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Evolutionary Criminology

Evolutionary Criminology Author Russil Durrant
ISBN-10 9780123984937
Release 2015-03-12
Pages 348
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In our attempts to understand crime, researchers typically focus on proximate factors such as the psychology of offenders, their developmental history, and the social structure in which they are embedded. While these factors are important, they don't tell the whole story. Evolutionary Criminology: Towards a Comprehensive Explanation of Crime explores how evolutionary biology adds to our understanding of why crime is committed, by whom, and our response to norm violations. This understanding is important both for a better understanding of what precipitates crime and to guide approaches for effectively managing criminal behavior. This book is divided into three parts. Part I reviews evolutionary biology concepts important for understanding human behavior, including crime. Part II focuses on theoretical approaches to explaining crime, including the evolution of cooperation, and the evolutionary history and function of violent crime, drug use, property offending, and white collar crime. The developmental origins of criminal behavior are described to account for the increase in offending during adolescence and early adulthood as well as to explain why some offenders are more likely to desist than others. Proximal causes of crime are examined, as well as cultural and structural processes influencing crime. Part III considers human motivation to punish norm violators and what this means for the development of a criminal justice system. This section also considers how an evolutionary approach contributes to our understanding of crime prevention and reduction. The section closes with an evolutionary approach to understanding offender rehabilitation and reintegration. Reviews how evolutionary findings improve our understanding of crime and punishment Examines motivations to offend, and to punish norm violators Articulates evolutionary explanations for adolescent crime increase Identifies how this knowledge can aid in crime prevention and reduction, and in offender rehabilitation



Environmental Criminology

Environmental Criminology Author Martin A. Andresen
ISBN-10 9781135006235
Release 2014-03-14
Pages 274
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The field of environmental criminology is a staple theoretical framework in contemporary criminological theory. With this book, Martin Andresen presents the first comprehensive and sole-authored textbook on this influential and compelling school of criminological thought. He covers a wide range of topics, including: the origins of environmental criminology; the primary theoretical frameworks, such as routine activity theory, geometric theory of crime, rational choice theory, and the pattern theory of crime; the practical application of environmental criminology; an examination of how theories are operationalized and tested; policy implications for the practice of crime prevention. As well as these "popular topics", Andresen also discusses also a number of topics that are at the leading edge of research within environmental criminology. This text will be ideal for courses on crime prevention, where students are often encouraged to consider policy problems and apply theory to practice. This book offers up environmental criminology as a theoretical framework for making sense of complex neighbourhood problems, meaning that it will be perfect for modules on geography of crime, crime analysis and indeed, environmental criminology. It would also be a good supplement for courses on criminological theory.



Psychological Criminology

Psychological Criminology Author Richard Wortley
ISBN-10 9781136652899
Release 2011-04-12
Pages 288
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Psychological Criminology addresses the question: what is it about individuals and their experiences that cause them to commit crime and/or to become criminal? This book provides a comprehensive coverage of psychological theories of crime and criminality, exploring theories focusing on factors present at birth (human nature, heredity); theories that focus on factors that influence the offender over the lifespan (learning, development); and theories focusing on factors present at the crime scene. It emphasizes the connections among the different approaches, and demonstrates how, taken together rather than as rival explanations, they provide a more complete picture of crime and criminality than each provides individually. Theories are arranged throughout the book in a temporal sequence, from distal to proximal causes of crime. The analysis spans 100,000 years, from the evolutionary roots of criminal behaviour in the ancestral environments of early humans on the African savana, to the decision to engage in a specific criminal act. Key features of the book include: a focus on theory – ‘explaining’ crime and criminality, an integrative approach, accessible to readers who do not have a background in psychology. Psychological Criminology highlights the contributions that psychological theory can make to the broader field of criminology; it will be of interest to students, academics, researchers and practitioners in both criminology and forensic psychology.



