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Explaining Criminal Careers

Explaining Criminal Careers Author John F. MacLeod
ISBN-10 9780199697243
Release 2012-08-23
Pages 256
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A PDF version of this book is available for free in open access via www.oup.com/uk as well as the OAPEN Library platform, www.oapen.org. It has been made available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives 3.0 license and is part of the OAPEN-UK research project. Explaining Criminal Careers presents a simple but influential theory of crime, conviction and reconviction. The assumptions of the theory are derived directly from a detailed analysis of cohort samples extracted from the Home Office Offenders Index - a unique database which contains records of all criminal (standard list) convictions in England and Wales since 1963. In particular, the theory explains the well-known Age/Crime curve. Based on the idea that there are only three types of offenders, who commit crimes at either high or low (constant) rates and have either a high or low (constant) risk of reoffending, this simple theory makes exact quantitative predictions about criminal careers and age-crime curves. Purely from the birth-rate over the second part of the 20th century, the theory accurately predicts (to within 2%) the prison population contingent on a given sentencing policy. The theory also suggests that increasing the probability of conviction after each offence is the most effective way of reducing crime, although there is a role for treatment programmes for some offenders. The authors indicate that crime is influenced by the operation of the Criminal Justice System and that offenders do not 'grow out' of crime as commonly supposed; they are persuaded to stop or decide to stop after (repeated) convictions, with a certain fraction of offenders desisting after each conviction. Simply imprisoning offenders will not reduce crime either by individual deterrence or by incapacitation. With comprehensive explanations of the formulae used and complete mathematical appendices allowing for individual interpretations and further development of the theory, Explaining Criminal Careers represents an innovative and meticulous investigation into criminal activity and the influences behind it. With clear policy implications and a wealth of original and significant discussions, this book marks a ground-breaking chapter in the criminological debate surrounding criminal careers.



Breaking Rules The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People s Urban Crime

Breaking Rules  The Social and Situational Dynamics of Young People s Urban Crime Author Per-Olof H. Wikström
ISBN-10 9780199592845
Release 2012-05-24
Pages 479
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Breaking new ground in the study of crime in urban environments, Breaking Rules examines the findings, theoretical basis, and new methodology of The Peterborough Adolescent and Young Adult Development Study (PADS+). This major longitudinal study investigates the role of the social environment on crime causation, involving a cohort of 700 young people from the age of 12. A particular aim of PADS+ is to employ a new theory, known as Situational ActionTheory, as well as the innovative methodology of ecometrics combined with space-time budgets to improve the study of young people's offending and its changes.



Young Criminal Lives Life Courses and Life Chances from 1850

Young Criminal Lives  Life Courses and Life Chances from 1850 Author Barry Godfrey
ISBN-10 9780191092756
Release 2017-10-26
Pages 256
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Young Criminal Lives is the first cradle-to-grave study of the experiences of some of the thousands of delinquent, difficult and destitute children passing through the early English juvenile reformatory system. The book breaks new ground in crime research, speaking to pressing present-day concerns around child poverty and youth justice, and resonating with a powerful public fascination for family history. Using innovative digital methods to unlock the Victorian life course, the authors have reconstructed the lives, families and neighbourhoods of 500 children living within, or at the margins of, the early English juvenile reformatory system. Four hundred of them were sent to reformatory and industrial schools in the north west of England from courts around the UK over a fifty-year period from the 1860s onwards. Young Criminal Lives is based on one of the most comprehensive sets of official and personal data ever assembled for a historical study of this kind. For the first time, these children can be followed on their journey in and out of reform and then though their adulthood and old age. The book centres on institutions celebrated in this period for their pioneering new approaches to child welfare and others that were investigated for cruelty and scandal. Both were typical of the new kind of state-certified provision offered, from the 1850s on, to children who had committed criminal acts, or who were considered 'vulnerable' to predation, poverty and the 'inheritance' of criminal dispositions. The notion that interventions can and must be evaluated in order to determine 'what works' now dominates public policy. But how did Victorian and Edwardian policy-makers and practitioners deal with this question? By what criteria, and on the basis of what kinds of evidence, did they judge their own successes and failures? Young Criminal Lives ends with a critical review of the historical rise of evidence-based policy-making within criminal justice. It will appeal to scholars and students of crime and penal policy, criminologists, sociologists, and social policy researchers and practitioners in youth justice and child protection.



