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Exceptional Creativity in Science and Technology

Exceptional Creativity in Science and Technology Author Andrew Robinson
ISBN-10 9781599474304
Release 2013-02-22
Pages 272
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In the evolution of science and technology, laws governing exceptional creativity and innovation have yet to be discovered. The historian Thomas Kuhn, in his influential study The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, noted that the final stage in a scientific breakthrough such as Albert Einstein’s theory of relativity—that is, the most crucial stage—was “inscrutable.” The same is still true half a century later. Yet, there has been considerable progress in understanding many of the stages and facets of exceptional creativity and innovation. In Exceptional Creativity in Science and Technology editor Andrew Robinson gathers together a diverse group of contributors to explore this progress. This new collection arises from a symposium with the same title held at the Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), in Princeton. Organized by the John Templeton Foundation, the symposium had as its chair the late distinguished doctor and geneticist Baruch S. Blumberg, while its IAS host was the well-known physicist Freeman J. Dyson—both of whom have contributed chapters to the book. In addition to scientists, engineers, and an inventor, the book’s fifteen contributors include an economist, entrepreneurs, historians, and sociologists, all working at leading institutions, including Bell Laboratories, Microsoft Research, Oxford University, Princeton University, and Stanford University. Each contributor brings a unique perspective to the relationships between exceptional scientific creativity and innovation by individuals and institutions. The diverse list of disciplines covered, the high-profile contributors (including two Nobel laureates), and their fascinating insights into this overarching question—how exactly do we make breakthroughs?—will make this collection of interest to anyone involved with the creative process in any context, but it will be especially appealing to readers in scientific and technological fields.



Nobel Prizes and Nature s Surprises

Nobel Prizes and Nature s Surprises Author Erling Norrby
ISBN-10 9789814522014
Release 2013-10-10
Pages 472
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Each year the Nobel Prizes in the natural sciences reveal amazing discoveries. New milestones in the relentless advance of science are identified. The growth of knowledge and its evolution can be researched in the Nobel archives where nominations are kept secret for 50 years after the awards have been made. They represent a treasure for real-time assessment of science. Norrby's earlier book, Nobel Prizes and Life Sciences (2010) examined the unique archival records until 1959. The present book takes us up to 1962, surveying a range of dazzling discoveries. All prizes in immunology are reviewed. Their impact on our capacity to control infectious diseases and transplant organs are highlighted. The Nobel year 1962 is exceptional in recognizing the most major advance in biology since Darwin in 1859 presented his theory of evolution. This was the dramatic discovery of the double-helix structure of DNA by Watson and Crick in 1953. The era of molecular biology had begun. Its explosive development continues into the present. Contents:A Magician of Virology from AustraliaA Divided Nobel Prize and a New Era in ImmunologyMore Nobel Prizes in ImmunologyImmunity, Infections and TransplantationsTransgressing Borders in Science and Scenes of LifeMaking Sense of HearingUnraveling the Complexity of Protein Folding“It's So Beautiful, You See, So Beautiful”Coda Readership: General. Keywords:DNA;Nobel Prize;Life Science;Medical Disoveries;Molecular BiologyReviews: "This book describes and explains one of the most important discoveries of the 20th century. It is a seminal work, that scholars of the History of Science will use to be able to understand how science evolves. Young scientists will find this book a valuable resource." Sir Aaron Klug Nobel laureate in Chemistry, 1982 "Speculation about what happens in the selection of Nobel Prize winners is part of both the narrative and the ‘gossip’ of science. Interpreting what went on in the Nobel selection committees 50 years ago requires both an intimate understanding of how the process works and familiarity with subtleties of the Swedish language. Erling Norrby has the proper personal experiences to make such evaluations. In the present, his second, book he mainly reviews Medical Nobel awards during 1960 and 1962. Coming as it does near the beginnings of the modern medicine — recognizing exceptional advances in immunology and molecular biology — this is a fascinating era for those who are intrigued by the history of discovery." Peter C Doherty Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine, 1996 "The moment the Nobel Foundation announces its Prizes in the sciences, decades of struggle and turmoil toward discovery enter the spotlight. To skillfully examine some of the most dramatic scientific advances in the middle of the twentieth century, Erling Norrby has reached deeply into the Nobel archives to examine firsthand how many of the most illustrious Prizes from that era came to be awarded. As a superb scientist, educator and administrator, Dr Norrby is able to tell these stories within the context of the scientific discoveries." Stanley B Prusiner Nobel laureate in Physiology or Medicine, 1997 “I particularly enjoyed Norrby's lengthy treatment of the 1962 chemistry prize — to James Watson, Francis Crick, and Maurice Wilkins, 1962 for their structural work on the structure of DNA … This well-referenced and copiously illustrated book, featuring meditations, poetry, quotations, and miscellaneous musings, is a true labour of love. I heartily recommend it to anyone interested in the history of scientific discovery, the personalities of those who pursue it, and how it actually happens and is received.” Chemistry & Industry



