in the area of international economic law reveals a heterogeneous set of questions depending on the area of law concerned, thus offering different perspectives for studying liability issues.



Human Rights Between Law and Politics

Human Rights Between Law and Politics Author Petr Agha
ISBN-10 9781509902811
Release 2017-08-24
Pages 208
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This book analyses human rights in post-national contexts and demonstrates, through the case law of the European Court of Human Rights, that the Margin of Appreciation doctrine is an essential part of human rights adjudication. Current approaches have tended to stress the instrumental value of the Margin of Appreciation, or to give it a complementary role within the principle of proportionality, while others have been wholly critical of it. In contradiction to these approaches this volume shows that the doctrine is a genuinely normative principle capable of balancing conflicting values. It explores to what extent the tension between human rights and politics, embodied in the doctrine, might be understood as a mutually reinforcing interplay of variables rather than an entrenched separation. By linking the interpretation of the Margin of Appreciation doctrine to a broader conception of human rights, understood as complex political and moral norms, this volume argues that the doctrine can assist in the formulation of the common good in light of the requirements of the Convention.



Republican Europe

Republican Europe Author Anna Kocharov
ISBN-10 9781509910762
Release 2017-06-01
Pages 232
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Constitutional orders constitute political communities – and international orders deriving from them – by managing conflicts that threaten peace. This book explores how a European political community can be advanced through EU constitutional law. The constitutional role of the Union is to ensure peace by addressing two types of conflict. The first are static conflicts of interests between the national polities in the EU. These are avoided by ensuring reciprocal non-interference between Member States in the Union through deregulation in Union law. The second are dynamic conflicts of ideas about positive liberty held by the peoples of Europe. These can be resolved through regulation in a European political space. Here, EU law enables a continuous process of re-negotiating a shared European idea of positive liberty that can be accepted as its own by each national polity in the EU. These solutions to the two types of conflicts correspond to the liberal and republican models for Europe. The claim of this book is that the constitutional design of Europe presents both liberal and republican features. Taking an innovative approach, which draws on arguments from substantive law, constitutional theory, case law analysis, insights from psychology and philosophy, it identifies how best to strengthen the Union through constitutional law.



Marketing and Advertising Law in a Process of Harmonisation

Marketing and Advertising Law in a Process of Harmonisation Author Ulf Bernitz
ISBN-10 9781509900695
Release 2017-05-04
Pages 288
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The law on marketing and advertising has undergone profound changes based on the EU directives on unfair commercial practices and misleading and comparative advertising. The legislation partially requires full harmonisation and contains a comprehensive blacklist of prohibited practices. However, in other areas, only minimum harmonisation is required. A comprehensive case law from the CJEU has emerged, but still many issues remain open, unclear and debated. The EU Commission has an active interest in the field and has published numerous reports on the question. In addition it has developed revised, comprehensive guidelines on marketing business to consumer (B2C), which are fully discussed here. Further Commission initiatives in the area on business to business (B2B) marketing are also in the making, underlining the importance of this new collection.



The Reform of Class and Representative Actions in European Legal Systems

The Reform of Class and Representative Actions in European Legal Systems Author Christopher Hodges
ISBN-10 9781847314659
Release 2008-10-07
Pages 324
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This book examines the principal trends and policy goals relating to collective redress mechanisms in Europe. It identifies three principal areas in which procedures and debates have emerged: within consumer protection and competition law, and from some national court systems. It identifies differing national models of public and private enforcement in consumer protection law in the Member States, and the search for more efficient and inclusive procedures that would deliver increased access to justice and enhanced compliance with desired standards (arguably through deterrence). A sequence of case studies illustrates the pros and cons of differing models. Lessons are also drawn from the experience of class actions in the USA over the transactional costs of private law mechanisms, and adverse economic consequences. The various policy strands are unravelled and prioritised, and options for the future are recommended. The American 'private enforcement' model is contrasted with the more prevalent European public and mediated enforcement tradition. New developments involving Ombudsmen and oversight of compensation by public enforcement bodies are identified, and underlying theories of restorative justice and responsive regulation discussed. Public, private, formal, informal, ADR and voluntary methodologies are evaluated against criteria, and it is concluded that the optimal options for collective redress in Europe involve a combination of approaches, with priority given to public and voluntary solutions over private court-based mechanisms. "Reform of collective redress is the hottest topic in European civil justice today. Dr. Hodges, one of the world's leading experts in the field, provides a deeply informed evaluation of the current debates. Illustrative case studies drawn from both consumer protection and competition areas enrich and ground his provocative analysis of the complex issues at stake making this a "must-have" book for every practitioner, academic and policy-maker in the field". Professor Jane Stapleton, Australian National University, and University of Texas, Austin.