The Oxford Handbook of Criminology

The Oxford Handbook of Criminology Author Mike Maguire
ISBN-10 9780199205448
Release 2007
Pages 1185
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teachers and students of criminology and is a sourcebook for professionals.



Beyond the Banality of Evil

Beyond the Banality of Evil Author Augustine Brannigan
ISBN-10 0199674620
Release 2013-08-22
Pages 288
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Offering the author's reflections on how to interpret genocide as a crime, this book endeavours to understand how the theories of criminal motivation might shed light on these stunning events and make them comprehensible, including a new and compelling account of the dynamics of the 1994 Rwanda genocide.



Forensic Psychiatry

Forensic Psychiatry Author John Gunn
ISBN-10 9781444165067
Release 2014-01-06
Pages 1035
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Highly Commended, BMA Medical Book Awards 2014 Comprehensive and erudite, Forensic Psychiatry: Clinical, Legal and Ethical Issues, Second Edition is a practical guide to the psychiatry of offenders, victims, and survivors of crime. This landmark publication has been completely updated but retains all the features that made the first edition such a well-established text. It integrates the clinical, legal, and ethical aspects of forensic psychiatry with contributions from internationally regarded experts from a range of clinical professions. The Second Edition features updates to all current chapters and several new chapters that explore: The genetics of antisocial behavior Disorders of brain structure and function that relate to crime Offenders with intellectual disabilities Older people and the criminal justice system Deviant and mentally ill staff Although the book focuses on jurisdictions in the UK, a substantial comparative chapter written by an international group from all five continents explores the different philosophies, legal principles, and style of services elsewhere. This book is an essential reference for specialists and postgraduate trainees in forensic psychiatry but also for general psychiatrists, and clinical and forensic psychologists. It is also an invaluable resource for other forensic mental health professionals, including nurses, social workers, occupational therapists, probation service staff, police, attorneys, criminologists, and sociologists.



The Local Governance of Crime

The Local Governance of Crime Author Adam Crawford
ISBN-10 0198298455
Release 1999
Pages 368
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The book considers recent trends in the local governance of crime. It examines the growing appeal to `community' and `partnerships' in criminal justice policy and the involvement of actual communities and partnerships in criminal justice practices. The book makes sense of ongoing transformations in the relations between the state, market, and civil society in the governance of crime and personal safety. It draws upon the findings of two empirical research projects, conducted by the author, in the fields of community-based crime prevention and local victim-offender and community mediation. The overall aim of the book is to answer, both theoretically and empirically, a number of interrelated questions, namely: How do we make sense of appeals to `community' and `partnerships' in criminal justice policy? What are the implications of actual involvement of `communities' and the establishment of inter-organizational `partnerships' in crime control initiatives? Is crime control an appropriate vehicle around which to (re)organize communities? Finally, if so, what sort of communities are we generating through such a focus?



The SAGE Handbook of Evaluation

The SAGE Handbook of Evaluation Author Ian Shaw
ISBN-10 9781446270554
Release 2006-07-27
Pages 632
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In this comprehensive handbook, an examination of the complexities of contemporary evaluation contributes to the ongoing dialogue that arises in professional efforts to evaluate people-related programs, policies, and practices. The SAGE Handbook of Evaluation is a unique and authoritative resource consisting of 25 chapters covering a range of evaluation theories and techniques in a single, accessible volume. With contributions from world-leading figures in their fields overseen by an eminent international editorial board, this handbook is an extensive and user-friendly resource.



Hate Crime and Restorative Justice

Hate Crime and Restorative Justice Author Mark Austin Walters
ISBN-10 0199684499
Release 2014-04-17
Pages 314
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The product of an 18 month empirical study which examined the use of restorative justice for hate crime in the United Kingdom, this book draws together theory and practice in order to examine the causes and consequences of hate crime victimisation. Hate Crime and Restorative Justice: Exploring Causes, Repairing Harms also identifies the key process variables within restorative practice that can help to repair the harms of hatred. In doing so, it challenges commonly held conceptions of both 'hate crime' and 'restorative justice' through its use of qualitative research of restorative interventions across the UK. The study's findings provide original data on the contextual variables that are intrinsic to both the cause and effect of hate-motivated offences, revealing complex socio-cultural and socio-economic factors that are fundamental, both to our understanding of hate crime and to how such incidents can be best resolved. Through meticulous analysis and discussion, the book also provides new information on how restorative processes can be used to repair the harms of hate and challenge the prejudices which give rise to hate-motivated conflicts. The issue of group identity and cultural 'difference' amongst participants of restorative justice is explored and examined through the use of detailed case studies, allowing assessment of whether dialogical barriers to reconciliation can limit the success of restorative processes. In particular, the notion of 'community', a fundamental concept of restorative justice theory and practice, is reconceptualised by exploring both its healing and harming features. Utilising data from the first study of its kind, Hate Crime and Restorative Justice draws together theoretical assumptions about restorative philosophy and empirical evidence of its use for hate crime to offer a more holistic understanding of how restorative justice can help repair the harms caused by processes of hate, while simultaneously challenging the identity-based prejudices that continue to pervade our multicultural communities.