God in the Lab

God in the Lab Author Ruth M, Bancewicz
ISBN-10 9780857215697
Release 2015-01-15
Pages 256
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For former biologist Dr Ruth Bancewicz, experiencing scientific research first hand brings a sense of awe that enhances faith. As a communicator of science and Christianity over the last ten years, she has encountered many others who have similar stories to tell. This book is a distillation of that experience, and an exploration of the common ground that exists between science and faith. Science can be unglamorous and difficult, but people enjoy it. It gives the opportunity to use creativity and imagination, to appreciate the beauty of the natural world, and to experience the wonder and awe of finding out new things - thinking God's thoughts after him. Through the eyes of the author and six other experienced scientists, God in the Lab shows how science can build faith in God, and gently challenges non-Christians to consider the connections between science and faith.



The International Handbook on Innovation

The International Handbook on Innovation Author Larisa V. Shavinina
ISBN-10 9780080441986
Release 2003
Pages 1171
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"Most comprehensive and authoritative account available of what innovation is, how it is measured, how it is developed, how it is managed, and how it affects individuals, corporations, societies and the world as a whole." - cover.



Networking Regionalised Innovative Labour Markets

Networking Regionalised Innovative Labour Markets Author Ulrich Hilpert
ISBN-10 9780415683562
Release 2013
Pages 204
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A map which shows where innovation is clustered worldwide is also a map of the location of the highly skilled and talented labour. New technologies, their creative applications or synergy across different areas of scientific research or technology development always create opportunities for the employment of particularly creative labour. This book explores the kinds of institutions and structures which need to exist to make sure that such skills are both offered and employed in particular 'islands of innovation'. Networking Regionalised Innovative Labour Markets illustrates the theme of how existing concentrations of skills in scientific, technological and managerial elites are reinforced through inter-regional mobility using exemplars from a range of countries and regions. These include the US, UK, Italy, Germany, and Central and Eastern Europe. The book's originality lies in its in-depth assessments of the factors associated with the extent to which some regions hold their positions in networked islands of innovation. It is shown that those islands of innovation that attract highly skilled workers from abroad, particularly those from foreign islands of innovation, perform better for example in the US, Italy and the UK. In contrast, even the most innovative Czech regions tend to lose the highly skilled workers vis-à-vis the most innovative regions of the world, mainly to regions in the USA.



The Politics of Innovation

The Politics of Innovation Author Mark Zachary Taylor
ISBN-10 9780190464158
Release 2016-05-04
Pages 288
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Why are some countries better than others at science and technology (S&T)? Written in an approachable style, The Politics of Innovation provides readers from all backgrounds and levels of expertise a comprehensive introduction to the debates over national S&T competitiveness. It synthesizes over fifty years of theory and research on national innovation rates, bringing together the current political and economic wisdom, and latest findings, about how nations become S&T leaders. Many experts mistakenly believe that domestic institutions and policies determine national innovation rates. However, after decades of research, there is still no agreement on precisely how this happens, exactly which institutions matter, and little aggregate evidence has been produced to support any particular explanation. Yet, despite these problems, a core faith in a relationship between domestic institutions and national innovation rates remains widely held and little challenged. The Politics of Innovation confronts head-on this contradiction between theory, evidence, and the popularity of the institutions-innovation hypothesis. It presents extensive evidence to show that domestic institutions and policies do not determine innovation rates. Instead, it argues that social networks are as important as institutions in determining national innovation rates. The Politics of Innovation also introduces a new theory of "creative insecurity" which explains how institutions, policies, and networks are all subservient to politics. It argues that, ultimately, each country's balance of domestic rivalries vs. external threats, and the ensuing political fights, are what drive S&T competitiveness. In making its case, The Politics of Innovation draws upon statistical analysis and comparative case studies of the United States, Japan, South Korea, China, Taiwan, Thailand, the Philippines, Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Canada, Turkey, Israel, Russia and a dozen countries across Western Europe.