The European Unfair Commercial Practices Directive

The European Unfair Commercial Practices Directive Author Dr Orkun Akseli
ISBN-10 9781472423429
Release 2014-09-28
Pages 284
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One of the most important EU consumer protection directives of the past decade, the 2005 Unfair Commercial Practices Directive, or UCPD, is brought under examination in this stimulating volume. Bringing together leading experts in the comparative law and consumer law domain, the book discusses the impact of the Directive and whether the many possible issues identified at its inception have been borne out in practice. Divided into four parts of 'Implementation, Approximation and Harmonization', 'Vulnerability', 'The UCP Directive and Other Regimes', and finally 'Enforcement', the volume examines the various policy developments, the growing body of case law, the decisions of relevant national enforcement authorities, as well as the legislative debates which have surrounded the implementation of the UCPD in Member States. This book provides a valuable assessment of the impact of a major EU directive almost ten years after its adoption, and as such will be of interest to academics, legal practitioners and the judiciary working in the areas of European and Consumer law.



The Forthcoming EC Directive on Unfair Commercial Practices

The Forthcoming EC Directive on Unfair Commercial Practices Author Hugh Collins
ISBN-10 9789041122247
Release 2004
Pages 293
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To encourage cross-border transactions in the Single Market of the European Community, the Commission has proposed general framework legislation to set general standards that forbid unfair marketing practices towards consumers, thereby increasing consumer confidence when deciding whether or not to shop abroad in the Community, either in person or through modern methods of electronic purchasing through the Internet. The essays in this volume critically examine the proposed Directive that prohibits unfair commercial practices, and in particular they consider the potential legal and economic implications of a legal duty to trade fairly in the context of general contract law, the protection of consumers, and the needs of competition policy. The distinguished authors of these essays, from Finland, Germany, Italy, The Netherlands, Spain, and the United Kingdom, explain the different approaches of national legal systems to the legal regulation of marketing practices, and assess the compatibility of the proposed Directive with national law and its likely success in achieving the promotion of trade in the Single Market. About the authorHugh Collins is Professor of English Law at the London School of Economics. He studied law at Oxford and Harvard. He has published extensively in the field of contract law including The Law of Contract 4th ed (London, Butterworths, 2003), and Regulating Contracts (Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1999).



The Concept of Abuse in EU Competition Law

The Concept of Abuse in EU Competition Law Author Pinar Akman
ISBN-10 9781847318909
Release 2012-02-03
Pages 376
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The objective(s) of Article 102 TFEU, what exactly makes a practice abusive and the standard of harm under Article 102 TFEU have not yet been settled. This lack of clarity creates uncertainty for businesses and, coupled with the current state of economics in this area, raises an important question of legitimacy. Using law and economic approaches, this book inquires into the possible objectives of Article 102 TFEU and proposes a modern approach to interpreting 'abuse'. In doing so, this book establishes an overarching concept of 'abuse' that conforms to the historical roots of the provision, to the text of the provision itself, and to modern economic thinking on unilateral conduct. This book therefore inquires into what Article 102 TFEU is about, what it can be about and what it should be about regarding both objectives and scope. The book demonstrates that the separation of exploitative abuse from exclusionary abuse is artificial and unsound. It examines the roots of Article 102 TFEU and the historical context of the adoption of the Treaty, the case law, policy and literature on exploitative abuses and, where relevant, on exclusionary abuses. The book investigates potential objectives, such as fairness and welfare, as well as the potential conflict between such objectives. Finally, it critically assesses the European Commission's modernisation of Article 102 TFEU, before proposing a reformed approach to 'abuse' which is centred on three necessary and sufficient conditions: exploitation, exclusion and a lack of an increase in efficiency.