Subject Guide to Books in Print

Subject Guide to Books in Print Author
ISBN-10 STANFORD:36105025888517
Release 2003
Pages
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Subject Guide to Books in Print has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Subject Guide to Books in Print also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Subject Guide to Books in Print book for free.



Punishing Persistent Offenders

Punishing Persistent Offenders Author Julian V. Roberts
ISBN-10 0199283893
Release 2008-02-14
Pages 304
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For many repeat offenders, previous convictions have more impact on their penalty than the seriousness of their current crime. Why do we punish reoffense more harshly? Should offenders be punished only for crimes they commit and not for crimes committed and paid for in the past? How does this practice affect the views of offenders and the public?



Not Just Deserts

Not Just Deserts Author John Braithwaite
ISBN-10 9780198240563
Release 1992
Pages 229
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* A new approach to sentencing Not Just Deserts inaugurates a radical shift in the research agenda of criminology. The authors attack currently fashionable retributivist theories of punishment, arguing that the criminal justice system is so integrated that sentencing policy has to be considered in the system-wide context. They offer a comprehensive theory of criminal justice which draws on a philosophical view of the good and the right, and which points the way to practical intervention in the real world of incremental reform. They put the case for a criminal justice system which maximizes freedom in the old republican sense of the term, and which they call `dominion'.



Act and Crime

Act and Crime Author Michael S. Moore
ISBN-10 9780199599509
Release 2010
Pages 413
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What implications are there for the criminal law from the philosophy of action? Providing a unified account of the theory of action presupposed by both Anglo-American criminal law and the morality that underlies it, Moore develops a coherent theory of action in philosophy and assesses its effects on criminal law.



Criminal Justice Ethics

Criminal Justice Ethics Author Cyndi Banks
ISBN-10 9781506326078
Release 2016-02-23
Pages 472
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Criminal Justice Ethics, Fourth Edition examines the criminal justice system through an ethical lens by identifying ethical issues in practice and theory, exploring ethical dilemmas, and offering suggestions for resolving ethical issues and dilemmas faced by criminal justice professionals. Bestselling author Cyndi Banks draws readers into a unique discussion of ethical issues by exploring moral dilemmas faced by professionals in the criminal justice system before examining the major theoretical foundations of ethics. This distinct organization allows readers to understand real life ethical issues before grappling with philosophical approaches to the resolution of those issues.



Youth Crime and Juvenile Justice Juvenile corrections

Youth Crime and Juvenile Justice  Juvenile corrections Author Barry Goldson
ISBN-10 PSU:000066575269
Release 2009
Pages 367
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This three-volume set of original readings is designed to reveal how and why children and young people have been repeatedly the subject of adult concern, censure and intervention. It conceptualises notions of 'childhood', 'youth' and 'adolescence' whilst also tracing the complex history of adult intervention and juvenile justice. This collection is particularly timely not only because of persistent concerns over 'out of control' youth but also because of an apparent hardening of adult reactions in many jurisdictions. Youth justice...



Serious Offenders

Serious Offenders Author Barry S. Godfrey
ISBN-10 9780199594665
Release 2010
Pages 241
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Serious Offenders examines the criminal careers of persistent offenders in northwest England between the 1840s and 1940s. It explores the triggers that propelled minor offenders towards serious persistent offending and draws on the lessons to be learnt about the regulation and surveillance of serious offenders.



Giving Up Crime

Giving Up Crime Author Beth Weaver
ISBN-10 0954938941
Release 2007
Pages 16
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Giving Up Crime has been writing in one form or another for most of life. You can find so many inspiration from Giving Up Crime also informative, and entertaining. Click DOWNLOAD or Read Online button to get full Giving Up Crime book for free.