Beyond Imported Magic

Beyond Imported Magic Author Eden Medina
ISBN-10 9780262027458
Release 2014-08-15
Pages 410
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The essays in this volume study the creation, adaptation, and use of science and technology in Latin America. They challenge the view that scientific ideas and technology travel unchanged from the global North to the global South -- the view of technology as "imported magic." They describe not only alternate pathways for innovation, invention, and discovery but also how ideas and technologies circulate in Latin American contexts and transnationally. The contributors' explorations of these issues, and their examination of specific Latin American experiences with science and technology, offer a broader, more nuanced understanding of how science, technology, politics, and power interact in the past and present.The essays in this book use methods from history and the social sciences to investigate forms of local creation and use of technologies; the circulation of ideas, people, and artifacts in local and global networks; and hybrid technologies and forms of knowledge production. They address such topics as the work of female forensic geneticists in Colombia; the pioneering Argentinean use of fingerprinting technology in the late nineteenth century; the design, use, and meaning of the XO Laptops created and distributed by the One Laptop per Child Program; and the development of nuclear energy in Argentina, Mexico, and Chile.ContributorsPedro Ignacio Alonso, Morgan G. Ames, Javiera Barandiarán, João Biehl, Anita Say Chan, Amy Cox Hall, Henrique Cukierman, Ana Delgado, Rafael Dias, Adriana Díaz del Castillo H., Mariano Fressoli, Jonathan Hagood, Christina Holmes, Matthieu Hubert, Noela Invernizzi, Michael Lemon, Ivan da Costa Marques, Gisela Mateos, Eden Medina, María Fernanda Olarte Sierra, Hugo Palmarola, Tania Pérez-Bustos, Julia Rodriguez, Israel Rodríguez-Giralt, Edna Suárez Díaz, Hernán Thomas, Manuel Tironi, Dominique Vinck



Earth Shattering Events Earthquakes Nations and Civilization

Earth Shattering Events  Earthquakes  Nations  and Civilization Author Andrew Robinson
ISBN-10 9780500773703
Release 2016-10-11
Pages 256
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"A truly welcome and refreshing study that puts earthquake impact on history into a proper perspective." --Amos Nur, Emeritus Professor of Geophysics, Stanford University, California, and author of Apocalypse: Earthquakes, Archaeology, and the Wrath of God Since antiquity, on every continent, human beings in search of attractive landscapes and economic prosperity have made a Faustian bargain with the risk of devastation by an earthquake. Today, around half of the world’s largest cities – as many as sixty – lie in areas of major seismic activity. Many, such as Lisbon, Naples, San Francisco, Teheran, and Tokyo, have been severely damaged or destroyed by earthquakes in the past. But throughout history, starting with ancient Jericho, Rome, and Sparta, cities have proved to be extraordinarily resilient: only one, Port Royal in the Caribbean, was abandoned after an earthquake. Earth-Shattering Events seeks to understand exactly how humans and earthquakes have interacted, not only in the short term but also in the long perspective of history. In some cases, physical devastation has been followed by decline. But in others, the political and economic reverberations of earthquake disasters have presented opportunities for renewal. After its wholesale destruction in 1906, San Francisco went on to flourish, eventually giving birth to the high-tech industrial area on the San Andreas fault known as Silicon Valley. An earthquake in Caracas in 1812 triggered the creation of new nations in the liberation of South America from Spanish rule. Another in Tangshan in 1976 catalysed the transformation of China into the world’s second largest economy. The growth of the scientific study of earthquakes is woven into this far-reaching history. It began with a series of earthquakes in England in 1750. Today, seismologists can monitor the vibration of the planet second by second and the movement of tectonic plates millimeter by millimeter. Yet, even in the 21st century, great earthquakes are still essentially "acts of God," striking with much less warning than volcanoes, floods, hurricanes, and even tornadoes and tsunamis.