Governmentality in EU External Trade and Environment Policy

Governmentality in EU External Trade and Environment Policy Author Jessica Lawrence
ISBN-10 9781351602631
Release 2018-02-07
Pages 218
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Governmentality and EU External Trade and Environment Policy applies theories drawn from Foucauldian governmentality studies to investigate the ideological and political roots of the European Union (EU)’s external trade and environmental policy and their effects on the transnational legal landscape. The EU’s desire to spread environmental norms abroad is viewed in the book as a significant feature of contemporary EU trade policy. The EU’s activities in this area have not been uncontroversial for other transnational legal actors. States, individuals, and organizations have challenged the EU’s various trade and environment policies, arguing that they are coercive, unfair, over-reaching, or inefficient. Meanwhile, these policies have also raised a number of questions from the perspective of legality and political theory. This book considers what the practice of EU external trade and environment policy, and international resistance to it, tells us about the way the EU perceives the role and limits of transnational government, the means and ends of politics, and the drivers of human and institutional behavior. Jessica Lawrence examines the legal and political discourse of the EU and those affected by its policies. By studying legal cases, statements by officials, legislative texts, press releases, and other representative documents the book identifies the rationalities, technologies, and subjectivities that underlie contemporary EU activity in this area. The overall effect paints a more complicated and nuanced picture of the EU’s vision of itself and its goals; one that ultimately seeks to provide a better understanding of the functioning of power in this area.



Performance Oriented Remedies in European Sale of Goods Law

Performance Oriented Remedies in European Sale of Goods Law Author Vanessa Mak
ISBN-10 9781847314802
Release 2009-01-15
Pages 244
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Contractual remedies aimed at performance create a well-known rift between common law and civil law traditions, in the one existing in the shadow of damages, whilst in the other regarded as a generally enforceable right following from the contract. Developments in approximation of laws in Europe, in particular in consumer sales law, suggest however that a convergence of these approaches may be within reach. Putting the focus on the contract of sale, which as the most common type of contract may fulfil a leading role in the harmonisation process, this book aims to provide a model for further convergence of European sales laws, engaging with issues of contract theory and comparative law lying at the heart of the process. Independently from this, the comparison between different systems is used in order to highlight particular problems in the remedial schemes of individual systems and to see whether a better solution may be borrowed from elsewhere. Scaling the interests of sellers and buyers as reflected in national laws as well as in uniform sets of rules such as CISG and PECL, a plea is made for a primary position for performance-oriented remedies in the harmonisation of European sales law. In this context, special significance is attributed to the possibility of cure by the seller, which has both practical and conceptual links to the buyer's remedies aimed at performance.



The Consumer Benchmarks in the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive

The Consumer Benchmarks in the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive Author Bram B. Duivenvoorde
ISBN-10 9783319139241
Release 2015-05-11
Pages 244
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This book investigates the regime of consumer benchmarks in the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and explores to what extent this regime meets each of the goals of the Directive. In particular, it assesses whether the consumer benchmarks are suitable in terms of achieving the three goals of the Directive: achieving a high level of consumer protection, increasing the smooth functioning of the internal market, and improving competition in the market as such. In addition to providing a thorough analysis of the consumer benchmarks and their relationship to the goals of the Directive, at a more practical level, the book provides insight into the working and consequences of the benchmarks that can be used in the evaluation of the Unfair Commercial Practices Directive and its application by the CJEU. This assessment is important because the Directive, while promising to regulate unfair commercial practices in a way that achieves the Directive’s goals, has removed the possibility for Member States to regulate unfair commercial practices themselves.



The Struggle for European Private Law

The Struggle for European Private Law Author Leone Niglia
ISBN-10 9781782253112
Release 2015-03-26
Pages 172
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The European codification project has rapidly gathered pace since the turn of the century. This monograph considers the codification project in light of a series of broader analytical frameworks Â? comparative, historical and constitutional Â? which make modern codification phenomena intelligible. This new reading across fields renders the European codification project (currently being promoted through the Common Frame of Reference and the Optional Sales Law Code proposal) vulnerable to constitutionally-grounded criticism, traceable to normative considerations of private law authority and legitimacy. Arguing that modern codification phenomena are more complex than positivist, socio-legal and historical approaches have suggested over the past two centuries, the book stages a pathbreaking method of analysis of the law-discourse (nomos-centred) which questions at once the reduction of private law to legislation and of law to power and, on this basis, redefines the ways in which to counter law's disintegration and crisis in the context of Europeanisation. Professor Niglia reconstructs the European codification project as a complex structure of government-in-the-making that embodies a set of contingent world views, excludes alternatives, challenges the plurality of private laws and entrenches conflicts that pertain not only to form (codification, de-codification, recodification) but also to dilemmas implicated in determining the substantive orientation of European private law. The book investigates the position of the codifiers and their discontents in the shadow of the codification strategy pursued by the European Commission Â? noting a new turn in the struggle over the configuration of private law which has taken place since the Savigny-Thibaut dispute of 1814 which this book critically revisits exactly two centuries later. This monograph is particularly aimed at readers interested in exploring the complexities, and interconnections, of the supposedly separate realms of comparative law, European law, private law, legal history, constitutional law, sociology of law and, last but not least, legal theory and jurisprudence.