Oxford Handbook of Evolution Biology and Society

Oxford Handbook of Evolution  Biology  and Society Author Dr. Rosemary Hopcroft
ISBN-10 9780190299330
Release 2018-03-09
Pages 752
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Evolution, biology, and society is a catch-all phrase encompassing any scholarly work that utilizes evolutionary theory and/or biological or behavioral genetic methods in the study of the human social group, and The Oxford Handbook of Evolution, Biology, and Society contains an much needed overview of research in the area by sociologists and other social scientists. The examined topics cover a wide variety of issues, including the origins of social solidarity; religious beliefs; sex differences; gender inequality; determinants of human happiness; the nature of social stratification and inequality and its effects; identity, status, and other group processes; race, ethnicity, and race discrimination; fertility and family processes; crime and deviance; and cultural and social change. The scholars whose work is presented in this volume come from a variety of disciplines in addition to sociology, including psychology, political science, and criminology. Yet, as the essays in this volume demonstrate, the potential of theory and methods from biology for illuminating social phenomena is clear, and sociologists stand to gain from learning more about them and using them in their own work. The theory focuses on evolution by natural selection, the primary paradigm of the biological sciences, while the methods include the statistical analyses sociologists are familiar with, as well as other methods that they may not be familiar with, such as behavioral genetic methods, methods for including genetic factors in statistical analyses, gene-wide association studies, candidate gene studies, and methods for testing levels of hormones and other biochemicals in blood and saliva and including these factors in analyses. This work will be of interest to any sociologist with an interest in exploring the interaction of biological and sociological processes. As an introduction to the field it is useful for teaching upper-level or graduate students in sociology or a related social science.



An Introduction to Criminal Psychology

An Introduction to Criminal Psychology Author Russil Durrant
ISBN-10 9781317230816
Release 2018-03-29
Pages 466
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This book offers a clear, up-to-date, comprehensive, and theoretically informed introduction to criminal psychology, exploring how psychological explanations and approaches can be integrated with other perspectives drawn from evolutionary biology, neurobiology, sociology, and criminology. Drawing on examples from around the world, it considers different types of offences from violence and aggression to white-collar and transnational crime, and links approaches to explaining crime with efforts to prevent crime and to treat and rehabilitate offenders. This revised and expanded second edition offers a thorough update of the research literature and introduces several new features, including: detailed international case studies setting the scene for each chapter, promoting real-world understanding of the topics under consideration; a fuller range of crime types covered, with new chapters on property offending and white-collar, corporate, and environmental crime; detailed individual chapters exploring prevention and rehabilitation, previously covered in a single chapter in the first edition; an array of helpful features including learning objectives, review and reflect checkpoints, annotated lists of further reading, and two new features: ‘Research in Focus’ and ‘Criminal Psychology Through Film’. This textbook is essential reading for upper undergraduate students enrolled in courses on psychological criminology, criminal psychology, and the psychology of criminal behaviour. Designed with the reader in mind, student-friendly and innovative pedagogical features support the reader throughout.



A Natural History of Rape

A Natural History of Rape Author Randy Thornhill
ISBN-10 0262700832
Release 2001-02
Pages 272
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A biologist and an anthropologist use evolutionary biology to explain the causes and inform the prevention of rape.



Criminal Psychology

Criminal Psychology Author David Canter
ISBN-10 9781134697717
Release 2017-05-02
Pages 288
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This thoroughly updated and revised new edition provides an essential overview of a full range of psychological contributions to the understanding of crime and the processes of dealing with offenders and helping their victims. From the cognitive, developmental and social processes that influence a diverse range of crimes, including burglary, fraud, rape and murder, to the challenges faced by the police and courts in investigating crime or securing reliable testimony, the text is packed with pedagogical features that bring this fascinating subject to life. These include boxes highlighting key topics or issues around research methods, further reading and suggested essay titles. Also including chapters on rehabilitation in prisons and the psychology of victims, the text examines hot topics such as gang membership and terrorism, as well as discussing how psychology may better understand criminals and criminal behaviour in the future. It builds to a comprehensive and accessible introduction to the field. It will be ideal for students across psychology, criminology and socio-legal studies and law.



Evolutionary Forensic Psychology

Evolutionary Forensic Psychology Author Joshua Duntley
ISBN-10 019971715X
Release 2008-08-20
Pages 328
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The field of forensic psychology explores the intersection of psychology and the law. The purpose of this book is to examine topics in the field using the powerful, multidisciplinary, conceptually integrated approach that the natural sciences have embraced for decades with great success. Darwin's theory of evolution by natural selection is the meta-theoretical framework that unifies the field of biology. It unites research and understanding of the development, control, and organization of behavior. The study of humans, which includes all of the social sciences, is part of the field of biology. Darwin's theory provides a powerful meta-theoretical framework that can unify and energize forensic psychology, just as it has the biological sciences. Evolutionary processes undoubtedly shaped physiological characteristics to help solve problems of survival and reproduction. The lungs, for example, with their vast surface area and moist membranes are marvelous adaptions for extracting oxygen and releasing carbon dioxide. Natural selection is the only known process capable of shaping complex functional mechanisms. Just as it shaped physiological adaptations with specific problem-solving functions, it also shaped our thoughts and emotions to guide behaviors toward solving recurrent problems of survival and reproduction. With this logic, we can use knowledge of ancestral problems to guide our understanding of how the mind works. Evolutionary Forensic Psychology is a necessary step toward a unified and complete understanding of psychology and the law. It recognizes that crimes such as murder, non-lethal violence, rape, and theft are manifestations of evolutionarily recurrent selection when they gave individuals an advantage in competition for resources. Each of the chapters that comprise this volume has been selected to provide the first unified examination of important research contributions and future directions of Evolutionary Forensic Psychology.