Innovation and Its Enemies

Innovation and Its Enemies Author Calestous Juma
ISBN-10 9780190467050
Release 2016-06-06
Pages 320
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The rise of artificial intelligence has rekindled a long-standing debate regarding the impact of technology on employment. This is just one of many areas where exponential advances in technology signal both hope and fear, leading to public controversy. This book shows that many debates over new technologies are framed in the context of risks to moral values, human health, and environmental safety. But it argues that behind these legitimate concerns often lie deeper, but unacknowledged, socioeconomic considerations. Technological tensions are often heightened by perceptions that the benefits of new technologies will accrue only to small sections of society while the risks will be more widely distributed. Similarly, innovations that threaten to alter cultural identities tend to generate intense social concern. As such, societies that exhibit great economic and political inequities are likely to experience heightened technological controversies. Drawing from nearly 600 years of technology history, Innovation and Its Enemies identifies the tension between the need for innovation and the pressure to maintain continuity, social order, and stability as one of today's biggest policy challenges. It reveals the extent to which modern technological controversies grow out of distrust in public and private institutions. Using detailed case studies of coffee, the printing press, margarine, farm mechanization, electricity, mechanical refrigeration, recorded music, transgenic crops, and transgenic animals, it shows how new technologies emerge, take root, and create new institutional ecologies that favor their establishment in the marketplace. The book uses these lessons from history to contextualize contemporary debates surrounding technologies such as artificial intelligence, online learning, 3D printing, gene editing, robotics, drones, and renewable energy. It ultimately makes the case for shifting greater responsibility to public leaders to work with scientists, engineers, and entrepreneurs to manage technological change, make associated institutional adjustments, and expand public engagement on scientific and technological matters.



CTAB Recommendations on Learning Environments for Innovation

CTAB Recommendations on Learning Environments for Innovation Author
ISBN-10 UCR:31210012720148
Release 1980
Pages 44
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CTAB Recommendations on Learning Environments for Innovation has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from CTAB Recommendations on Learning Environments for Innovation also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full CTAB Recommendations on Learning Environments for Innovation book for free.



Beyond Productivity

Beyond Productivity Author National Research Council
ISBN-10 0309168171
Release 2003-04-02
Pages 268
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Computer science has drawn from and contributed to many disciplines and practices since it emerged as a field in the middle of the 20th century. Those interactions, in turn, have contributed to the evolution of information technology â€" new forms of computing and communications, and new applications â€" that continue to develop from the creative interactions between computer science and other fields. Beyond Productivity argues that, at the beginning of the 21st century, information technology (IT) is forming a powerful alliance with creative practices in the arts and design to establish the exciting new, domain of information technology and creative practicesâ€"ITCP. There are major benefits to be gained from encouraging, supporting, and strategically investing in this domain.



How People Learn

How People Learn Author National Research Council
ISBN-10 9780309131971
Release 2000-08-11
Pages 384
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First released in the Spring of 1999, How People Learn has been expanded to show how the theories and insights from the original book can translate into actions and practice, now making a real connection between classroom activities and learning behavior. This edition includes far-reaching suggestions for research that could increase the impact that classroom teaching has on actual learning. Like the original edition, this book offers exciting new research about the mind and the brain that provides answers to a number of compelling questions. When do infants begin to learn? How do experts learn and how is this different from non-experts? What can teachers and schools do-with curricula, classroom settings, and teaching methods--to help children learn most effectively? New evidence from many branches of science has significantly added to our understanding of what it means to know, from the neural processes that occur during learning to the influence of culture on what people see and absorb. How People Learn examines these findings and their implications for what we teach, how we teach it, and how we assess what our children learn. The book uses exemplary teaching to illustrate how approaches based on what we now know result in in-depth learning. This new knowledge calls into question concepts and practices firmly entrenched in our current education system. Topics include: How learning actually changes the physical structure of the brain. How existing knowledge affects what people notice and how they learn. What the thought processes of experts tell us about how to teach. The amazing learning potential of infants. The relationship of classroom learning and everyday settings of community and workplace. Learning needs and opportunities for teachers. A realistic look at the role of technology in education.