European Standardisation of Services and its Impact on Private Law

European Standardisation of Services and its Impact on Private Law Author Barend van Leeuwen
ISBN-10 9781509908356
Release 2017-02-23
Pages 252
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With the New Approach, the EU has incorporated European standardisation in its regulatory approach to improve the free movement of goods. Such a New Approach does not exist for services. Nevertheless, a significant number of European services standards have been made. This book focuses on European standardisation of services and its impact on private law. Two services sectors are analysed: the healthcare sector and the tourism sector. The core chapters of the book contain a number of case studies based on empirical research in these sectors. The first part discusses how European services standards interact with existing legal regulation at the European and national level. It is shown that, at the European level, there is no clear legal framework in which European services standards are adopted. This has an impact on their application in private law, which is the main theme of the second part of the book. Moreover, there is a real risk that European services standards create obstacles to free movement. This will prevent their successful application in private law.



Law of Contract 2007 2008

Law of Contract 2007   2008 Author Adrian Chandler
ISBN-10 0199299552
Release 2007-01
Pages 281
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Modern contract law increasingly demands the analysis and application of sophisticated concepts which students often find difficult to grasp. The ideal study aid, Q&A Law of Contract gives students the opportunity to practice their exam techniques and evaluate and assess their progress. The book is divided into chapters covering each major topic on law courses, and contains approximately fifty questions and answers designed to test even the best prepared student. Each chapter contains an introduction focusing on important legal aspects, and diagrams are used to illustrate processes and procedures. After every question there is a commentary highlighting key points, followed by bullet-pointed answer plans, and finally a model answer. The authors discuss the most effective techniques for writing examination answers and tackling legal problems, showing exactly what the examiners are looking for. This sixth edition has been substantially modified to take account of new case-law on the Unfair Terms in Consumer Contracts Regulations 1999, the Law Commission Draft Bill on Unfair Terms in Contracts, and the new EU Regulation on Unfair Commercial Practices (No. 2006/2004) concerning unfair business-to-consumer practices. Moreover, the general updating of chapters includes the recent comments of the House of Lords on remoteness in Jackson and another v Royal Bank of Scotland, the helpful guidance given by the Court of Appeal in Murray v Leisureplay on distinguishing penalty clauses from liquidated damages clauses, and the continuing stream of cases on third party undue influence. Online resource centre Q&A Law of Contract is accompanied by an Online Resource Centre providing annotated web links and a glossary of terms from the Dictionary of Law.



Understanding EU Consumer Law

Understanding EU Consumer Law Author Hans-W. Micklitz
ISBN-10 9050957765
Release 2009
Pages 378
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"Consumer law now constitutes a separate subject matter which the authors Hans-W. Micklitz and Norbert Reich tried to analyse in ... the fourth German edition of 'Europäisches Verbraucherrecht' of 2003... For the English edition, the authors, in cooperation with the publisher, decided to prepare a comprehensive version which we call 'Understanding European Consumer Law'..."--P. v.



The Protection of Fundamental Rights in the EU After Lisbon

The Protection of Fundamental Rights in the EU After Lisbon Author Sybe de Vries
ISBN-10 9781782250593
Release 2013-01-04
Pages 246
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The changes made by the Lisbon Treaty suggest that its entry into force in December 2009 marks a new stage in the shaping of the EU's commitment to the protection of fundamental rights. This book's concern is to provide an examination of the several (and interlocking) challenges which the Lisbon reforms present. The book will not only address the fresh and intriguing challenges for the EU as an entity committed to the protection and promotion of fundamental rights presented by developments 'post-Lisbon', but also a number of conundrums about the scope and method of protection of fundamental rights in the EU which existed 'pre-Lisbon' and which endure. The book consists of three parts. The first part is concerned with the safeguarding of fundamental rights in Europe's internal market. The second part of the book is entitled 'The Scope of Fundamental Rights in EU Law' and the chapters discuss the reach of fundamental rights and their horizontal dimension. The last part of this book deals with 'The Constitutional Dimension of Fundamental Rights' analysing the special relationship between the ECJ and the ECtHR and the issue of rights competition between the EU Charter on Fundamental Rights, the European Convention on Human Rights and national rights catalogues.