Criminology

Criminology Author Stephen E. Brown
ISBN-10 9781455730148
Release 2012-12-31
Pages 592
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This highly acclaimed criminology text presents an up-to-date review of rational choice theories, including deterrence, shaming, and routine activities. It also incorporates current examples of deterrence research regarding domestic violence, drunk driving, and capital punishment, and features thought-provoking discussion of the relativity of crime. The authors explore the crime problem, its context, and causes of crime. The organization of the text reflects the fact that the etiology of crime must be at the heart of criminology. It examines contemporary efforts to redefine crime by focusing on family violence, hate crimes, white-collar misconduct with violent consequences, and other forms of human behavior often neglected by criminologists. Extensive discussion of evolving laws is included, and while the prevalence of the scientific method in the field of criminology is highlighted, the impact of ideology on explanations of crime is the cornerstone of the book. Comprehensive introductory textbook that looks at competing answers to the question, "Why do people commit crimes?" Student-friendly figures, features, highlights, and full-color photos. Each chapter includes learning objectives, discussion questions, and lists of key terms and concepts, key criminologists, and important legal cases. The eighth edition includes updates throughout and expanded coverage of biosocial theories of crime and life-course criminology.



The Ashgate Research Companion to Biosocial Theories of Crime

The Ashgate Research Companion to Biosocial Theories of Crime Author Professor Anthony Walsh
ISBN-10 9781409494706
Release 2013-01-28
Pages 460
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This work spans multiple levels of analysis and thus multiple disciplines, offering an essential overview of the current state of research in the field. The authors are experts in a variety of disciplines (sociology, psychology, biology, criminal justice, and neuroscience), but they all have in common a strong interest in criminal behaviour. This unique book is essential and accessible reading for all students and scholars in the field.



The Nurture Versus Biosocial Debate in Criminology

The Nurture Versus Biosocial Debate in Criminology Author Kevin M. Beaver
ISBN-10 9781483322650
Release 2014-01-31
Pages 472
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The Nurture Versus Biosocial Debate in Criminology: On the Origins of Criminal Behavior and Criminality takes a contemporary approach to address the sociological and the biological positions of human behavior by allowing preeminent scholars in criminology to speak to the effects of each on a range of topics. Kevin M. Beaver, J.C. Barnes, and Brian B. Boutwell aim to facilitate an open and honest debate between the more traditional criminologists who focus primarily on environmental factors and contemporary biosocial criminologists who examine the interplay between biology/genetics and environmental factors.



The Criminal Brain

The Criminal Brain Author Nicole Hahn Rafter
ISBN-10 9780814776148
Release 2008-01-01
Pages 317
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The epidemic of mass rape in the former Yugoslavia has illustrated once again, and in particularly brutal fashion, the inextricable relationship between national politics, sexual politics, and body politics. The nexus of these three forces is highly charged in any culture, at any time in history, but especially so among cultures in which rapid, even cataclysmic, changes in material realities and national self-conceptions are eroding or overwhelming previously secure boundaries. The postcommunist moment in the so-called Second World--Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union--has dramatically exposed the opportunities and dangers that arise when the political, cultural, and economic foundations of a society are de- and then re-structured. Gender roles and relations, expressions of sexuality or attempts to recontain them, representations of the body, especially the female body, and the larger, cultural meanings it assumes, are particularly marked sites to witness the performance of complex national dramas of crisis and change. This groundbreaking volume turns its attention to the Second World, specifically to such subjects as the birth of the sex media and porn industry in Russia; Russian women and alcoholism; cinema in post-communist Hungary; patriotism and gender in Poland; sexual dissidence in Eastern Europe; and women in the former Yugoslavia. [ go to the Genders website ]



The Routledge International Handbook of Biosocial Criminology

The Routledge International Handbook of Biosocial Criminology Author Matt DeLisi
ISBN-10 9781317936749
Release 2014-12-05
Pages 660
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Biosocial criminology is an interdisciplinary field that aims to explain crime and antisocial behavior by exploring both biological factors and environmental factors. Since the mapping of the human genome, scientists have been able to study the biosocial causes of human behaviour with the greatest specificity. After decades of almost exclusive sociological focus, criminology has undergone a paradigm shift where the field is more interdisciplinary and this book combines perspectives from criminology and sociology with contributions from fields such as genetics, neuropsychology, and evolutionary psychology. The Routledge International Handbook of Biosocial Criminology is the largest and most comprehensive work of its kind, and is organized into five sections that collectively span the terrain of biosocial research on antisocial behavior. Bringing together leading experts from around the world, this book considers the criminological, genetic and neuropsychological foundations of offending, as well as the legal and criminal justice applications of biosocial criminological theory. The handbook is essential reading for students, researchers, and practitioners from across the social, behavioural, and natural sciences who are engaged in the study of antisocial behaviour.