Leadership in Science and Technology A Reference Handbook

Leadership in Science and Technology  A Reference Handbook Author
ISBN-10 9781412976886
Release 2012
Pages 451
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Leadership in Science and Technology A Reference Handbook has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Leadership in Science and Technology A Reference Handbook also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Leadership in Science and Technology A Reference Handbook book for free.



2013 International Conference on Complex Science Management and Education Science

2013 International Conference on Complex Science Management and Education Science Author Haiyan Wu
ISBN-10 9781605951393
Release 2013-12-22
Pages 700
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2013 International Conference on Complex Science Management and Education Science, will be held in Kunming, China on 23rd-24th Nov. 2013. This conference is sponsored by Advanced Science Research Center, some universities and some Enterprises. 2013 International Conference on Complex Science Management and Education Science (CSMES2013) will provide an excellent international forum for sharing knowledge and results in theory, methodology and applications of Complex Science Management and Education Science . The conference looks for significant contributions to all major fields of the modern Complex Science Management and Education Science in theoretical and practical aspects. The aim of the conference is to provide a platform to the researchers and practitioners from both academia as well as industry to meet and share cutting-edge development in the field. 2013 International Conference on Complex Science Management and Education Science (CSMES2013) will be published by DEStech Publications. DEStech will have the CDROM indexed in ISI (Institute of Scientific Information) and Google Book Search. DEStech will submit the CDROM to ISTP and EI for worldwide online citation of qualified papers. We would like to extend our appreciation to all participants in the conference for their great contribution to the success of csmes2013. We would like to thank the keynote and individual speakers and all participating authors for their hard work and time. We also sincerely appreciate technical program committee and all reviewers, whose contributions make this conference possible. Finally, I would like to thank the great support from DEStech Publications, Inc. Prof. Haiyan



Technological Literacy Competence and Innovation in Human Resource Development

Technological Literacy  Competence and Innovation in Human Resource Development Author Dietrich Blandow
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105029496523
Release 1992
Pages 602
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Technological Literacy Competence and Innovation in Human Resource Development has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Technological Literacy Competence and Innovation in Human Resource Development also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Technological Literacy Competence and Innovation in Human Resource Development book for free.



Dynamic Cities and Creative Clusters

Dynamic Cities and Creative Clusters Author Weiping Wu
ISBN-10 9785030315232
Release 2005
Pages 35
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Dynamic Cities and Creative Clusters has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Dynamic Cities and Creative Clusters also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Dynamic Cities and Creative Clusters book for free.



Making Competitive Cities

Making Competitive Cities Author Sako Musterd
ISBN-10 1444390422
Release 2011-02-02
Pages 376
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The book investigates the impact on the competitiveness of cities developing creative industries (arts, media, entertainment, creative business services, architects, publishers, designers) and knowledge-intensive industries (ICT, R&D, finance, law). It provides significant new knowledge to the theoretical and practical understanding of the conditions necessary to stimulate "creative knowledge" cities. The editors compare the socio-economic developments, experiences and strategies in 13 urban regions across Europe: Amsterdam, Barcelona, Birmingham, Budapest, Dublin, Helsinki, Leipzig, Milan, Munich, Poznan, Riga, Sofia and Toulouse. These have different histories and roles; include capital and non-capital cities of different sizes; represent cities with different economic structures; and different cultural, political and welfare state traditions. Through this wide set of examples, Making Competitive Cities informs the debate about creative and knowledge-intensive industries, economic development, and competitiveness policies. It focuses on which metropolitan regions have a better chance to develop as "creative knowledge regions" and which do not, as well as investigating why this is so and what can policy do to influence change. Chapter authors from thirteen European institutions rigorously evaluate, reformulate and empirically test assumptions about cities and their potential for attracting creative and knowledge-intensive industries. As well as a systematic empirical comparison of developments related to these industries, the book examines the pathways that cities have followed and surveys both the negative and positive impacts of different prevailing conditions. Special Features: Analyses link between knowledge-intensive sectors and urban competitiveness Offers evidence from 13 European urban regions drawn from a major research project Establishes a new benchmark for academic and policy debates in a fast-moving field