The Crime of All Crimes

The Crime of All Crimes Author Nicole Rafter
ISBN-10 9781479805969
Release 2016-03-29
Pages 320
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Cambodia. Rwanda. Armenia. Nazi Germany. History remembers these places as the sites of unspeakable crimes against humanity, and indisputably, of genocide. Yet, throughout the twentieth century, the world has seen many instances of violence committed by states against certain groups within their borders—from the colonial ethnic cleansing the Germans committed against the Herero tribe in Africa, to the Katyn Forest Massacre, in which the Soviets shot over 20,000 Poles, to anti-communist mass murders in 1960s Indonesia. Are mass crimes against humanity like these still genocide? And how can an understanding of crime and criminals shed new light on how genocide—the “crime of all crimes”—transpires? In The Crime of All Crimes, criminologist Nicole Rafter takes an innovative approach to the study of genocide by comparing eight diverse genocides--large-scale and small; well-known and obscure—through the lens of criminal behavior. Rafter explores different models of genocidal activity, reflecting on the popular use of the Holocaust as a model for genocide and ways in which other genocides conform to different patterns. For instance, Rafter questions the assumption that only ethnic groups are targeted for genocidal “cleansing," and she also urges that actions such as genocidal rape be considered alongside traditional instances of genocidal violence. Further, by examining the causes of genocide on different levels, Rafter is able to construct profiles of typical victims and perpetrators and discuss means of preventing genocide, in addition to delving into the social psychology of genocidal behavior and the ways in which genocides are brought to an end. A sweeping and innovative investigation into the most tragic of events in the modern world, The Crime of All Crimes will fundamentally change how we think about genocide in the present day.



Explaining Crime

Explaining Crime Author Hugh D. Barlow
ISBN-10 0742565106
Release 2010-01
Pages 197
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This book provides a concise but comprehensive review of the full range of classic and contemporary theories of crime. With separate chapters on the nature and use of criminological theory as well as theoretical application, the authors render the difficult task of explaining crime more understandable to the introductory student. All of the main theories in criminology are reviewed including classical and rational choice, biological, psychological, and evolutionary, social structural, social process, critical, general, and integrated approaches. Copious examples of the spirit of the theories are supplied, many with a popular culture (e.g., film and music) connection. The highly original final chapter, titled 'Putting Criminological Theory to Work, ' provides readers with an integrated theoretical model that students can apply to virtually any type of crime. The book is well suited for use in undergraduate and graduate courses in criminology, criminal justice, and deviance



Criminology

Criminology Author Anthony Walsh
ISBN-10 9781412938402
Release 2006-12-14
Pages 495
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This unique text offers an interdisciplinary perspective on crime and criminality by integrating the latest theories, concepts, and research from sociology, psychology, and biology. Offering a more complete look at the world of criminology than any other existing text, authors Anthony Walsh and Lee Ellis first present criminological theory and concepts in their traditional form and then show how integrating theory and concepts from the more basic sciences can complement, expand, strengthen, and add coherence to them.



Crime and Criminality

Crime and Criminality Author Sandie Taylor
ISBN-10 9781317497561
Release 2015-12-22
Pages 822
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The question of ‘why’ and ‘how’ certain individuals are drawn towards behaving in a way that contravenes the ‘Law of the Land’ is not an easy one to address. Researchers from various different fields have nevertheless attempted to develop theoretical explanations for the existence of different types of crime and why some individuals commit such acts. Crime and Criminality draws on criminology, sociology, psychology and neuroscience to offer a balanced perspective of crime, the criminal and criminality. Coverage includes: a comprehensive discussion of theoretical approaches to criminal behaviour, including biological, social and ‘rational choice’ approaches; an analysis of legal and social definitions of crime and how these definitions influence the way specific behaviours are labelled as criminal; an examination of different types of crime and criminals, from delinquents to ‘psychopaths’ and sex offenders; an exploration of different ways in which crime is predicted, including risk assessment and offender profiling and an overview of investigative techniques. Addressing a broad range of topics and offering a synthesis of competing theoretical explanations of criminality, this book is essential reading for students taking courses in criminology, criminal psychology, criminal behaviour, forensic psychology and psychological criminology.